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Vblume I 

D.E Lockwood 


; / . 




A Survey of Classical Roman Literature 

Volume I 



A Survey of 



D.P. Lockwood 

Voluvte I 



The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 6- London. 

The University of Toronto Press, Toronto 5, Canada. 

Copyright 1934 by 

Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

First University of Chicago Press Edition 1962. 

Printed in the U.S.A. 



arte docendi 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


npHE pedagogical principles upon which this book is based 
-■- have been amply set forth in two articles by the author.* 
The book comprises a complete fifth-year Latin course, designed 
to crown the intensive work of the j&rst four years with a rapid 
comprehensive survey of national or classical Roman Uterature — 
tracing the evolution of that literature from its beginnings to 
its dissolution, and presenting as complete as possible a picture 
of Roman civilization, through the medium of selections from 
Hterary masterpieces. For comparison and discussion, of course, 
supplementary reading may be assigned in standard histories of 
Roman Uterature (if there is sufficient time), but the present book 
is in itself a history of Roman literature, emphasizing tendencies 
and movements, and containing, I believe, enough facts to serve 
as a basis for true literary appreciation. 

Is a bird's-eye view of classical Roman literature, based on 
reading of the original Latin, possible for American fifth-year 
students? In spite of the fact that the first four years of Latin 
study have been cut to the bone, I believe that it is possible, and 
I have tried in this book to demonstrate that possibility. 

Frankly, the present Survey is designed to be at once a finish- 
ing course for those — and they are the great majority — ^who will 
take no more Latin, and an orientation course for those who will 
continue their study of the subject and wiU either delve deeper 
in the classical field or extend their range of work into the pa- 
tristic or medieval or modern domains of Latin Uterature. 

The Latin selections have been chosen to meet needs which, 
though sometimes conflicting, were nevertheless deemed essential: 

(1) Ease of comprehension, both in style and in content. Es- 
pecially suited to this purpose are the comedies of Plautus and 
Terence; the extracts from the Rhetorica ad Herenniwn; the letters 

i"The Haverford Plan," Journal of Higher Education^ June, 1930; and 
^' Latin in the CJollege," Education, June, 1934. 

viii Preface 

of Caesar and Cicero; many of the poems of Catullus; the extract 
from Sallust; the selections from TibuUus, Propertius, and Ovid; 
Seneca's Apocolocyntosis; the poems of Phaedrus and of Martial; 
many of the letters of Pliny; and the selection from Suetonius. 
Teachers who wish to follow the line of least resistance may con- 
centrate on this material. In no case, however, should these 
authors be omitted from any program, for they offer a welcome 
opportunity for rapid reading, as an antidote to the snail's pace 
of the earlier preparatory years. 

(2) Grasp of Roman literature as a whole. To accomplish 
this, an acquaintance with even the more difficult authors is 
necessary. No general survey can omit Cicero's essays, Lucretius, 
Livy, Vergil, Horace, Seneca's philosophical works, Petronius, 
Tacitus, and Juvenal. In style or in content, or in both, these 
authors generally prove more difficult for the student, and on the 
whole they are more academic and more "classic," lacking the 
humor or the vivid human appeal of Plautus, Terence, Catullus, 
the Elegists, Martial, and Pliny. But the great immortals 
(Cicero, Vergil, Horace, and others) have been the torchbearers 
of classic influence through the ages, and to offset the difficulties 
entailed in studying their writings, emphasis may be laid on their 
place in world literature. 

The general view also calls for brief extracts from certain minor 
authors, some of whom are (or were) milestones in the evolution, 
of Roman literature, others, representatives of an era or a phase 
of Roman achievement. As a matter of principle, I have in- 
cluded as few minor authors as possible: only Andronicus, Nae- 
vius, Ennius, Cato, Vitruvius, Statins, and Gains have been 

Above all I wish to emphasize that, although there is room for 
difference of opinion as to choice, the selection of both major and 
minor authors in this book is based on a definite design of relative 
values for the purpose in hand; namely, a comprehensive but 
rapid survey of classical Roman literature. Furthest from my 
desire is a collection of samples — a few paragraphs or pages from 
every known classical author, with Catullus and Ovid faring 
no better than Phaedrus and Statins; and Cicero and Pliny, no 

Preface ix 

better than Velleius Paterculus and Mela. Such an anthology 
of samples, philological rather than literary, may possibly meet 
the needs of graduate students, but not of high-school seniors or 
college freshmen. 

So important is the matter of relative values that I must re- 
capitulate author by author — and here I must confess that I find 
myself expressing disapproval of the traditional intensive Latin 
course for college freshmen, as well as justifying my selection of 
authors and works for this Survey. 

Plautus, It is a godsend that the initiation of the college 
freshman into a more mature and primarily literary study of 
Latin can begin with Plautus. There are few students who are 
not delighted and astounded when they discover that the Latin 
language can be the vehicle of Plautine wit and humor. To 
restrict the beginner's knowledge of Plautus to a scene or two 
is a pedagogical crime and a tactical blunder (and blunders, for 
the hard-pressed classical teacher, are worse than crimes). But 
at once we are faced with the chief practical problem of the whole 
Survey — ^the need for economy of time and space. Frankly, I 
advocate abridging (not simplifying) comedies. A comedy re- 
mains a comedy, though "cut." (If that be a crime, it is one 
of which every modern producer of Shakespeare is guilty.) 
Those, however, who feel that sacrilege has been committed in 
abridging the Miles Gloriosus, may read the Epidicus, shortest 
and easiest of the plays of Plautus (save in the complexity of its 
plot — which, however, is easily elucidated in plain English). 

Terence. Plautus always takes the edge off Terence. The 
Adelphoe, however, with its ever-fresh psychological problem, is 
one of the truest representatives of the urbane comedy of manners 
and the best foil for Plautus' farces. On the other hand, if ever 
a playwright's essence may be got from a scene, it is from the 
vivid exposition dramas (stories or plays within a play) which 
open the Heautontimorumenos and the Andria. 

Auctor ad Herennium. The vivid scenes from the comedy and 
tragedy of Ufe, which illustrate the unknown author's simple and 
lucid theory of style, are unique masterpieces. 

X Preface 

Caesar, It is the obvious duty of the teacher (whether or not 
he succeed in his effort) to reintroduce what he can of an author, 
utterly ruined for the student by youthful struggles with gram- 
mar and syntax.2 

Cicero. A few letters can be read with pleasure, but the essays 
— one of my own greatest enthusiasms — soon pall. For the most 
part they require too much literary and philosophical back- 
ground, and their stylistic glory is lost on the beginner. I have 
chosen a few extracts requiring the minimum of erudition. 

Lucretius. A glimpse through the open portal is all that can 
be attained, but it is worth while. 

Catullus. To include every suitable short poem of Catullus is 
one of the aims of this book, and I make no apology for regroup- 
ing the poems and supplying them with titles, the former process 
being a great improvement over the method of arrangement 
adopted by the unknown ancient editors of Catullus' Carmina, 
and the latter, a universal modern improvement over ancient 

Sallust. His philosophy is more important than his actual his- 
torical canvases. A brief selection therefore suffices. 

Livy. If Livy's rhetoric does not leave the modern student 
cold, I know nothing of the undergraduate mind. Only a few 
historical episodes or "short stories" can be included. His 
grand effects can be appreciated only by those who read him 
in extenso (a truth that applies to all historians), and this appre- 
ciation is practically impossible for the undergraduate. 

Vitruvius. Brief selections reveal an interesting facet of Ro- 
man character. 

Vergil. A bit of the Eclogues and Georgics will suffice to indi- 
cate their Hterary importance, but of course they do not stir the 

Horace. In spite of difficult reading, as much of Horace must 
be covered as possible — both satires and odes. Horace is the key- 
stone of the classic arch. As a gradatim approach to the odes, 

2 The same might be said of Cicero's orations, but they — as well as Vergil's 
Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphoses — do not suffer quite so badly, and they are 
fresh enough in the student's memory to take their place in the comprehensive 
survey without further reading. 

Preface xi 

I have grouped together some of the easiest and briefest ca/rmina 
along with easy extracts from carmina of lesser importance. 

Tihullusj Propertius, and Ovid. Though not profound, the 
Elegists offer some of the simplest and most human material for 
rapid reading. 

Phaedrus. The fable is a genre that deserves at least brief 

Seneca. Too often neglected by classicists, Seneca the philoso- 
pher affords an insight into the coming Christian and medieval 
ages — ^but only a glimpse is possible for beginners. As a master- 
piece of humor, on the other hand, the Apocolocyntosis cannot 
be passed over. 

Petronius. A brief selection is, unfortunately, all that begin- 
ners can master. 

Statins. A sample of his writings suffices. 

Martial. His work is perennially enjoyable — provided it is not 
reduced to a text for the study of minutiae of Roman private Hfe. 

Tacitus. The Dialogus and the Agricola have no appeal for 
the young; the Annals and Histories, difficult for freshmen, must 
be read in extenso to be appreciated ; but the Germania is uniquely 
interesting to all — and valuable in the modern college curriculum 
as a link with medieval history. 

Pliny. The letters offer a fascinating and indispensable pag- 
eant of human life. 

Juvenal. A sample of the vitriolic satirist and arch-rhetorician 
will suffice. 

Suetonius. The brief life of Titus is a welcome picture of the 
Empire and a revelation of the coming intellectual decline. 

Gains. Roman Law, honored by classicists more in the breach 
than in the observance, deserves at least a modest place in a 

As a practical demonstration, the following schedule illustrates 
what can be done to cover the maximum number of authors at 
maximum speed : ^ 

' I assume the usual three-hour course in a college year of thirty-four weeks; 
that is, fifteen weeks or forty-five recitation periods in each semester, less one 
hour for a mid-semester test. 

xii Preface 

Volume I — First Semester 

Number of recitations: 

(2) Introduction, Andronicus, Naevius 
(8) Plautus 

(1) Ennius and Cato 
(6) Terence 

(3) Auctor ad Herennium 
(3) Caesar 

(6) Cicero 

(2) Lucretius 
(13) Catullus 

ToUd (44) 

Volume II — Second Semester 

(1) SaUust 

(3) Livy 

(1) Vitruvius 

(2) Vergil 
(10) Horace 

(6) Elegists (and Phaednis) 

(3) Seneca 
(1) Petronius 

(1) Statins and Martial 

(3) Tacitus 

(6) Pliny 

(3) Juvenal 

(3) Suetonius 

(1) Gains 

ToUjI (44) 

I do not mean to imply that in following this schedule one can 
read all the selections of each author. The amount of material 
covered will depend upon the ability of the class and the degree 
of preparation. I have purposely included enough material for 
a wide latitude of choice and to vary the content of the course 
in successive years. In the second semester, particularly, minor 
writers may be omitted and more time devoted to major authors, 
if the teacher so prefers. 

Much care has been expended on the notes, to make them 
concise and helpful, and to avoid learned technicalities, super- 
fluous erudition, and pedantic mystification. The pedants — as 
that wise old Auctor ad Herennium says — ne parum multa scisse 

Preface xiii 

viderentWy ea conquisiverunt quae nihil attinehant, ut ars difficilior 
cognitu putaretur. 

To help the student with the problem of vocabulary, I have 
included in the notes the meaning of practically every word not 
appearing in the Latin Word List of the College Entrance Ex- 
amination Board, except those words which are obvious as com- 
pounds or have English derivatives. A complete vocabulary, 
after the fashion of those usually appended to elementary readers, 
would be entirely out of place in a fifth-year Latin book of this 
sort. Convenient though such a vocabulary may be, as a short 
cut for the indifferent student, it is pedagogically unsound and 
much of it is superfluous. Of course, students should, to a cer- 
tain degree, be frankly and definitely helped with new and un- 
usual words — as I have done in the notes — but the basic vocabu- 
lary must be acquired by rapid reading, supplemented by con- 
sultation of a good unabridged lexicon, in which more information 
is contained than meets the need of the moment. Above all a 
correct approach to problems of vocabulary must be inculcated 
in class, and the student must be rescued from the slough of 
incessant lexicon-thumbing — one of the worst pitfalls in language 

The numbering of lines has been made complete. I know 
from experience that this slight departure from tradition will be 
found helpful. Marks of quantity and other visual helps have 
been freely used wherever they facilitate rapid reading. Stand- 
ardized forms and spelling have been adopted throughout (period 
spelling, hke period furniture, is generally more artistic than 

I wish to express my appreciation to successive colleagues in 
the Latin department of Haverford College, who have patiently 
endured years of experimentation with mimeographed texts: to 
Dr. Raymond T. Ohl, Dr. Frederic M. Wheelock, Dr. John L. 
Heller, and Dr. Howard Comfort. I am especially indebted to 
Professor Casper J. Kraemer, Jr., of New York University, for 
his invaluable help and encouragement. 

D. P. L. 



Preface vii 

Introduction 3 

I. Foreword on Latin Literature as a Whole 3 

II. Native Latin Literature 4 

III. Greek Literature 10 

IV. National Roman Literature 16 

National or Classical Roman Literature 19 

The First Period 19 

L. Livius Andronicus 22 

Cn. Naevius 24 

^T. Maccius Plautus 26 

I. Miles Gloriosus, or The Swashbuckler. ... 31 
II. The recognition scene from Act V of The 

Poenulus 62 

III. Epidicus, or Too Many Sweethearts 66 

Q. Ennius 101 

M. Porcius Cato 104 

The Second Period 107 

P. Terentius Afer 109 

I. Adelphoe (i.e., The Brothers), or The Puri- 
tan'' s Conversion Ill 

II. Opening scene of the Heautontimorumenos 
(i.e., The Self-Tormentor), or The Peni- 
tent Father 140 

III. Opening scene of the Andria, or The 

Woman of Andros 146 

Rhetorica ad Herennium 152 

The Third Period 163 

C. JuHus Caesar 164 

I. Letters 164 

11. De Bello Gallico 167 


xvi Contents 

M. TuUius Cicero 170 

I. Letters 171 

Letters written from 65-80 B.C 172 

Letters written early in 49 B.C 176 

Letter written after Caesar's assassina- 
tion 180 

II. Essays 180 

Essays on oratory 182 

Philosophical essays 192 

L. Lucretius Carus 201 

C. Valerius Catullus 209 

I. Preliminary Brief Selections 211 

The non-lyric meters 211 

The lyric meters 216 

11. The Carmina 221 

Vers de societe 222 

Epithalamia, or wedding songs 231 

Elegies 236 

Poems to Lesbia 238 

Notes 251 




IN WESTERN civilization no language has played so important 
a role nor endured so long as Latin, which for over two thou- 
sand years has been — and still is — a living literary language. 

The literature composed in the Latin tongue during the past 
twenty-two centuries falls into the following general divisions or 
periods : 

[1] Native Latin Literature (from prehistoric times to about 
the middle of the third century B.C.). Native Latin literature 
was pre-Roman in its origin, but endured as the sole medium of 
expression of all Latin tribes, Romans included, until Rome had 
begun her march to world empire by winning the First Punic 
War and had been subjected to the full tide of Greek cultural 
influence. During this entire time native Latin Hterature re- 
mained crude, provincial, and meager — inadequate to mirror com- 
pletely the hfe and thought of the Latin peoples. 

[2] Classical, or National, Roman Literature (240 B.C -125 ^ 
A.D.). Classical, or national, Roman literature comprises the 
complete record of the Romans during their rise to world power 
and during their period of dominance in international affairs. It 
is a rich and vital literature, closely modeled on that even greater 
Greek literature which had already passed through its national 
or classical period in the preceding five hundred years. 

[3] International Roman Literature {125-500 A.D.). Inter- 
national Roman literature is the record of occidental civilization, 
denationalized and gradually christianized, under the later Ro- 
man Empire. 

[4] European Latin Literature (500 A.D.-the present). Until 
the twelfth century, European Latin literature was practically 

^ Dates in italics are approximate. 


4 Introduction 

the sole record of the life and thought of the various nations of 
Western Europe. Thereafter, during the late Middle Ages and 
Renaissance, Latin retained its preeminence as the international 
language of diplomacy, science, and the arts. Not until the 
seventeenth century did it begin to lose ground. Today Latin 
has its strongest hold in Italy and in the Church. 

European Latin literature may be subdivided into the follow- 
ing distinct, though overlapping, epochs: 

Medieval 500-1500. 

Renaissance 1400-1700. 

Modern 1600-the present. 

Our purpose in this book is to study the second general literary 
period, that of national or classical Roman literature. This lit- 
erature was the resultant of two forces: Roman character and 
Greek culture ; or, more specifically, it was a fusion of two literary 
traditions: primitive Latin and mature Greek. An understand- 
ing and appreciation of national Roman literature therefore calls 
for some knowledge of both native Latin literature — which gave 
genuine, although much restricted, expression to the heritage of 
the race — and Greek literature — which had already embodied 
the supreme artistic and intellectual standards of the western 
world long before the Romans emerged from barbarism. 

It was in 240 B.C., at the close of the First Punic War, that 
the Romans definitely yielded to the pressure of Greek intellec- 
tual influence and — like the Japanese after 1853 — publicly 
adopted certain ideals and standards of an alien civilization. No 
great literature has ever been so dependent on foreign influence 
as has the Roman. But we must know something of the native 
forms of composition (which the Romans abandoned but never 
wholly forgot) in order to comprehend the evolution of national 
Roman literature. 



Little is known and still less has been preserved of native 
Roman literature before the triumph of Greek influence. Inas- 
much as the Romans were a branch of the Latin race, it is safe 

Native Latin Literature 6 

to assume that the crude and meager literature which they seem 
to have possessed was the common heritage of primitive Latin 
peoples. We may therefore speak of the literature of Rome before 
the middle of the third century B.C. as native Latin literature. 

The primitive Romans were a people of marked national traits. 
Practical, hard-headed, and conservative, they were ruthless in 
maintaining law and order; they were a puritanical folk, hostile 
to art and the artistic temperament. They compensated for 
their lack of creative imagination by moral stability and devotion 
to civic duty. 

Artistic expression among them was extraordinarily backward, 
and their language, rough-hewn, inelastic, and matter-of-fact. 
It is true that for centuries they had preserved laws and rituals, 
as well as meager or even childish annals, but none of these com- 
positions — or compilations — had any genuine literary merit. The 
Romans possessed only the most primitive type of verse, of which 
the commonest form was subsequently styled the Saturnian (i.e., 
primeval, or belonging to the mythical golden age of Saturn) — 
a crude accentual rhythm, fundamentally different from the 
polished quantitative meters of Greek origin used by a Vergil or 
a Horace. Apparently this native verse form was not used for 
poetical compositions of any length or elaborate design; only 
charms, wise saws, religious chants, and epitaphs for the dead 
are known. Rude extemporaneous satire is also believed to have 

Such were the limited forms of self-expression with which the 
Romans were still content at a time when they had subjugated 
the entire Italian peninsula! Had these native and spontaneous 
modes of expression been further developed without foreign influ- 
ence, the history of Latin literature — and of western civilization 
— would have been very different. 

Let us now turn to a few brief and fragmentary examples of 
native Latin literature. 

Primitive Latin Verse 

There has been much speculation regarding the principles of 
Saturnian versification, for most of the later Roman and Greek 

6 Introduction 

grammarians who treated of metrics knew little and cared less 
about such relics of a benighted past. It is now generally- 
agreed, however, that Saturnian verse, like English, is accentual. 
Saturnians consist of a half line (normally of seven syllables) 
with three stress accents, followed by a half line (normally of six 
syllables) with two stress accents. Alliteration is frequent, and 
the kinship with primitive Teutonic verse (e.g., Beowulf) obvious. 
Stray verses, quoted and garbled by later writers, are all that 
we possess today of primitive Latin poetry. Every scholar has 
his pet theory of how to "restore" such verses to their original 
form — much as an architect, giving free rein to his judgment, 
might restore a ruined temple. The following may be taken as 
conjectural specimens: 


A line from the very ancient hymn of the salii, or leaping 
priests of Mars, god of the farm lands: 

Qu6me t6nas Leuc^sie prae tet trem6nti 

i.e., Cum tonas, Leucesie, prae te tremunt. 

When you thunder, o Light God, they tremble before you. 


A primitive charm to cure the gout — sing it twenty-seven 
times, touch the ground, and spit: 

T^rra p^stem ten^to, sd-lus hie man^to. 


A wise saw, ascribed to Marcus the Seer: 

P6stremus dlcas, primus tdceas. 

Maxims of Appius Claudius the Blind. Living at the end of 
the fourth and beginning of the third centuries B.C., Appius 
seems to have been the first native Roman with a sense of author- 
ship; his parliamentary speeches were read by Cicero: 

[al Amfcum ciim vldes, obHscere mis^rias 

i.e., obliviscere miseriae, you forget your misery. 

Native Latin Literature 7 

[b] fiscit siias qufsque fdber fortiinas 

i.e., Everyman is master of his fate. Escit, est; suas fortunas, 
genitive singular. 


Perhaps another simple type of primitive accentual verse, dif- 
ferent from the Saturnian, is found in the ancient weather 
proverb : 

Hib6rno piilvere, verno liito 
grdndia fdrra, camllle, metes 

lit., From winter dust, from spring mud, much grain, my lad, 
shalt thou harvest (i.e., A dry winter and a wet spring make a big 


The famous pasquinades in Saturnian verse exchanged between 
the poet Naevius (see p. 24) and the consul Metellus, although 
coming a little later than the period under consideration, are 
probably characteristic of primitive Latin satire : 

Naevius: Fdto Met^Ui R6mae c6nsules ffunt. 
Metellus: Ddbunt mdlum Met^Ui Na^vio po^tae. 

In Naevius' attack fato is sarcastic: Nons hut the Metelli have 
a chance to become consuls! Metellus' retort was no empty threat, 
however — Naevius was imprisoned for free speech. 


More reliable is the evidence produced by archaeology — e.g., 
the epitaph of L. Cornelius Scipio (consul in 259 B.C.), which 
was found among others in the Tomb of the Scipios. Although 
carved on stone, it is not necessarily a contemporary document, 
as it was probably copied from the original painted epitaph after 
the lapse of a century or so. The right-hand end of the stone 
has been broken off, but very little is missing. Unfortunately 
the literarj^ value of the epitaph is not high — then, as now, actual 
epitaphs were rarely inspired: 


8 Introduction 

i.e., H6nc omo ploirume cos^ntiont R[6mai] 
du6n6ro 6ptumo fuise viro 
Luciom Scipione. Filios Barb^ti, 
c6nsol censor aidilis hfc fuet a[pud vosj. 
H^c cepit C6rsica Al^riaque lirbe. 
D^det T^mpestdtebus aide m^reto. 

i.e., Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt Romae 
bonorum optimum fuisse virum, 
Lucium Scipionem. Filius Barbati, 
consul censor aedilis hie fuit apud vos. 
Hie cepit Corsicam Aleriamque urbem. 
Dedit Tempestatibus aedem merito. 

1. Romae, locative; missing words have been supplied from 
comparison with the epitaphs of other Scipioa. 

2. virum, genitive plural. 

6. He dedicated a temple to the Storm Gods as a t?uznk offering. 

Primitive Latin Prose 


The earliest piece of intelligible Latin that has been preserved 
to us is a prose epigram — i.e., an inscription placed upon an 
object in order to give the object utterance, to enable it to tell 
its own story. In this instance the object is a piece of jewelry 
(found at Praeneste near Rome) — a bronze fibula or brooch, which 
bears after a lapse of 2500 years the message its maker intended : 
Manius made me for Numerius — or, in its own quaint phrase 
(written from right to left) : 



The So-Called "Leges Regiae" 
Although ascribed by Roman antiquarians to the regal period 
{753-509 B.C.), these fragments of laws are surely not so old — • 
at least not in the form in which they have been preserved to us. 
These too have been much "restored": 

[a] A concubine must not touch the altar of Juno, goddess of 
wedlock : 

Pellex aram lunonis ne tangito. Si tagit, lunoni, crinibus 
demissis, agnum feminam caedito. 

Pellex, concubine; tagit, tangat; agnimi feminam, agnam. 

Native Latin Literature 9 

[b] The corpse of a man struck by lightning must be left lying, 
or lifted as little as possible from the ground, and must be buried 
without ceremony: 

Si hominem fulmen lovis occisit, ne supra genua tollito. 
Homo si fulmine occisus est, ei iusta nulla fieri oportet. 

occisit, Occident; iusta, funera. 

[c] Definition of murder: 

Si quis hominem liberum dolo sciens morti duit, paricidas 

dolo sciens, vnth malice aforethought; duit, det; paricidas, 


The Laws of the Twelve Tables 
These laws were originally codified in 451-450 B.C., but the 
few extracts quoted by later Roman authors and thus preserved 
to posterity probably belong to a revised version. At any rate, 
schoolboys in Cicero^s time were still obliged to memorize these 
laws in full: 

[a] Laws of inheritance and guardianship: 

Uti legassit super pecunia tutelave suae rei, ita ius esto. 

As one shall have willed concernin-g his fortune or the guardian- 
ship of his estate, so be it valid, legassit, legaverit. 

Si intestato moritur cui suus heres nee escit, adgnatus proxi- 
mus familiam habeto. 

If (yne who has no natural heir dies intestate, the nearest agnate 
(or next of kin in the male line) shall take his estate, nee escit 
non est. 

Si adgnatus nee escit, gentiles familiam habcnto. 

// there he no agnate, the clansmen shall have the estate. 

[b] An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth: 

Si membrum rupsit, ni cum eo pacit," taUo esto. 

Note the extreme brevity: // he shall have maimed a member, 
if he come not to terms with him, let there be retaliation (i.e., // 
A harm B, and A does not pay damages to B, B shall have the 
right to retaliate). 

10 Introduction 

[c] Breaking and entering: 

Si nox furtim faxsit, si im occisit, iure caesus esto. 

Brevity is carried to the point of ignoring necessary change 
of subject: If one commit theft by night, if he kill him, he shall be 
justifiably killed (i.e., If A commit theft from B, and B kill A in 
the acty A shall be justifiably killed) . nox, adverb, by night; faxsit, 
fecerit; im, eum. 

[d] A public thoroughfare must be kept in repair by the prop- 
erty owner over whose land it lies: 

Vias muniunto. Ni sam delapidassint, qua volet iumenta 

They shall construct roads. If they have not paved it, let one 
drive his cattle where he will (i.e., one need not stick to the road, 
if it is not clearly defined). 

[e] Fragment of a sumptuary regulation which states that gold 
is not to be buried or burned with the dead — except gold teeth: 

(The beginning is lost) . . . neve aurum addito; at cui 
auro dentes iuncti escunt, ast im cum illo sepeUet uretve, se 
fraude esto. 

. . . nor add gold; but he whose teeth are joined with gold, if one 
shall bury or burn him with it, one shall be without guilt, ast, si; 
se, sine. 



The second of the two cultural forces that molded classical 
Roman literature was the Greek. 

Early in the third century B.C. the Romans came into direct 
contact with the Greeks of Southern Italy, or Magna Graecia. 
This is not the place to discuss all the channels of Greek influence, 
direct and indirect, which had tended toward Rome from early 
times. Sufl&ce it to say that the Romans "officially" adopted 
Greek literary standards in the year 240 B.C., after a generation 
of poUtical ascendancy over the cultured Greeks of Southern 

Let us now turn far back in time and consider the civilization 
of the Greeks. Artistically and intellectually the Greeks, or 

Greek Literature 11 

Hellenes y were the most gifted race the world has ever seen. They 
were the pioneers of occidental civilization; the greater part of 
our intellectual heritage, theoretical knowledge, and artistic 
standards is derived from them. Even at present our ideas and 
capacities — except in the field of natural science — have not gone 
beyond those of the Greeks. 

It is scarcely fair, however, to compare the Greeks with the 
Romans. The Romans were a single trihey which gradually con- 
quered and organized an ever-widening circle of neighbors, until 
its sway extended over and beyond the entire Mediterranean 
world. On the other hand, the Greeks were (and are) a race 
with many subdivisions and ramifications — a race which had 
occupied a large part of the Near East for many centuries, and 
which, through first one and then another of its groups or political 
units, had made far-reaching advances in human thought and 
civilization. Ultimately, when the Romans began conquering 
their oversea empire, they had already fused the entire Italic race 
into a single unit under Roman leadership; so that a comparison 
of Greeks and Romans at the time of Cicero is really one between 
two races: the Greek and the Italic, or Latin. Even as races, 
however, the two were not on a par, for the Greeks far outnum- 
bered and outshone the Latins. 

The Greek race had always been extraordinarily diversified, 
mobile, and plastic — its language had scores of dialects; no two 
of its states had the same institutions; its colonies of adven- 
turous emigrants settled the coasts of every known sea; and its 
inventive and creative genius gave rise to infinite local variations. 
Thus the Greeks were the torchbearers of culture and civiliza- 
tion, but lacked that uniformity of organization which enabled 
the Romans to conquer Italy and, later, the Romanized Latins 
to conquer and rule the world. 

The Greeks were as precocious in artistic expression as the 
Romans were backward. No race has ever produced such great 
literature at so early a stage in its evolution from primitive bar- 

To our knowledge, Greek literary achievement dates from 
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey y greatest of the world's epics. These 

12 Introduction 

poems were probably composed about 1000 B.C., or at any rate 
so long before the dawn of western history that we are dependent 
solely on legend and conjectures for our knowledge of their origin 
and authorship. Although prehistoric, these epics are far from 
being crude; they were the first and are still the greatest poetic 
achievement of the occidental world. 

The products of Greek genius were cumulative. In successive 
epochs first one branch, then another, of the Greek race created 
new channels of human thought or expression, every one of which 
became a permanent tradition. The old was not discarded when 
the new came in. Thus, by stages, a vast and enduring structure 
was built up — Greek literature, Greek art, Greek civilization in 
its entirety. 

But to return to the steps or stages of development: in the 
eighth century B.C. the Ionian Greeks were the first to produce 
subjective or reflective poetry (elegiac and iambic); in the sev- 
enth century "personal" lyric was developed by the Aeolic Greeks 
and choral lyric by the Dorians; in the sixth century the lonians 
added scientific and philosophic speculation; and in the fifth and 
fourth centuries the Athenians led the way in artistic creation 
by perfecting drama (both tragedy and comedy), oratory, his- 
tory, political and ethical speculation, and a combination of the 
fine arts — ^architecture, sculpture, and painting — such as the 
world has never seen. 

These achievements — given only in hasty and inadequate sum- 
mary — were all the product of the hundreds of local units that 
made up the Greek, or Hellenic, race, each stimulated by local 
rivalry and even by warfare, but all conscious of the larger racial 
unity that differentiated them from "barbarians." The "clas- 
sic" period of Greek literature, which extended from about 1000 
to about 350 B.C., had as its keynote freedom of the mind. 

External forces brought this period of Greek civilization to an 
end about a century before the Romans began to be directly 
influenced by contact with the Greek race. By the latter half 
of the fourth century internecine wars and rivalries had more or 
less exhausted the Greeks, with the result that Alexander the 
Great — who belonged to one of the outlying and less civilized 

Greek Literature 13 

Greek tribes (the Macedonian) — conquered the Near East and 
established a vast empire. This empire endured, with varying 
fortunes and under various leaderships (first Greek, then Roman, 
then Byzantine), until its conquest in the eighth century of our 
era by the Mohammedans. Thus, in the fourth century B.C., a 
new phase of Greek civilization was inaugurated. The old spirit 
of freedom and of intense expression of provincial community 
life was superseded by a cosmopolitan world that spoke and 
wrote a *' common" Greek dialect (the language of the New 
Testament) ; by an age of scholarship, of great libraries, of science 
and ethics, of polished and pedantic poetry— an age which found 
escape for itself and from itself in religion and in realms of fancy, 
such as historical fiction, the romantic novel, the pastoral idyl, 
the short story, and the moralizing fable. There arose with the 
growth of metropolitan life (in the old cities, like Athens, as well 
as in the new, like Alexandria) new problems of ethics, a new 
consciousness of individual sin and responsibility, and a craving 
for salvation. This produced the great world religions and phi- 
losophies (such as the cult of Isis, and later, that of Mithras), 
the schools of Stoicism and Epicureanism; and finally Christi- 

Such was the Greek "empire" with which the Romans came 
in contact. The influence upon the Romans of both phases of 
Greek thought was immediate; the first of these phases being the 
classic or Hellenic, which was enshrined in the literature of that 
earlier period of Greek independence; and the second, the Alex- 
andrian or Hellenistic, which, having arisen less than a century 
before, continued its course, contemporary with, and parallel 
to — in the end even outliving — Roman thought. 

The Chief Greek Authors 

Classical, or Hellenic, Period (National Greek Literature) 

(?) X Century B.C. 
Homer: Epic (hexameter) — influenced Vergil and all Roman epic 

14 Introduction 

VIII Century 
Hi^siod: Didactic poetry (hexameter) — ^influenced Vergil in the 

VII-VI Centuries 
ABCHf LOCHUS, Solon, etc. : Reflective poetry (iambic and elegiac) 
— influenced Horace. 

^ VI Century 

'^^^ Alca^us, Sappho, AnXckeon: Melic poetry, or "personal'* lyrics 

— influenced Catullus, Horace, and all Roman lyric poets. 

VI-V Centuries 

PythXgoras, HebaclItus, Emp:6docles, Hipp6crates, etc.: 
Didactic poems and prose treatises on philosophy and sci- 
ence — influenced Lucretius; supplied material for Cicero's 
philosophical essays. 

Sim6nides, Pindar, etc. : Choral lyrics — influenced Horace. 

V Century (in Athens) 
Her6dotus, Thucydides: History — influenced Sallust, Livy, and 

all Roman historians. 
A]SscHYLUs, S6phocles, EuRfpiDEs: Tragedy — influenced all 

Roman tragedians, of whom only Seneca survives. 

V-IV Centuries (in Athens) 
Aristophanes: Political comedy (none in Roman literature). 

IV Century (in Athens) 
Xenophon: Historical romance, biography, essays — influenced 

Cicero and all Roman historians. 
Dem6sthenbs, Is6crates, etc.: Oratory — influenced aU Roman 

S6crates,^ Plato, Aristotle, etc.: Philosophical and ethical 

dialogues and treatises — influenced Cicero and all Roman 

speculative thinkers. 
MenXnder, etc.: Comedy of manners — influenced all Roman 

comedians, of whom only Plautus and Terence survive. 

1 Socrates inspired, rather than wrote, literature. 

,\vv — r ^ 

Greek Literature 15 


Post-Classical or Hellenistic Pepiod (International 
Greek Literature) 

[a] Alexandrian Era (contemporaneous with the early stages of 
national Roman literatm-e) : 

6 III Centm-y B.C. 

The6critus : Pastoral poetry — influenced Vergil in the Eclogues. 
CALLf MACHUS, ETC. : Lyrics, elegies, epigrams — ^influenced Catiil- 

lus, Tibtillus, Prop^rtius, Ovid. 
Apoll6nius op Rhodes: Epic — influenced Vergil. 
Zeno, EpictJRUs: Stoic and Epicurean philosophy — influenced 

Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca, and profoundly affected all 

Roman life and thought. 

II Century B.C. 

PoLYBius: History — ^influenced Livy and other Roman historians. 

The Epigrammatists (belonging chiefly to the post-classical pe- 
riod) — influenced CatiiUus, Martial, and all Roman epigram- 

[b] Roman Era (the Greek world or Eastern Empire under the 
dominion of Rome) : 

I Century B.C. 
DioNYSius OF Halicarnassus: History. 

I-II Centuries A.D. 
Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius:^ Moral philosophy. 
Dio Chrysostom: Lectures and essays. 
Plutarch: Biography and essays. 
Arrian, Appian: History. 
Lucian: Satiric essays and romances. 

Note that in a broad, general way every type of Greek litera- 
ture except the political comedy of Aristophanes — a fruit of radi- 
cal democracy which could never be tolerated in Rome — was 
transplanted and reproduced on Roman soil. Conversely, Greek 

1 Roman emperor from 161-180. 

16 Introduction 

models were closely and exactly followed in every field of 
Roman authorship save satire — i.e., the type of satire exemplified 
in Horace and Juvenal.^ The lack of precise models for other 
types of satire is insignificant; Horace, however, believed, and 
not without reason, that his satires were inspired by Aristophanic 
comedy. In accepting his point of view, we bridge all gaps in 
the formative influence of Greek literature on Latin. On the 
other hand, the famous Roman critic Quintilian stressed Roman 
independence and sounded the patriotic note when he declared: 
Satira tola nostra est. By his use of satira in its narrower and 
purely Roman sense, however, Quintillian really begged the 

National Roman literature came to an end early in the second 
century of the Christian era. Hence we see how brief its course 
was, compared with that of Greek literature. The later phases 
of Greek literature (of the Roman and Byzantine periods) con- 
tinued to the fall of Constantinople (Byzantium), in 1453 A.D.; 
thereafter the Romdic, or modern Greek, language and literature 
prevailed, and the Mohammedan Turks severed the chain of con- 
tinuity between ancient and modern Greek. The later phases 
of the Latin language, on the other hand, sloughed off the spon- 
taneous or spoken element — gradually becoming purely literary 
and cultural — and have continued in unbroken continuity down 
to our own times. 



A new national literature, modeled on the Greek, came into 
being at Rome about the middle of the third century B.C. Not 
all Romans felt the lure of Greek civilization and culture, but 
enough influential nobles were attracted by Greek thought and 
Greek art to turn the tide in favor of adopting Greek forms of 
literary expression. The decisive step occurred in 240 B.C., and 
it is remarkable that we can date the beginnings of a great litera- 
ture with such precision. In this year (immediately after the 
close of the First Punic War) the aediles decided to add to the 

1 See Vol. II. 

National Roman Litera.ture 17 

horse racing and other entertainments of the fall carnival (or 
ludi Romani) the production, in the Latin language, of two Greek 
plays — a tragedy and a comedy. The innovation was a great 
success. It was the entering wedge. Steadily the range of inter- 
est in Greek modes of expression widened, and the process of 
assimilation became effective. Henceforth the growth of national 
Roman literature from meager and unpromising beginnings to 
splendid achievement was rapid. 

National Roman literature falls into the following six periods, 
of which the first two constitute the era of growth, and the last 
four that of maturity :i 

[1] 2^0-150 B.C.: Period of the hasty adaptation of Greek 
materials to Roman use. 

[2] 175-85 B.C.: Period of apprenticeship to classical 
Greek models of style. 

[3] 55-43 B.C.: Ciceronian Era — first of the mature pe- 

[4] 43 B.C.-14 A.D.: Augustan, or Golden, Age. 

[5] 14-96 A.D.: Period of the growth of internationaUsm 
and the decline of classicism. 

[6] ^^125 A.D.: Silver Age, or the revival of Augustan 

1 Bear in mind that chronological periods are bound to overlap — ^i.e., the 
last conservatives of one period and the advance guard of the next are often 

National or Classical 
Roman Literature 


(2^0-150 B.C.) 

The Period of the Hasty Adaptation 
OF Greek Materials to Roman Use 

The First Period 

FIVE authors may be grouped together and regarded as the 
pioneers of national Roman Hterature, and the years over 
which their activity extends may consequently be called the first 
period. It must be remembered however that, by this method 
of grouping, the second period will begin before the first has 
ended. The years thus comprising the first period amount to 
nearly a century — namely, 24:0-150 B.C.; and the authors are 
Andronlcus, Naevius, Plautus, Ennius, and Cato. It is signifi- 
cant that Cato was the first genuine Roman author. Andronicus 
was actually Greek; Ennius, probably Oscan — ^perhaps even 
Greek; Plautus, who was born in Umbria, was probably of Um- 
brian blood.^ Of those who preceded Cato, Naevius alone was 
a pure Latin, but a Latin of Campania — i.e., that portion of the 
Latin domain nearest to Magna Graecia. 

This first period of national Roman literature was a transi- 
tional one. Old and new standards existed side by side or 
were imperfectly blended. The content of Greek literature — 
mythology, history, and philosophy — had to be assimilated, as 
well as the major literary forms — drama, elegy, epic, and lyric. 
The new literature was almost wholly in verse. In their epic or 
narrative compositions, poets clung for a generation or more to 
the native accentual meter, the Saturnian; then Ennius, "the 
father of Latin literature," began adapting the quantitative Greek 
hexameter to the Latin tongue — a considerable feat of scholar- 
ship and literary technique. In their dramatic compositions, 
however, these same poets made use from the very first of various 
Greek quantitative meters, ranging all the way from the iambics 
and trochaics of dramatic dialogue — which were rather free and 
easy and not so foreign to the genius of the Latin language — ^to 

1 The Oscans and Umbrians were non-Latin peoples of Italic stock; their 
languages were no more closely related to Latin than Italian is to Spanish. 


22 National or Classical Roman Literature 

the more elaborate choral rhythms — ^which were sustained by 
musical accompaniment. The Latin language remained stiff and 
inflexible; it could be set to rhythm arbitrarily, but it could not 
be endowed with melodious cadences. Poets simply used it as 
they found it, for better or for worse. In comedy they had the 
advantage of a more colloquial and lively variety of the same 
rude tongue. 

Prose literature made less of an advance during this period. 
There were no epoch-making innovations comparable to the in- 
troduction of epic, dramatic, and lyric poetry and the adoption 
of quantitative, in place of accentual, rhythms. Prose writing 
continued in the old channels, with little, if any, improvement in 
style. Greek influence in the field of prose hardly accomplished 
more than fire men's ambition to extend the range and increase 
the dignity of their native oratory and history. Pride in the effec- 
tiveness of simple Roman eloquence is manifested as early as 280 
B.C. (over a generation before the official "birth" of national 
Roman literature), when the speech of Appius Claudius the Blind, 
advising the senate to reject Pyrrhus' terms of peace, was copied 
and preserved in written form. A century or so later, Cato laid 
the foundations of Roman prose literature by publishing all of 
his speeches, and by producing a history of Rome and a collection 
of treatises on practical subjects (medicine, agriculture, military 
science, and so forth). Little is known of these works, but to 
judge by the only one that has been preserved — the treatise on 
agriculture — Cato's ability as a prose writer had progressed but 
little beyond that of the jurists and annalists of primitive Rome. 


(Born in ?; active fbom 260-20j^ B.C.) 

Andronicus, the earliest "Roman" author, was a native Greek 
who came to Rome as a youthful prisoner of war after the cap- 

First Period 23 

ture of Tarentum, in 272 B.C. The date of his birth is unknown. 
He became the slave of M. Livius Salinator and ultimately the 
tutor of Salinator^s children. He was manumitted, took the 
name of L. Livius Andronicus, and settled permanently in Rome. 
The first Latin work by Andronicus was merely a forerunner 
of the new Roman literature; for as early as 260 B.C. (or there- 
abouts) Andronicus, who wished to teach "grammar" and could 
find no Latin literature on which to base his teaching, translated 
the Odyssey into Saturnian verse — probably the first occasion 
on which that meter was used for a long poem. This bald and 
crude translation did not have the effect of Andronicus^ later 
work, that of starting a new movement or cultm*al epoch. Nor, 
on the other hand, does it belong in spirit and content to the old 
native Latin literature. It was solely a textbook for the gram- 
maticuSy or teacher of poetry. We must remember, however, 
that it was still used as a textbook in the grammar schools when 
Horace was a boy. Only a few fragments of this crude transla- 
tion have been preserved : 


Nausicaa tells Odysseus to wait until she has reached home in 
the mule cart before he starts to follow her (Odyssey VI, 295-6) : 

ibi mdnens sedeto d6nicum vid^bis 

m6, carpento veh^ntem, d6mum venisse. 

donicum, donee; vehentem, riding, 


"... for I know of naught 
That more severely tries the strongest man, 
And breaks him down, than perils of the sea." 

(Odyssey VIII, 138-9; Bryant's Translation 172-4) 

ndmque nullum p^ius m^cerat humdnum 
qudmde mare saevom. Vires cui sunt mdgnae, 
t6pper confringent Importunae undae. 

i.e., namque nihil peius macerat hominem quam mare saevum. 
Cui vires sunt magnae, [emn] protinus confringent importunae 

24 National or Classical Roman Literature 

The fact that this translation and the even more venerable 
Laws of the XII Tables were still a part of the pabulum of the 
schools in the Ciceronian era, indicates the tenacity of the older 
traditions and proves that the native Latin genius was still a 
force to be reckoned with in classical Roman literature. 

In 240 B.C. Andronicus was commissioned to make versions 
of a Greek tragedy and a Greek comedy for the Roman carnival. 
He thus took what proved to be the first step in the creation of 
the new national Roman literature. After this memorable year 
Andronicus continued to exercise his function of "playwright/* 
and the Greek drama grew steadily in popularity. 

Upon occasion Andronicus also composed original Latin hymns 
for religious festivals. Before his death, in 204 B.C., literature 
was established at Rome and (with characteristic Roman philis- 
tinism) poets were recognized as legitimate artisans, with the 
right to form a guild like other workmen! 


(BOKN IN ?; ACTIVE FROM 240-199 B.C.) 

The second "Roman" author, a contemporary of Andronicus, 
was a native free-born Latin of Southern Italy. Since the Latins 
of Southern Italy were in closer contact with the Greeks, they 
were more fully cultured and Hellenized than the Romans. Nae- 
vius, the date of whose birth is unknown, came to Rome about 
240 and lived there till 199 B.C. His chief literary works were: 
(a) dramas, which included not only paraphrases from the Greek 
but also two original tragedies (closely modeled on Greek style, 
of course) — one dealing with the pseudo-Roman legend of Romu- 
lus and Remus; the other, with contemporary history, after the 
analogy of the Persians of Aeschylus and other famous Greek 
"chronicle plays": and (b) an original epic in Saturnian meter, 
entitled de Bello PunicOy from which even Vergil borrowed — for 
it dealt with Roman legend and history from Aeneas to the First 
Punic War. 

The satiric epigrams exchanged between Naevius and the Me- 
telli have already been mentioned (p. 7). They seem to have 

First Period 25 

arisen from an enthusiastic, but misguided, attempt on the part 
of Naevius to introduce into Rome the freedom of speech for 
which the great Athenian hterature of the fifth and fourth cen- 
turies B.C. was famous. 

A few of the extant fragments of his works are worth glancing 


A witty description of a coquette has been preserved from his 
comedy Tarentilla. The meter is trochaic, in the free and easy 
style of comedy: 

Qudsi in chor6 lud^ns, datdtim ddt se et commun^m facft; 
dlii adniitat; dlii adnfctat; dlium amdt; alium ten^t; 
^libi mdnus est 6ccupdta; ^lii percellit ped^m; 
dnuliim dat dlii spectandum; d labris alium invocdt; 
cum dlio cdntat; at tamen dlii suo dat digito litterds. 

Quasi . . . dat se, as if playing [ball2 in a group £of maidens^, 
she gives herself to and fro; the subject throughout is she — i.e., 
the coquette. 

Fragments of his Bellum Punicum in Saturnian meter were pre- 
served by scholars who wrote commentaries on the Aeneid in the 
late Roman Empire. 

[a] Servius on Aeneid III, 10 says: Naevius enim inducit uxores 
Aeneae et Anchisae cum lacrimis Ilium relinquentes his verbis: 

. . . amborum uxores 
n6ctu Tr6iad exibant capftibus op^rtis, 
fl^ntes dmbae, abeuntes Mcrimis cum miiltis. 

Troiad, Troid {i.e. y from Troy). 

[b] Servius on Aeneid II, 297 says: Naevius, Bello Punico primo 
(i.e., in Book I), de Anchisa et Aenea fugientibus haec ait: 

E6rum s^ctam sequontur multi mortales; 
mtilti dlii e Troia strenui viri 
tirbi f6ras cum aiiro fllic exibant. 

sectam, band; urbi, ablative. 

At the death of Naevius, Saturnian meter disappears from 
formal literature. 

26 National or Classical Roman Literature 


(Born in ?; active from 220-lM B.C.) 

His Life and Works 

Of the real life of Plautus nothing is known, but tradition 
records that, Hke Shakespeare, he was of humble origin and 
trained in practical stagecraft. Plautus wrote only comedies. 
A collection of twenty-one of his plays has survived in fairly good 
condition; these were selected in the time of Cicero as the best 
and most authentic of the many ascribed to his name. 

Of all the forms of Greek literature that the Romans tried 
to master, none was so quickly and successfully assimilated as 
the comedy of manners. The Romans had a natural .bent for 
the satiric rather than for the sublime; and they found the comedy 
of manners, which belonged to the Greek world of their own day, 
easier to comprehend than the classic Greek literature of an 
earlier and remoter age. In fact, the comedy of manners- 
dealing, as it does, with familiar and traditional types of human- 
ity — is always universal in its appeal and always entertaining. 
Moreover, fate has been kind to the Romans; for the Greek 
originals, which were undoubtedly superior to the Roman adap- 
tations, have almost entirely perished. Thus the excellence of 
the Greek comedy of manners is today reflected almost exclu- 
sively in the existing Latin versions — i.e., the plays of Plautus 
(which were produced from about 220 to 184 B.C.) and the six 
plays of Terence (which belong to the next period of Roman 
literature and were produced from 166 to 160 B.C.). As regards 
the relative merits of Greek and Roman comedy, it is probably 
safe to say that the baser elements of farce and caricature ap- 
peared more often in the latter. Moreover, modern imitators 
like Ben Jonson, Moliere, and (in a few plays) Shakespeare have 
improved the characterization considerably. 

The "comedy of manners" (called variously the "comedy of 
character," the "comedy of humors," and so forth), as presented 
by the Greeks and Romans, was highly conventional. No matter 
what the play, the setting was always the same: the long narrow 

First Period 27 

stage was a street, and the background was formed by the fronts 
of three buildings facing the street. All action, therefore, had to 
take place outdoors; there were no interior scenes. These limi- 
tations become more plausible, however, when one reflects that 
in southern cities of today (such as Naples) there is hardly any 
happening, domestic or otherwise, which cannot and does not 
take place on the street! The Greek and Roman comedies were 
also conventional in that all plays drew their characters from 
the same set of stock figures: the irate father, the prodigal son, 
the fawning parasite, the cunning servant, the bragging soldier, 
the cook, the courtesan, the indulgent mother, and so forth. 

Such Latin adaptations were presented to the Romans as pic- 
tures of Greek life. Names of the characters remained Greek; 
and actors wore the Greek national costume, the pallium (so 
different from the toga) — whence the plays were called fabulae 
palUatae. Not for a minute would the Romans — those of this 
period, at least — have allowed such a gay and dissolute life as 
these comedies generally portrayed to be presented as Roman. 
The plays appealed to a Roman audience just as risqu^ Parisian 
farces now appeal to a puritanical Anglo-Saxon audience — i.e., 
they were entertaining and, provided they did not reflect on 
Roman morals, could be safely, if not too frequently, enjoyed. 
(It was almost 200 years after the introduction of Greek drama 
into Rome before the conservative prejudices against the stage 
could be sufficiently overcome to allow the building of a perma- 
nent theater.) 

Plautus handles his Greek originals with great freedom — either 
paraphrasing and reshaping single plays, or inserting and adapt- 
ing scenes from other plays (the latter process being known as 
contamination a practice as common in modern as in ancient 
times). His plot structure is somewhat slipshod, but his humor 
rough and ready. At his hand, Greek subtlety of delineation is 
changed into vigor of action. Although still essentially primitive 
Latin, the language of Plautus is used with colloquial rapidity 
and exuberance. Thus, despite the fact that they are borrowed 
from the Greek, his plays are among the most racy of European 
dramatic productions; their spirit is genuinely Italic. 

28 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Of the twenty-one plays of Plautus, nineteen are complete or 
almost complete. The best of these are: Aulularia, or The Pot 
of Gold (the original of Moliere's VAvare); Menaechmi (Shake- 
speare's Comedy of Errors) ; Miles Gloriosus, or The Swashbuckler; 
Mostellariay or The Haunted House; Rudens, or The Shipwreck; 
AmphitruOf or The Birth of Hercules (a parody of mythology, 
or "tragi-comedy''); Captivi, or The Captives; Trinummus^ or 
Thrippence (the latter two are ''moral" plays, without female 
characters) ; and four comedies of intrigue, named in each instance 
for the chief character or characters : Pseudolus, Curculio, Bacchi- 
des, and Epidicus. 

The Meters of Plautus' Plays 

The greatest handicap to our appreciation of all ancient drama, 
both comedy and tragedy, is the loss of the music that was an 
integral part of a performance. With the music was associated 
the dance — all definite knowledge of that has likewise perished. 
In Roman comedy certain scenes, particularly those having 
greater emotional intensity, were sung and danced to the accom- 
paniment of the flute. These scenes, called cantica, were com- 
posed sometimes in familiar meters, sometimes in more unusual 
ones, which are too difficult for the beginner. Without their 
musical accompaniment, the more elaborate meters cannot be 
satisfactorily interpreted even by the greatest scholars. No at- 
tempt has been made in this book, therefore, to indicate the 
scansion of the more difficult cantica. 

The spoken passages in Roman comedy (diverhia) were always 
in either iambic or trochaic rhythms. These two rhythms are 
essentially one, the only difference being that in the trochaic the 
accent begins on the first syllable of a line, in the iambic on the 
second. For instance, a fifteen-syllable line, consisting of alter- 
nate short and long syllables (v_w-w_w-w_w-w_w) might 
be scanned theoretically either as a seven-and-a-half foot iambic 
(w^ w^ w^ w^ w^ v^ w^ w) or as a seven-and-a-half foot trochaic 
(v ^w ^w ^v ^w ^v ^w ^w). Following the traditional nomencla- 
ture, however — i.e., "trochaic," when the accent begins on the 
first syllable of a line; "iambic," when it begins on the second — 
we find that the diverhia, or spoken passages of Roman comedy, 

First Period 29 

consist of six-, seven-, and eight-foot iambics and of seven- and 
eight-foot trochaics. 

The next point to note is that usage allowed the trochaics and 
iambics of comedy to become practically loose rhythms instead 
of exact meters. To illustrate — ''pure" iambics may be seen in 
an epigram of Catullus, composed with almost mathematical 
precision : 

^ £. ^ £. ^ L v^w ^r^ 
Phasellus ille quern videtis hospites. 

But it is obvious that such a rigid meter as this would be too 
monotonous for comic dialogue, which must be informal and nat- 
uralistic, approximating everyday conversation. Consequently 
it had become the tradition of comedy (long before the Romans 
borrowed their drama from the Greeks) to allow the substitution 
of almost any other foot for the iamb or the trochee — provided 
it contained the same number of musical units, or not more than 
one additional unit. Only tine accent had to remain iambic or 
trochaic, as the case might be. Since every long syllable is re- 
garded as the equivalent of two shorts, it is evident that the iamb 
(w :i), like the trochee (^ w), contains three musical units. We 
may therefore substitute for the iaimb (a) the tribrach (v c v), 
which contains the same number of units, and (b) any of the 
following four-unit feet: spondee (- ^), dactyl (- ^ v), anapaest 
v^(w w £.)^ and proceleusmdticus (w w ^ w). These same substitu- 
tions may be made for the troqkee^ but with trochaic accent: 
tribrach {y ^ v), spondee (^ -), dactyl (^ « «), ^.napaest (^ w -), 
and — very rarely — proceleusmaticus (^ v v v). Occasionally even 
five-unit feet are substituted. 

Let us now look at some examples of the loose rhythms of 
comedy. The numerous substitutions and elisions render these 
verses comparatively easy to compose, but difficult to scan: 

Six-FooT Iambic 
Communicabo semper te mensa mea {Miles, 1. 31) 

Commun ica bosemp erte mensa mea 

Nimia est miseria nimis pulchrum esse hominem. Immo ita est (1. 44) 

W W— W WV VWV "• — WW— w — 

Nimia'st miseri animi' pulchr'ess* homin'Imm' ita'st 

30 National or Classical Roman Literature 

"Seven-Foot"* Iambic 
Cum ffie in locis Neptuniis templisque turbulentis {Miles, 1. 187) 

Cumm'in locis Neptun i i s templis queturb ulent is 
Non edepol tu ilium magis amas quam ego, mea, si per te liceat (1. 503) 

Nonede polt'ill ummagis amas qu'egomea siper telice at^ 

EiGHT-FooT Iambic 
Id modo videndum est, ut materies suppetat scutariis (Epidicus, I. 37) 

Idmodo viden dum^stut materi essup petat scuta riis 

. "Seven-Foot" ^ Trochaic 
Mussitabis: plus oportet scire servum quam loqui {Miles, 1. 232) 

Mussi tabis plusop ortet scire servum quamlo qui 
Consilium est ita facere. Pede ego iam illam hue tibi sistam in viam 

— v/w ^ vw www www ^ •> ww^ ■— w w 

Consili um'stita facere Ped'ego j'iirhuc tibisist' invi am 

EiGHT-FooT Trochaic 
Quia perire solus nolo, te cupio perire mecum {Epidicus, 1. 77) 

Cy^ W '^W — — — — — WW ^W ^W ^W 

Quiaper ire solus nolo tecupi oper ire mecum 

For the pure anapaest {^ ^ ^) may be substituted : the spondee 
(_ £.)j the dactyl (- « w), or the proceleusmdticus (v w ^ w). 

"Seven-Foot"^ Anapaestic 

Quia tis egeat, quia te careat. Ob earn rem hue ad te missa est 
{Miles, 1. 389) 

^^ & W W ^ WW ~ w w— w w^ ^ ^ « — ^ 

Quiatis egeat quiate careat Obeam r'hucad temiss a'st 
Ab ilia quae digitos despoliat suos et tuos digitos decorat (1. 401) 

^^^ -^w -■^ ww^ -^ -^w -^w w 

Abil'a quaedigi tosde spoliat suoset tuosdigi tosdecor at. 

^ There are really seven and a half feet to a line. 

2 Note that the last syllable of a line may be either long or short, regard- 
less of the requirements of the meter — a universal rule of Latin verse. 

First Period 31 

The standardized spelling, familiar to students, has been used 
for all Latin authors in this book from Plautus on. To help a 
student over the difficulty of homonyms, the circumflex accent 
has been introduced as an arbitrary sign to distinguish relative 
and demonstrative adverbs (in so far as they are ambiguous) from 
their corresponding adjectives and pronouns: hie, here; istic, isti, 
illic, illt, there; quo, whither; quoquo, whithersoever; eo, isto, istoc, 
isttic, ill6, ill6c, illiic,^ thither; eodem, to the same place; aliquo, 
to some place; quolibet, quovis, to any place; qu4, where; quaqu4, 
wherever: e^, istd, istac, ilia, iliac, that way; eadem, the same way, 
at the same time; aliqud, some way; qualibet, quavis, any way; 
qui, how; aliqut, somehow; and so forth. A few nondemonstrative 
adverbs have been similarly treated to differentiate them from 
adjectives, nouns, or verbs: recta, directly; und, together; mod6, 
only, just, now; cit6, quickly; intro, into the house; and so forth. 

Miks G/oriosuSj or The Swashbuckler 


Dramatis Personae 
(All names are Greek.) 

(1) PYRGOPOLiNfcES (or Citadel-Stormer) : the miles gloriosus, a 
braggart and lady-killer, now resident commander of a mercenary 
force in Elphesus. 

(2) Artotr6gus (or Trencherman, lit. Bread-Devourer): parasite or 
hanger-on of Pyrgopolinices. 

(3) Pala^strio (or Nimble, from palaestra or wrestling ground): a 
clever and cunning servant of Pyrgopolinices, still faithful to his 
former master Pleusicles (see below), 

(4) Sci^LEDRUS (or Rapscallion, lit. dirt in the Greek, but also sug- 
gesting scelus and sceleratus to a Latin audience) : a blundering servant 
of Pyrgopolinices. 

(5) PLEtjsicLES (or Rover, from the Greek root to sail): a young 
gallant of Athens; lover of Philocomasium. 

(6) PhilocomXsium (or Mardigras, suggesting that she is fond of 

^ Hue needs no special accent, for it has no homonym. 

32 National or Classical Roman Literature 

revels): former sweetheart of Pleusicles in Athens; abducted by 
Pyrgopolinices and brought to Ephesus. 

(7) Periplect6menus (or Twining^ alluding to his accomplishments 
in the dance): a wealthy and gay old bachelor of Ephesus; old family 
friend of Pleusicles. 

(8) AcROTELEtjTiUM (or Perfection)', a young woman of Ephesus; 
client of Periplectomenus. 

(9) MiLPHiDfppA (or Bat-Eye^ suggesting that she stays out late 
nights) : maidservant of Acroteleutium. 


The scene is laid in a street in fiphesus, a gay Greek city of Asia 
Minor. On the right the street is supposed to lead to the market 
place {forum) and center of the town; on the left, to the harbor and 
foreign parts. Two adjoining dwellings face the street and the spec- 
tators. The house on the right belongs to Pyrgopolinices; that on 
the left, to Periplectomenus. 

Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter Pyrgopolinices from his house, in full regaliaf accom- 
panied hy his bodyguard and his fawning, black-robed parasite. 
The soldiers halt. Pyrgopolinices struts across the stage, followed 
deferentially by Artotrogus.] 

[I] Py. [with haughty condescension] Ubi Artotr6gus niinc est? 
At. [at his elbow] Stdt propter virum 

2 fortem dtque fdrtundtum et f 6rma r^gid, 

3 turn b^llat6rem , . . [at a loss for words] . . . Mdrs haud 

aiisit dicer^ 

4 neque a^quiperdre suds virtiites dd tud,s. 

5 Py. [just to make conversation] Quemne ^go servdvi in cdmpis 


6 ubi Bumbomdchides Clytomest6ridysdrchid^s 

7 erat Imperdtor summus, N^ptunf nep6s? 

8 Ar. Meminl: nempe ilium dlcis cum drmis aiirefs, 

9 cuius tii legiones dfffla^^sti splritu, 

[10] quasi v^ntus f61ia. [He pauses expectantly, but gets no re- 
ply.] V^l elephdnto in Indid . , . [he stops to think what 
to say] 

First Period 33 

11 quo pdcto ei piigno praefreglsti brdcchium. 

12 Py. Quid "br^cchium"? Ar, Illud dicere volui "femur.'' 

13 Py. At indiligenter fcerdm. Ar. Pol si quid^m 

14 connfxus esses, per corium, per viscera, 

15 perque 6s elephdnti trdnsmineret bracchium. 

[16] Py. [waving him aside] Nolo istaec nunc. Ar. [to the audi- 
ence y confidentially] Hasce aerumnas venter creat, 

17 et ddsentandum 'st quidquid hie mentibitur. 

18 Py. [beckoning to Artoteogus] Habes . . . ? Ar. [inter- 

rupting him] Tabellas vis rogare : habeo — ^t stilum. 

19 Py. Fac^te advertis tuum animum ad animum meum. 

20 Ar. Novisse mores tuos me meditate decet 

21 curdmque adhib^re ut praeolat mihi quod tii velfs. 

22 Py. [laughingly testing him] Ecquid meministi? Ar. [re- 

suming his flattery with gusto] Memini centum in Cllicid 

23 et qufnquaginta; centum in Scytholatronid; 

24 triginta Sdrdos; sexaglnta M^cedones . . . [stopping for 

breath] . . . 

25 sunt h6mines qu6s tu . . . [pausing to think what to say 

next] , . . occidlsti un6 die. 

26 Py. Quanta Istaec hominum siimma 'st? Ar. [with noble 

disregard for arithmetic] Septem mflid. 

27 Py. Tantum ^sse op6rtet: r^cte rdtion^m ten^s. 

28 Ar. At niillos hdbeo scrfptos: sic memini tam^n. 

29 Py. Edepol mem6ria 's optimd. Ar. [frankly] Offa6 mo- 


30 Py. Dum tdle fdcies qudle adhiic, adsiduo ed^s: 

31 [with mock solemnity] commiinicabo semper t^ mensd med. 

32 Ar. [in a burst of gratitude] Quid tibi ego dicam quod 6mnes 

m6rtal6s sciiint : 

33 PyTg6polinicem te linum in t^rra viver6 

34 virtute et forma et fdctis invictissimis? 

35 Amdnt ted 6mnes miilier^s — neque iniurid, 

36 qui sis tam piilcher; vel illae qua6 here pdlli6 

37 me reprehend^runt. Py. [interested] Quid eae dixeriint tibi? 

38 Ar. Rogitdbant: "hicine Achilles 4st?" inquit mihi. 

39 "Immo 6ius frdter" fnquam " 'st." Ibi illarum dltera 

34 National or Classical Roman Literature 

40 "erg6 mecdstor piilcher ^st" inquft mihf 

41 "et Hberdlis; vfde, caesdries qudm dec^t." 

42 Py. [eagerly] Itane dibant tdndem? Ar. Qua^n me ambae 


43 ut te h6die, qudsi pompam, 1114 pra^terdiicer^m? 

44 Py. [sighing] Nimid *st mis^ria nfmis pulchrum ^sse homi- 

nem. Ar. Immo itd 'st. 
[451 Molesta^ sunt miilier^s: ordnt, ex6bsecrdnt, 
[46] ut t^ videant; ad s^se te drcessf iubent . . . [patising] . . . 
[47] ut tu6 non p6ssim ddre operdm negotio. 

48 Py. [brusquely] Vid^tur t^mpus ^sse ut edmus dd fonim, 

49 nam r^x Seleiicus me 6pere ordvit mdxim6, 
60 ut sfbi latr6nes c6gerem ^t conscriber^m. 

51 Ar. Age, edmus ^rgo. Py. [to his men-at-arms] S^quimini, 
sat^llit^s. [Exeunt right.] 

Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[As the soldiers march off, enter Palabstrio from the hou^e of 
Pyrgopolinices. He makes a grimace at the departing swashr 
buckler and then addresses the audience.] 
[52] Pa. Eriis meus ille 'st, gloriosus, fmpud^ns. 

53 Ait s^se ultro 6mms miilieres sectdrier: 

54 is d^ridfculo 'st, qudqud inc^dit, 6mnibiis. 
[55] Ego haii diu apiid hunc s^rvitutem s^rvio. 

56 Id volo vos scire, quomodo ad hunc dev^nerfm 

57 in s^rvitiitem ab eo cui s^rvivf priiis. 

58 Erat 4rus Ath^nis mihi adul^scens optimiis, 

[59] qui amdbat miilierem Atticam, et Ilia illiim simtil. 

60 Is piiblic^ legdtus Naupactum fuft. 

61 Int^ribi hie miles forte Athenas ddvenit, 

62 eamque hue invltam miilierem In Ephesum ddvehlt. 

63 Ubi amicam erilem Athenis dvectdm sci6, 

64 ego, qudntum vlvus possum, mfhi nav^m par6; 

65 insc^ndo, ut edm rem Naiipactum dd erum minti^m. 

66 Ubi sdmus provecti in dltum, fit quod di voMnt: 

67 capiiint praedones ndvem illam libi vectus fuf. 

First Period 35 

68 Ille quf me cepit ddt me huic dono mflitf. 

69 Hie postquam in aedis me M se d^duxft domtim, 

70 video 111am amicam erilem, Athenis quae fuft. 

71 Ubi contra aspexit me, oculis mihi signiim dedft 

72 ne se appelldrem; deinde postquam occasio 'st, 

73 conqu^ritur mecum mulier fortunes suds: 

74 ait s^se Athenas fugere cupere ex hdc domii; 

75 sese ilium amare, meum erum, Athenis quf fuft, 

76 neque p^ius qu(^mquam odfsse quam fstum mflit^m. 

77 Ego qu6niam inspexi mulieris sententidm, 

78 cepf tab^llas, consignavi, clanculiim 

79 dedi m^rcatori cufdam, qui dd ilium deferdt 

80 (meum erum qui Athenis fuerat, qui hdnc amdverdt), 

81 Ut is hue venfret. Is non sprevit mintium; 

82 nam et venit et fs in proximo hie [pointing to the house of 

PERiPLECTOMENtFs] dev^rtitur 

83 apud pat^rnum suum hospit^m, lepidum sen^m, 
[841 qui operd nos e6nsili6que adhortatiir, iuvdt. 

85 Itaque ^go pardvi hie [pointing to the house of Pyrgopoli- 

NicEs] fntus magnas maehinas, 

86 qui amdntis lina int^r se fdcerem eonvends. 
[87] Nam unum conelave, miilieri flli quod dedft 

88 miles, quo nemo nisi eapse fnferret pedem, 

89 in eo eoncldvi ego perfodi pdrietem, 

90 qua eommedtus clam ^sset hfnc hue mulierf; 

91 et s^ne sciente hoe feci; is consilium dedft. 

92 Sed foris concrepuit hfnc a vfcino sene; 

93 ipse exit. Hie file 'st lepidus, quem dixf, sen^x. 

Scene 1 

Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Periplectomenus /rom his own house, in great agitation.] 
[94] Pa. [calling] Qufd agis, Peripleetomene? Pe. [looking up] 

Estne hfc Pala^strio? [Impressivehj] 6ccisf sumus. 
95 Pa. Qufd negoti 'st? Pe. Res paldm 'st. Pa. Quae res 
paldm 'st? Pe. De t^gulfs 

36 National or Classical Roman Literature 

96 modo nescioquis fnspectavit v^strum familidrium 

97 per nostrum impluvium Intus apiid nos Phflocomdsium 

atque hospitem 

98 osculantis. Pa. Quis homo id vldit? Pe. Tuus cons^rvus. 

Pa. Qufs is homo 'st? 

99 Pe. N^scio, ita dbripuit rep^nte s^se siibito. Pa. Siispicor 

100 m6 periisse. Pe. Ubi abft, concldmo: "heus, quid agis tu*' 

fnquam "in tegulis?" 

101 Ille mihi dbiens Ita respondit, se sectdri simi^m. 

102 Pa. Sed Philocomasium hicine ^tiam nunc est? Pe. Cum 

exibam hie erdt. 

103 Pa. I si's, iiibe transire hue [pointing to Pyrgopolinicbs' 

house] quantum possit, se lit vidednt domi 

104 fdmilidres, nisi quidem flla n6s vult siipplicio darf. 

105 Pe. Dfxi ego Istuc; nisi quid dliud vfs? Pa. Volo; hoc el 


106 lit eum, quf se hie vldit, verbis vfncat n^ is se vlderft; 

107 si quidem centi^ns hie visa sit, tamen infitias eat. 

108 Nunc sic rdtionem Incipfsso. [He ponders for a moment.] 

Hanc instltuam astiitiam, 

109 ut Philocomasio hanc sororem g^minam g^rmanam diterdm 

110 dfcam Ath^nis advenfsse ciim amatore aUquo suo, ^ 

111 tdm similem quam lacte Idcti 'st. Apiid te eos hie dever- 


112 dicam hospltio. . . . Pe. [interrupting him] Euge eiige, l^ 

pide! Laiido c6mmentiim tuiim. 

113 Pa. ... lit, si illic concrimindtus sit adversum mflitem 
[114] hdnc ses^ vidisse cum d-lieno 6sculdri, ego arguam 

[115] dlteram vidisse apiid te ciim suo amatore. Pe. Cptim6: 

116 idem ego dicam, si ^x me exqulret miles. Pa. Sed simiili- 


117 dlcito ^sse. Et Philocomdsio id praecipi^ndum 'st ut scidt, 

118 ne titub^t, si exquiret ^x ea miles. Pe. Nimis doctiim do- 


119 S^d si amb^s videre in lino miles concilio vol^t, 

120 quid agimiis? Pa. Facile 'st: trec^ntae p6ssunt causae 


First Period 37 

121 "n6n domi 'st, ^biit dmbuldtum, dormit, ornattir, lavat, 

122 prdndet, potat, 6ccupdta 'st, 6perae non est, non potest." 

123 Pe. Pldcet ut dicis. Pa. Intro abi ergo, et, si Isti 'st mulier, 

edm iub^ 

124 cito domum transire; atque ha^c ei dice, m6nstra, praecipe 

125 de gemind, sorore. Pe. Docte tlbi illam perdoctd,m dabo. 
[126] Niimquid dliud? Pa. Abeas Intro. [Exit Pebiplectome- 

Nus.] Ego Investlgabo quidem, 

127 qui fuerlt cons^rvus qui h6die sit sectatus simidm. 

128 S^d for^s crepu^runt nostrae; ego voci moderabor meae, 

129 nam illic est Philocomdsio ciistos, m^us conservus qui it 


Scene 2 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 

[Enter Sceledrus, sorely puzzled, from the house of Pyrgopoli- 

130 Sc. [to himself] Nisi quidem ego hodie ambulavi dormiens 

in tegulis, 

131 certe edep61 scio me vidisse hie proximae vicinia^ 

132 Philocomasium erilem amicam sibi maldm rem quaerere. 

133 Pa. [pricking up his ears] Hie illam vidit osculantem, quan- 

tum hunc audivi loqui. 

134 Sc. [overhearing him] Quis hie est? Pa. Tiius conservus. 

Quid agis, Sceledre? Sc. [eagerly] Te, Paiaestrio, 

135 volup est convenisse. Pa. [pretending ignorance] Quid iam? 

Aut quid negoti 'st? Fac sciam. 

136 Sc. Simiam hodie sum sectatus nostram in horum tegulis: 

137 forte fortuna per impluvium hue despexi in proximum, 

138 dtque ego illi dspicio osculdntem Philocomasium cum altero 

139 nescioquo ddulescente. Pa. Quod ego, Sceledre, scelus ex 

te audio? 

140 Sc. Profecto vidi. Pa. Tiitin? Sc. Egomet— duobus his 

oculis meis. 
[141] Pa. Abi, non verisimile dicis. Sc. Haec vidisse egomet 

38 National or Classical Roman Literature 

142 Pa. [feigning v)rath] Pergi'n, Infellx? Sc. Quid tibi vis dU 

cam, nisi quod vlderlm? 

143 Quln etidm nunc Intus hie in pr6xim6 'st. Pa. [innocently] 

Eho an n6n doml 'st? 

144 Sc. Vise, abi intro tiite, nam ^go mi iam nil cr6di p6stul6. 
[145] Pa. C^rtum'stfdcere. [Exitj dashing into Fy-rgofoianices^ 

house.] Sc. Hie te opp^riar [planting himself before the 
door of Pebiplectomenus' house] : mulieri Insidias dabo. 
[Enter Palaestrio, running out of Pyrgopolinices' house.] 
[146] Pa. Sc^ledre, Sc^ledre, quis homo in terra t^ 'st audd^ior? 
Sc. Quid ^st? 

147 Pa. Iiibe^n tibi oculos ecfodlri, quibus id qu6d nusqudm 

'st vides? 

148 Sc. Quam 6b rem iiibeam? Pa. Phllocomdsium eccdm 

domi, quam in pr6xim6 

149 vldisse dibas te osculdntem atque amplexdntem cum ^Itero. 

[Philocomasium looks out of Pyrgopolinices' house.] 

150 Sed fores concrepuerunt nostrae. Sc. [like a cat watching a 

mousehole] At ego flico observe for^s: 

151 ndm nihil ^st qua hinc hiic transire ea p6ssit nisi recto 


152 Pa. [exasperated] Quin domi ^ccam! Nescioquae te, Sce- 

ledre, scelera suscit^nt. 

153 Sc. [refusing to look] Mihi ego video, mihi ego sdpio, mihi 

ego credo plurimiim: 

154 m^ homo n6mo deterr^bit quin ea sit in his aedibds. 

155 Pa. Vi'n iam faciam uti stultividiim te fdteare, . . . Sc. 

[interrupting him defiantly] Age fac^. 

156 Pa. . . . n^que te qufcquam sapere corde n^que ocuHs uti? 

Sc. Volo. 

157 Pa. Sci'n tu nullum commedtum hinc esse d nobis? Sc. 


158 Pa. Quid nunc? Si ea doml 'st — si fdcio ut eam ^xire hinc 

vided,s domo — 

159 dlgnu'n^sverberibusmiiltis? Sc. Dlgnus. Pa. Serva istas 


160 n6 tibi clam se subterdiicat Istinc dtque hue trdnsedt. 

First Period 39 

161 Sc. [calmly] C6nsilium 'st ita fdcere. Pa. P^de ego iam 

fllam hue tibi sistam In vidm. [Exit into Pyrgopolini- 
CEs' hou^e.] 

162 Sc, [keeping his vigil] Sed ego hoc quod ago, id me dgere 

op6rtet: h6c obs^rvare 6stiiim. 

Scene 3 
Meter: seven-foot iambic. 

[Enter Palaestrio and Philocomasium from Pyrgopolinices' 

163 Pa. [triumphantly] Quid ais tu, Sceledre? Sc. [not budging 

an inch] Hanc rem gero. Habeo aiiris: loquere quidvis. 

164 Pa. Respicedum ad laevam. [Sceledrus looks.] Quis 

lllaec est mulier? Sc. Pro di immortales! 

165 Ph. [stepping forward] Ubi iste 'st bonus servus qui probri 

me maximi fnnocentem 

166 falso insimulavit? Pa. [pointing to Sceledrus] fim tibi! 

Hic mihi dixit, tibi quae dixi. 

167 Ph. [to Sceledrus] Tun me vidisse in proximo hic, scel^ste, 

ais 6scuMntem? 

168 Pa. [egging her on] Ac '*cum alieno ddulescentul6 " dixit. 

Sc. [defiantly] Dixi hercle vero. 

169 Ph. Tun me vidisti? Sc. Atque his quidem hercle oculis 

. . . Ph. [interrupting him angrily] Carebis, cr^do, 

170 qui plus vident quam quod vident. Sc. Numquam hercle 


171 quin vlderim id quod viderim. Ph. [haughtily] Ego stulta 

et m6ra multum, 

172 quae cum hoc insdno fabuler: quem pol ego cdpitis p^rdam ! 
[173] Sc. [shouting after Philocomasium as she goes into Pyrgo- 

poLiNicEs' house] Noli malum minitari mf : certe ^go te hic 

intus vidi. 
174 Sed [with less confidence] paiicis verbis te volo, Palaestrio: 

6bsecro, unde 
[175] exit haec hue? Pa. Unde nisi domo? Sc. Dom6? Pa. 

Quid nl? Sc. [wavering] Sed tamen 

40 National or Classical Roman Literature 

176 nimis mfrum 'st fdcinus, qu6modo haec hinc htic transfre 


177 Pa. [jeering] Sci'n te perifsse? Sc. [deep in thought] Ntinc 

quidem domi c^rto 'st. [Rousing himself] Certa r^s est, 
[178] nunc n6strum obs^rvari 6stium, ubiubi 'st arnica erilis. 
[Still puzzledy he stands gxmrd at the door of his own house, 
and continues to mumble to himself.] 

179 Nescio quid credam egomet mihl iam: ita qu6d vidfsse 


180 me id iam non vldisse drbitror. Pa. Ne tu h^rcle s^ro, 


181 resipfsces: si dd erum haec r^s prius pra^venit, perfbis piil- 


182 Sc. [paying no attention to him] Nunc demum experior mi 

6b oculos caliginem obstitfsse. 

183 Nihil hdbeo c6rti, quid loqudr: non vldi eam, etsi vldi. 

184 Pa. Ne tu edepol stiiltitia tud nos paene perdidlsti! 

185 Sed fores viclni proximl crepuerunt: conticiscam. 

Scene 4 

Meter: 11. 186-198, seven-foot iambic; 11. 199-235, seven-foot 


[Having used the secret passage, Philocomasium enters uncon- 
cernedly from Periplectomenus' house and pretends to he her own 
twin sister, recently arrived from Athens. Sceledrus is watching 
at the wrong door, hut upon hearing her voice, turns and recognizes 

186 Ph. [to a servant within] Inde Ignem in aram, ut agdm gratis 

laeta fiphesiae Dianae, 

187 cum me In locis Neptuniis templisque turbulentis 

188 servdvit, saevis fliictibus ubi sum adflictata multum. 

189 Sc. [excitedly] Palaestrio, 6 Palaestrio. Pa. [mocking him] 

O Sceledre, Sceledre, quid vis? 
[190] Sc. Estne haec Philocomasium dn non est ea? Pa. [judi- 
dally] Oplnor, ea videtur. 

First Period 41 

191 sed [quoting Sceledrus' own words] "fdcinus mlrum 'st qu6- 

modo ha^c hinc hue transfre potuit" — 

192 si quldem ea 'st. Sc. An dubium tibi 'st, earn esse banc? 

Pa. £a vid^tiir. 

193 Sc. Adeamus, dppell^mus. [To Philocomasium, who of 

course pays no attention to him] Heiis, quid istiic est, 
Phllocomdsium ? 

194 Quid tibi istic in Istisce a^dibiis debetur? Quid neg6ti 


195 [Growing more exasperated] Quid nunc taces? Tecum lo- 

quor. Pa. [laughing at him] Immo edepol tiite tecum, 

196 nam haec nihil respondet. Sc. [trying again, with more ve- 

hemence] Te ddloquor, vitl probrique plena, 

197 quae circum vicin6s vagds. Ph. [coolly] Quiciim tu fdbu- 


198 Sc. Quiciim nisi tecum? Ph. Quis tu homo *s, aut mecum 

quid est negoti? 

199 Sc. Me rogds, hem, qui sim? Ph. Quin ego hoc rogem, 

quod nescidm? 

200 Pa. [to Philocomasium] Quls ego sum igitur, si hiinc ign6- 

ras? Ph. Mlhi odiosu's, quisquis es — • 

201 et tu et hfc. Sc. Non nos novisti? Ph. Neiitrum. Sc. 

[aside, to Palaestrio] Metuo mdxime . . . 

202 Pa. [interrupting him] Quid metuis? Sc. . . . enim n6 nos 

nosmet p^rdiderimus lispidm. 

203 Pa. [resuming the attack] Tibi ego dico, heus Philocomasium ! 

Ph. [angrily] Quae te intemperiae tenent, 

204 qui me perperdm perplexo nomine dppelles? Pa. Eho! 
[205] Quls igitur vocdre? Ph. Dlcea. Sc. Falsum nomen qudre 


206 Ph. figone? Sc. Tune. Ph. Quae heri Athenis fiphesum 

adveni v^speri? 

207 Pa. Quid hie tibi In Epheso 'st negoti? Ph. Geminam 

germandm meam 

208 hie sororem esse Indaudlvi: eam veni quaesitiim. Sc. 

[rudely] Maid 's! 

209 Ph. Immo eedstor stiilta multum, quae vobfscum fabuler. 

42 National or Classical Roman Literature 

210 [Turning her back] Abeo. Sc. [seizing her roughly by the arm] 

Abire non sindm te. Ph. [stru>ggling] Mltte. Sc Mdni- 

festdrid *s: 
[211] n6n omltto. [To Palabstbio, who holds aloof] Quid stas 

Istic? Ratine banc, sf s, altrinseciis. 
[212] Pa. [shrugging his shoulders] Nil moror neg6ti6sum esse. 

Eho tu, Sc^ledre, qui scio, 
213 dn ista n6n sit Philocomasium, atque alia eiils simills si^t? 
[214] Sc. [dragging her] Te rapiam domum. Ph. [indignantly] 

Immo Athenis mi domus ^st. Istam domum 
[215] nil moror. Sc. Te misquam mfttam, nisi das firmatdm 


216 te hue [pointing to Pykgopolinices* house], si omisero, Intro 

ituram. Ph. Vi me cogis, quisquis es: 

217 do fidem, si omittis, isto me intro ituram quo iubes. 

218 Sc. ficce omitto! Ph. [as she runs into the house of Peri- 

PLECTOMENUs] At cgo dbeo omissa. Sc. [chagrined] Mii- 
liebri fecit fide. 
[219] Pa. [pretending to be aroused] Mdnibus dmisisti pra^dam. 
Vi'n tu facere hoc strenue? 

220 Sc. Quid faciam? Pa. Ecfer mihi machaeram hue intus. 

Sc. Quid facies ed? 

221 Pa. Intro rilmpam recta in a^dis: quemque hie intus videro 

222 cum Philocomasio osculantem, eum ego obtruncdbo ext^m- 


223 Sc. Visane 'st ea esse? Pa. Immo edepol plane ed *st. 

Sc. Sed quomodo 

224 dissimuUbat! Pa. Abi, machaeram hue ^cfer. Sc. lam 

faxo hie erit. [He dashes into the house and out again, but 
does not find Philocomasium, for she has slipped into her 
own room via the secret passage.] 
1225] Sc. [completely baffled] Nihil opii'st macha^ra. Pa. Quid 
iam? Sc. Eccam domi; in lecto cubat. 

226 Pa. [impressively] fidepol ne tu tibi malam rem repperisti, 

ut praedicds. 

227 Sc. Quid iam? Pa. Quia hdnc attingere ailsu's miilierem 

hinc ex proximo. 

First Period 43 

228 Sc. Mdgis herein metu6. Pa. Sed niimquam qulsquam 

f dciet quln sor6r 

229 istaec sit gemina hiiius: edm pol tu 6sculantem hie vlderds. 

230 Sc. Id quid^m paldm 'st: earn ^sse, ut dlcis. Qufd propius 


231 quam lit perfrem, si ^lociitus ^ssem ero? Pa. Ergo, sf 


232 milssitabis: plus oportet scire s6rvum qudm loquf. 

233 figo abeo d te, n^quid t^cum c6nsi)i commiscedm, 

234 dtque apud hiinc er6 viclnum; tua^ mihi tiirbae n6n pla- 


235 firus si v^niet, si me qua^ret, hie ero: hinc me arc^ssit6. 

[Exit into the house of Periplectomenus.] 

Scene 5 
Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter Periplectomenus from his house; he pretends to he in 
high dudgeon and rushes at Sceledrus.] 

[236] Sc. [aside] Perii! Ad me acc^dit. Pe. Tun, Sceledre, hie, 
scelerum caput, 

237 meam liidificdvisti hospitam dnte aedis modo? 

238 Sc. Vicine, ausculta, qua^so. Pe. Ego aiiscult^m tibi? 

239 Sc. Purgdre volo me. Pe. Tun ted ^xpurg^s mihi, 

240 qui f acinus tantum tamque indignum f^ceris? 

241 Sc. Lic^tne? Pe. At ita me di dea^que omn^s ament: 

242 nisi mihi supplicium virgariim de te datur, 

243 ded^coris pleniorem erum facidm tuiim 

244 quam magno v^nto planum 'st undariim mar^. 

[245] Sc. [abjectly] Vicine, etidm nunc n^scio quid viderim: 

246 itd 'st ista huius similis nostrai tua, 

247 siquidem non eadem 'st. Pe. [relenting] Vise ad me intro, 

iam scies. 

248 Sc. Lic^tne? Pe. Quin te iiibeo; et placide n6scitd. 

249 Sc. Ita f acere c^rtum 'st. [He starts for the door; at the same 

time Periplectomenus runs to Pyrgopolinices' door and 
calls in.] Pe. Heiis, Philocomasium cito 

44 National or Classical Roman Literature 

250 transciirre ciirriculo dd nos : Ita neg6titim 'st. 

251 Post, qudndo exierit Sc^ledrus d nobis, cit6 

252 transcurrito dd vos riirsum ciirricul6 domiim. 

[253] [Returning to his own house] Nunc m^tuo, haec n^ titub^t. 
Sed aperitiir forls. 
[Enter Sceledrus from the house, crestfallen.] 
[2541 Sc. Pol miilierem hercle similiorem non reor 

255 deos f dcere posse. Pe. Quid nunc? Sc. Commeruf malilm. 

256 Pe. Vidlstin istam? Sc. Vidi et 111am et hospit^m 

257 compl^xam atque 6sculdntem. Pe. fiane 'st? Sc. N^sci6. 

258 Pe. Vi'n scire pldne? Sc. Ciipio. Pe. Abi Intro ad v6s 

domiim : 
[259] sitne istaec, vise. Sc. Idm ego ad te ^xib6 fords. [He 
again dashes in and out.] 

260 Pe. [to the audience, gleefully] Numquam ^depol h6minem 

qu^mquam liidificdri^r 

261 magls facete vldi et mdgis mirls modls. 

262 Sed ^ccum, egr^ditur! Sc. [humbly] Periplect6mene, te 6b- 


263 per deos atque h6mines perque stultitidm medm [clamping 

his knees] 

264 perque tua genua. . . Pe. [laughing] Quid obsecrds me? 

Sc. . . . inscltia6 

265 meae et stultltiae ign6scas. Nunc demiim scio 

266 me fulsse excordem, caecum, incogitdbilem : 

267 nam Phllocomdsium eccam Intus! Pe. Quid nunc, fiircif^r? 

268 Sc. Nunc hoc mi ignosce, quaeso. Pe. Vlncam animiim 


269 ne mdlitiose factum id esse abs te drbitr^r. 

270 Ignoscam tibi.lstuc. Sc. At tibi dl facidnt ben6! 

271 Pe. Ne tu hercle, si te dl ament, linguam c6mprim^s 

272 posthac: etiam lllud quod scies nesclverls, 

273 nee vlderls quod vlderls. Sc. Bene m^ mon^s: 

[274] ita fdcere certum 'st. Numquid dliud vis? Pe. Abl. 

[Exit Sceledrus.] 
[275] Palaestrio nunc est apud me: ibo domiim. [Exit,] 

First Period 45 


Scene 1 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Palaestrio pokes his head out at the door of Periplectome- 
Nus^ house^ peering cautiously to left and right; he then speaks 
to his fellow conspirators within.] 

276 Pa. Cohibete intra limen etiam vos parumper, Pleiisicl^s. 

277 Sinite me prius perspectare, ne lispiam insidiae sient. 

278 [Reconnoitering again] Sterilis hinc prospectus lisque ad lilti- 

mdm 'st plateam probe. 

279 Evocdbo. Heus, Periplectomene et Pleiisicles, progr^di- 

[Enter the conspirators from the house; they line up like soldiers,] 

280 Pe. Ecce nos tibi oboedientes. Pa. [assuming the air of a 

generalissimo] Facile 'st fmperium in bonis. 

281 Ntinc hoc animadvertite dmbo. [To Periplectombnus] 

Mfhi opus 6st opera tua, 

282 Periplectomene; nam ego inveni lepidam sycophantiam, 
[283] qui ddmutil^tur mfles illic, et Philocomasiiim sibi 

[284J hlc amans [pointing to Pleusicles] abducat habeatque. 
Pe. Dari istanc rationem vol6. 

285 Pa. At ego mi dnuliim dari Istunc tuiim volo. Pe. Quam 

ad rem usuf ^st? 

286 Pa. Qu^ndo habebo, igitur rationem mearum fabricariim 


287 Pe. [giving up his ring] tJtere, dccipe. Pa. Accipe a me 

rursum rdtionem doli: 

[288] erus meus ita amator magnus mulierilm ^st, ut neminem 

289 fuisse aeque neque f utiirum credo. Pe. Credo ego istiic id^m. 

290 Pa. Isque Alexandri praestare praedicdt formam sudm, 

291 itaque omnis se ultro sectari in fipheso m^morat miilieres. 

292 Ecquam tii potis reperire forma lepida miilierem, 

293 cui facetidrum c6r pectiisque sit plenum et doli? 

294 Pe. Ingenudmne an libertinam? Pa. Aequi istuc facio, 


46 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[2951 edm mihi des, quae sit lepidfssima ddulesc^nsque mdxime. 

[296] Pe. Hdbeo eccillam [pointing toward her house] meam cli^n- 

tam, f^minam adulescentuldm. 
297 S6d quid ea lisus est? Pa. Ut dd te edm iam d^ducds do- 

[298] 6t ita orneg ut crinis comptos hdbeat adsimuletque s^ 

299 ttiam esse uxorem: ita praecipi^ndum 'st. PI. Erro quam 

Insistds viam. 

300 Pa. [to Pleusicles] At scies. [To Periplectomenus] Sed 

^cqua ancilla 'st illi? Pe. fist prime catd. 

301 Pa. Ed quoque opus est. Ita praecipito mulieri dtque an- 


302 lit simul^t se tuam esse uxorem et d^perlre hunc mflit^m; 

303 quasique hunc anulum favea^ suae d^derit; ea porro mihi, 

304 militi lit dar^m ; quasique ego rei sim interpres. Pe. Aiidio. 

305 Non potult reperlre, si Ipsi Soli qua^rendds dar^s, 

306 l^pidiores duds ad hdnc rem qudm ego. Hdbe animum 


307 Pa. Ergo adcura, s6d propere opu'st. [Exit Periplecto- 

MENUS hurriedly, to fetch the two women.] Nunc tu au- 
sciilta mi, Pleiisicl^s. 

308 PI. Tibi sum oboedi^ns. Pa. Hoc fdcito: miles domum ubi 


309 meminerls ne Philocomdsium nomines. PI. Quem nomi- 

[310] Pa. Dlceam. PI. M^miner6. Pa. Sed Intered tace, dtque 

nunc abl. 
311 PI. fio ego intro Igitur. Pa. fit praecepta sobrie lit cures, 

face. [Exit Pleusicles.] 

Scene 2 

Meter: seven-foot iambic. 

[Enter Periplectomenus, escorting Acroteleutium and her 
maid Milphidippa.] 

[312] Pe. [with a gesture toward his house] Hac Intro sequimini, 
Acroteleutium dtque Milphidippa. 

First Period 47 

313 Pa. [to Periplectomentjs, pompously] Venire sdlvum ga\i- 

de6; lepide h^rcle orndtus c^dis. 

314 Pe, Bene 6pportiineque 6bviam es, Palaestrio. £m tibi 


315 quas m6 iussisti addiicere ^t quo orndtu. Pa. Eu! N6ster 


316 [To Acroteleutium] Palaestrio Acroteleiititim saliitat. Ac. 

[to Periplectomenus] Quls hie, amabo, ^st, 

317 qui tdm pro n6ta nomindt me? Pe. Hie noster drchit^c- 


318 Ac. Salve, archit^cte. Pa. Sdlva sis. Sed die mihi, ^cquid 

hic [pointing to Periplectomenus] te 

319 onerdvit pra^ceptfs? Pe. [answering for her] Probe medi- 

tdtam utrdmque diico. 

320 Pa. [to Acroteleutium] Nempe tii novisti mflit^m, meum 

erum? Ac. Rogdre mlrum 'st. 

321 Populi 6dium quldni noverim, magnldicum, cfncinndtum, 
[322] pulchrum, linguentdtum? Pa. Num lUe t6 nam novit? 

Ac. Numquam vldit. 

323 Pa. Age, Periplectomene, has niincidm due Intro; ego dd 

forum fllum 

324 conv^niam atque illi hunc dnulum dabo, dtque pra^dicdbo 

325 a tiia uxore mihl datum esse, eamque ilium deperire. 

326 Hanc [pointing to Milphidippa] dd nos, cum ^xtemplo d 

foro veniemus, mittitote, 

327 quasi cldnculum dd eum missa sit. Pe. Faci^mus: dlia ciira. 

328 Pa. Vos modo curdte; ego illiim prob^ iam onerdtum hue 

dcci6bo. [Exit to the forum.] 

329 Pe. Abedmus ^rgo intro, ha^c uti meditemur cogitdte, 

330 ut dccurdte et commode hoc quod agendum *st exsequdmur, 

331 ne quid, ubi miles venerit, titubetur. Ac. Tii mordre. 


Scene 3 

Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Palaestrio with Pyrgopolinices from the forum.] 

332 Py. V61up est, quod agas, si id procedit lepide atque ^x 


48 National or Classical Roman Literature 

333 Nam ego hodie ^d Seleiicum regem mlsi parasitlim meiim, 

334 ut latrones, quos condiixi, hinc ad Seleiicum diicer^t, 

335 qui eius regnum tiitarentur, mihi dum fieret otiiim. 

[336] Pa. Qufn tu tuam rem ciira potius quam Seleuci, nam tibi 

337 condicio nova et liiculenta fertur p^r me interpretem. 

338 Py. Immo omnis res posteriores pono atque operam do tibi. 

339 Pa. Circumspicedum ne quis nostro hie aiiceps sermon! siet, 

340 nam hoc negoti clandestmo ut agerem mandatiim 'st mihi. 

341 Py. N^mo adest. Pa. Hunc drrabonem amoris primum a 

me dccip6. 

342 Py. Quid hie? Unde ^st? Pa. [speaking slowly and im- 

pressively] A lucul^nta ac festiva f^mind, 

343 quae te amat tuamque expetessit piilchram pulchritiidinem. 

344 fiius nunc mi anulura dd te ancilla porro ut deferrem dedit. 

345 Py. Nuptane ^st an vidud? Pa. Et nupta et vidua. Py. 

Quo pacto potis 

346 mipta et vidua esse ^adem? Pa. Quia adul^scens mipta 'st 

ciim sen^. 

347 Py. Euge! Pa. L^pida et liberali forma 'st. Py. Cave 


348 Pa. Ad tuam formam ilia lina digna 'st. Py. H6rcle piil- 

chram praedicds. 

349 S^d quis ed, 'st? Pa. Senis hiiius lixor Periplectomeni e 


350 Ea demoritur ie dtque ab illo ciipit abire: odit senem. 
[351] Py. S^d volo scire, quid faci^mus miiliere ilia quae domi 'st? 

352 Pa. Quin tu illdm iube abs te abire quo libet, siciit sor6r 

353 eius hue gemina v^nit Ephesum et mdter, arcessiintque eam. 

354 Py. £ho tu, adv^nit fiphesum mdter ^ius? Pa. Aiunt qui 


355 Py. Hercle occdsi6nem l^pidam, ut miilierem excludam 

f ord,s ! 

356 Pa. Immo vi'n tu lepide fdcere? Py. Loquere, et c6n- 

siliiim cedo. 

357 Pa. Vi'n tu illam dctutum ^mov^re, a te lit abedt per grdr 


First Period 49 

358 Py. Ciipio. Pa. Turn te hoc fdcere oportet: tibi divftiarum 

ddfatfm ^st. 

359 Iiibe sibi aurum atque ornamenta, quae illi instruxti mulieri, 

360 dono habere, abire, auferre dbs te quo libeat sibf. 

361 Py. Placet ut dicis; sed ne istanc amittam et haec mut^t 


362 vide modo. Pa. Vah! DeUcatu's: quae te tdmquam ocu- 

16s amet. 
[363] Sed fores crepu^runt. ficce ancillula egreditiir fords, 
[Enter Milphidippa from the house; she peers about cautiously.] 

364 quae anulum istunc dttulit quern tibi dedi. Py. [always 

susceptible] fidepol haec quidem 

365 belluld 'st. Pa. Pithecium ha^c est prae ilia et spfnturnl- 


Scene 4 

Meter: 11. 366-374, seven-foot trochaic; 11. 375-414, seven-foot 


366 Mi. [aside] Dissimulabo, hos qudsi non vldeam neque esse 

hie etiamdiim scid,m. 

367 Py. [to Palaestrio] Tdce, subauscultemus ecquid d^ me ffat 

[368] Mi. [aside] Qua^ro hunc hominem nimium lepidum et nimia 

369 mllitem Pyrgopolinicem. Py. [excitedly, to Palaestrio] 

Sati'n haec quoque me deperit? 
[370] Medm laudat speciem. Haec ancillula subigit me ut amem. 

Pa. [hastily] Hercle hanc quidem 

371 nihil tu amdssis: mihi haec desponsa 'st. Tibi si ilia hodie 


372 ^go hanc continuo uxorem ducam. Py. [peevishly] Quid 

ergo hanc diibitas conloqui? 

373 Pa. Sequere hac me ergo. Py. [following] Pedisequus tibi 

sum. Mi. [to herself] tjtinam, cuius causa fords 

374 sum egressa, eius conveniendi mihi potestas ^vendt! 

375 Pa. [raising his voice so that she can hear] Homo quidam 'st, 

qui scjt, quod quaeris ubi sit. Mi. [feigning alarm] Quem 
ego hie audivi? 

50 National or Classical Roman Literature 

376 Pa. Sociiim tuoriim concfliorum et participem c6nsili6rum. 
[377] Mi. [cautiously] Cedo signum, si horunc sociorum ^s. Pa. 
[mysteriously] Amat miilier quaedam quendam. 

378 Mi. Pol istiic quidem multae. Pa. At non multa6 de dlgito 

donum mlttunt. 

379 Mi. Sed hie numquis adest? Pa. [cautiously] Vel ad^st vel 

non. Mi. Cedo te mihi solae solum. 

380 Pa. Brevine an longmquo sermonf? Mi. Tribus verbis. 

Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] lam ad te redeo. [He starts 
toward Milphidippa.] 

381 Py. [protesting] Quid ego? Hie astabo tantisper eum hac 

forma et faetis frustra? 

382 Pa. [turning hack] Patere at que asta; tibi ego hdne operdm 

do. Py. [correcting him testily] Properando : excriieior. 

383 Pa. [appealing to reason] Pedetemptim — tu haec scis — trae- 

tare soles hasee huiiismodi m^reis. 

384 Py. [yielding, but still irritated] Age age — ut tibi maxime 

eoneinnum 'st! Pa. [aside] Nullum 'st hoe stolidius 

[385] [To Milphidippa] Redeo ad te. Quid me voluisti? Mi. 

[whispering] Quid agam? Pa. Adsimules. . . . Mi. [iv^ 

terrupting him] Teneo istue. 
[386] Pa. Conlaudato formam et faciem et virtutis. Mi. Ne for- 


387 Pa. [briskly J as he returns to Pyrgopolinices] Adsum: fm- 

pera, si quid vis. Py. Quid illa^e narrat tibi? Pa. La- 

388 ait 111am, mlseram cruciari et lacrimantem se ddflietare, 

389 quia tls egedt, quia te caredt. Ob eam rem hue dd te 

missa 'st. 

390 Py. lube adlre. Pa. [whispering to Pyrgopolinices] At 

scf n quid tii faeids? Face te fastldi plenum, 

391 quasi non libeat; me inclamato, quia sle te viilgo viilgem. 

392 Py. [to Palaestrio] Memini et praeeeptis parebo. Pa. [in 

a loud voice and official manner] Voeone ergo hane quae 
te qua^rit? 

First Period 51 

393 Py. [in the same manner] Adedt, si quid vult. Pa. Sf quid 

vis, adi, miilier. Mi. [salaaming to Pyrgopolinices] 
Piilcher, salve. 

394 Py. [flattered; to Palaestrio] Meum cognom^ntum c6m- 

memord,vit. [To Milphidippa] Di tfbi dent qua^cumque 

395 Mi. Tecum detatem exigere lit licedt. . . . Py. [haughtily, 

thinking she has finished] Nimium optas. Mi. [hastily] 
N6n me dico, 

396 sed eram meam quae te demoritur. Py. Aliae multae 

idem istuc ciipiunt, 

397 qui bus copia non est. Mi. Ecastor hau mfrum, sf te habes 


398 homin^m tam pulchrum et praeclariim virtiite et forma et 
j. f actis ! 

399 Pa. [aside, to Pyrgopolinices] Quin tu huic responde. [As- 

suming the grand manner and in a loud voice] Haec illaec 
est ab ilia quam dudum dixi. 

400 Py. [to Palaestrio, haughtily] Qua ab illarum? Nam ita 

mi occursant multae: meminisse hau possum. 

401 Mi. Ab ilia quae digitos despoliat suos et tuos dlgitos de- 


402 [Pointing to the ring on his finger] Nam hunc dnulum ab tui 

cupienti huic [pointing to Palaestrio] detuli, hic porro 
ad te. 

403 Py. Quid mine tibi vis, mulier? Memora. Mi. Ut, quae 

te cupit, eam ne spernas, 

404 nam nisi tu illi fers siippetias, iam ilia animum despondebit. 

405 [Falling on her knees] Mi Achilles, fiat quod te oro: serva 

illam pulchram piilchre. 

406 Exprome benignum ex te ingeniiim — urbicape, occisor re- 


407 Py. [thundering at Palaestrio] Eu hercle odiosas res! Quo- 

tiens hoc tibi, verbero, ego interdixi, 
[408] ne condicionem temere pollicitere! Pa. [to Milphidippa] 

Audi'n tu, mulier? 
[409] [Aside, to Pyrgopolinices] Quin tu huic respondes aliquid 

52 National or Classical Roman Literature 

nunc? Py. [to Milphidippa, curtly] lube eampse exire 
hue M nos. 

410 Die me omnia quae vult fdeturum. Mi. Faeis mine ut te 

faeere aequum 'st. 

411 Pa. [to Milphidippa] Quin ^rgo abis, qudndo rcsponsiim 

'st? Mi. [to Palaestrio] Ibo dtque illam hiic addiicam, 

412 propter quam operd, 'st mihi. [To Pyrgopolinices] Niim- 

quid vis? Py. [with a blase air] Ne magis sim pulcher 
qudm sum: 

413 ita me mea forma habet sollicitiim. Pa. [to Milphidippa] 

Quid hie mine stas? Quin abis? Mi. Abeo. 

414 Pa. [aside to Milphidippa, as she leaves] Philoeomasio die, 

si 'st istie, domum ut trdnseat: hiine [pointing to Pyrgo- 
polinices] hie esse. 

Scene 5 

Meter: six-foot iambic. 

[415] Py. [to Palaestrio, impatiently] Quid vis nune fdeiam? 

Nam nullo paeto potest 
[416] prius haee reeipi quam Phlloeomdsium amfserim. 

417 Pa. [shrugging his shoulders] Quid me eonsiiltas, quid agas? 

Dixi equidem tibi, 

418 quo id pdeto fieri possit elementissime : 

419 aurum atque vestem miiliebrem omnem habedt sibf; 

420 dieasque tempus maxime esse, ut eat domiim; 

421 sororem geminam adesse et matrem dicito, 

422 quibus eoncomitata reete deveniat domiim. 

423 Py. Qui tii scis eas adesse? Pa. Quia oeulis meis 

[424] vidi hie sororem. Py. [eagerly , as u^ual] Ecqufd belld 'st? 
Pa. [disgusted] Nempe omnia 

425 vis 6btinere. Py. Ubi matrem esse aiebdt soror? 

426 Pa. Cubare in navi lippam atque oeulis tiirgidis 

427 nauelerus dixit, qui illas advexit, mihi. 

428 Is ad hos [pointing to Perplectomenus' house] nauelerus 

hospitio devertitiir. 
[429] Py. [fearing to face Philocomasium] Te verba fdcere eiim 
Philoeomasio volo. 

First Period 53 

430 Pa. [resolutely] Qui potius quam tute adeas, tudm rem tiite 


431 Dicds uxorem tibi necessum ducer^; 

432 cogndtos persuadere, amlcos cogere. 

433 Py. Itdn tu censes? Pa. Qufd ego nl ita c^nsedm? 

434 Py. [screwing up his courage] Ibo igitur Intro. Tu hie ante 

a^dis interim 

435 speculdre, ut, ubi illaec prodedt, me provoces. 

[436] [Swaggering toward his own door] Si nolet, vi Philoc6masium 
^xtrudd-m foras. 

437 Pa. [calling after him and bringing him to a halt] Istiic cave 

fdxis; quin potius per grdtid^m 

438 bonam dbeat dbs te. Atque Illaec qua^ dixi dat6. 

439 Sed abi Intro. N61i stdre. Py. Tibi sum obo^di^ns. 


440 Pa. [alone] Nunc dd me ut v^niat iisu^st Acroteleiitium aiit 

441 ancillula ^ius aut Pleusicl^s. [The door of Periplectome- 

Nus' hou^e is slowly and cautiously opened.] Pro luppi- 
[442] omnis video ^xeiintis hinc e proximo. 

Scene 6 

Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 

[Enter the conspirators from the hou^e of Periplegtomenus.] 

443 Ac. [to MiLPHiDippA and Pleusicles] Sequimini. Simul 

circumspicite n^ quis ddsit Arbiter. 

444 Mi. N^minem pol video, nisi hunc quem v61umus c6nven- 

tum. Pa. fit ego vos. 

445 Ddte modo 6peram. Ac. Id nos M te, si quid voiles, v^ni- 

[446] Pa. Militem lepide ^t facete ludificdri^r vol6. 

447 Ac. N^mpe ut ddsimul^m me amore istius differri. . . . Pa, 

[interrupting her] Tenes. 

448 Ac. . . . qudsique, istius caiisa am6ris, 6x hoc md,trim6ni6 

449 dbierim, cupi^ns istius miptidrum. Pa. Omne ordin^ — 

450 nisi modo linum hoc: hdsce esse a^dis dicas d6talis tuds; 

451 hinc senem dbs te abiisse, postquam f^ceris div6rtitim: 

54 National or Classical Roman Literature 

452 ne file m6x veredtur fntrofre in dliendm domum. 

[453] Ac. B^ne mones. Pa. [to Pleusicles] Nunc tlbi vicissim 

quae lmperd,bo, ea discito : 
[454] cum ^xtemplo Intro haec [pointing to Acboteleutium] 

dbierlt, tu qudsi gubernat6r si^s, 

455 hiic venito et mdtris verbis Phllocomdsium arcessito, 

456 lit, si itura siet Ath^nas, edt tecum dd portum cito, 

457 atque ut iubeat f^rri in ndvim siquid fmponl velit: 

458 nisi eat, t6 soliiturum ^sse ndvim; v^ntum operam dare. 

459 PI. Sdtis placet pictura: p^rge. Pa. Ille extemplo fllam 


460 lit eat propere, n^ sit mdtri m6rae. PI. Miiltimodis sapis. 

461 Pa. £go illi dlcam ut me Miutorem, qui 6nus feram dd 

portum, rog^t. 

462 Ille iub^bit me Ire cum lUa ad p6rtum. Ego adeo (ut tii 


463 prorsum Athenas protinam adlbo tecum. PI. Atque ilbi 

ill6 veneris, 

464 triduum servlre numquam t^, quin Hber sis, sindm. 

465 Pa. Abi cito dtque ornd te. PI. Niimquid dliud? Pa. 

Ha^c ut m^mineris. 

466 PI. Abeo. [Exit to the harhor.] Pa. [to Acboteleutium and 

Milphidippa] Et v6s ablte hinc lntr6 actiitum; nam Ilium 
hue sdt sci6 
[467] iam ^xitiirum esse Intus. [Exeunt Acboteleutium and 
Milphidippa.] ficce commodum dperitlir forlg. 
[Pybgopolinices' door opens.] 

Scene 7 

Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 

[Enter Pybgopolinices, looking pleased with himself.] 

[468] Py. [to Palaestbio] Qu6d volui, lit volui, Impetrdvi, ndm 
Philoc6masi6 dedl 

469 qua^ volult, quae postuldvit: t6 quoque ei dono dedl. 

470 Pa. [concealing his delight] fitiam m^? Quom6do ego vlvam 

sine te? Py. [condescendingly] Age, anim6 bono 's. 

First Period 55 

471 Pa. fitsi istiic mi ac^rbum ^st, quia ero t6 car^ndum 'st 

[472] sdltem id volup est, cum ^go vicinam banc concilio tibi 

[473] Py. Si Impetr^s eam, tlbi ego actutum mdgnas divitias dabo: 
[474] [sentimentally] gestio. Pa. At modice decet. [Acroteleu- 

TiUM opens the door and looks out.] Ecclllam ipsam : egre- 

ditiir fords. 

Scene 8 
Meter: seven-foot iambic. 
[Enter Acroteleutium and Milphidippa from Periplecto- 
MENUs^ house; they stand hy the door and pretend not to know that 
anyone is present.] 

[475] Ac. [in an awestruck voice] Tute fpsum convenisti? Mi. 
Etid,m cum ipso pol sum locuta. 

476 Ac. O fortunata miilier ^s. Py. [aside to Palaestrio] Ut 

amari vldeor! Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] Dignu's. 

477 Ac. [to Milphidippa] Permirum ecastor praedicas: te adiisse 

atque exordsse. 

478 Per epistolam aiit per niintium, quasi r^gem, adiri eum 


479 Mi. Namque edepol vix fult copia ddeiindi atque Impe- 


480 Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] Ut tu fnclitu's apud mulieres! Py. 

Patidr, quando Ita Veniis vult. 

481 Ac. Venerf pol hdbeo grdtidm, eandemque et 6ro et quaeso, 
[482] benignus ^rga me lit siet; quod cupiam n^ gravetur. 

483 Mi. Spero Ita futiirum, quamquam miiltae illiim sibi expe- 


484 Ille lllas sp^rnit; s^gregdt hasce omnis, ^xtra te linam. 

485 Ac. Ergo iste metiis me mdcerdt, quod ille fastidiosu'st. 

486 ne oculi eiiis sent^ntidm mutant, ubi viderit me. 

487 Mi. Non fdciet; m6d6 bonum dnimum hab^. Py. [aside] 

Ut ipsa s^ cont^mnit ! 

488 Ac. [to Milphidippa] Metu6 ne praedicdti6 tua mine meam 

formam exsiiperet. 

56 National or Classical Roman Literature 

489 Mi. Istdc curd-vi, ut opini6ne illius pulchrior sis. 

490 Ac. Si p61 me nolet diicere ux6rem, genua amplectar 
[4911 atque obsecrabo; pol moriar, si non quibo impetrare. 

492 Py. [to Palaestbio, impatiently] Prohib^ndam mortem mii- 

lieri video. [He pauses for an answer.] Adlbon? Pa. 
Minime : 

493 nam tii te vflem f^ceris, si te liltro largiere. 

[4941 Sine ultro veniat ipsa: perdere istam gloriam vis? 

495 Nam niilli m6rtali scio 6btigisse hoc nisi duobus, 

496 tibi 6t Phaoni Lesbio, tam miilier s^ ut amaret! 

497 Ac. [to MiLPHiDippA, Still pretending ignorance of PyEGOpo- 

LiNiCEs' presence] Eo Intro, an tu lllunc 4vocds fords, mea 

498 Mi. Immo opperidmur dum exedt aliquls. Ac. Durdre ne- 


499 quin eam intro. Mi. OccWsae siint for^s. Ac. Ecfrlngam. 

Mi. Sdna n6n es. 

500 Ac. [suddenly falling into Milphidippa's arms] Tene me, 

obsecro. Mi. Cur? Ac. Ne caddm. Mi. Quid itd? 
Ac. Quia stdre n6queo: 

501 ita dnimus per oculos me6s meus d^fit. Mi. Milit^m pol 

502 tu asp^xisti. Ac. Ita. Mi. Non video. Ubl 'st? Ac. 

Videres p61, si amdres. 

503 Mi. Non edepol tu ilium mdgis amds quam ego, m6a — si 

per te liceat. 

504 Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] Omn^s prof^cto mulieres te amdnt, 

ut quaeque aspexit. 

505 Py. [loftily, to Palaestrio] Nescio tu ex me hoc audiveris an 

non: nepos sum Veneris. 

506 Ac. [in pseudo-desperation] Mea Milphidippa, adi, obsecro, 

et congredere. Py. Ut m^ veretur! 

507 Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] Ilia dd nos pergit. Mi. [advancing] 

V6s volo. Py. Et nos te. Mi. tJt iussisti, 

508 erdm meam ^duxi fords. Py. Video. Mi. lube ergo adire: 
[5091 verbum Edepol fdcere non potest. lam, qua^so, vide, ut 


First Period 57 

510 postqudm ted dspexlt. Py. Viri quoque armdti idem istuc 

f dciunt : 

511 ne tu mir^re, mulier^m. Sed quid est quod viilt me fdcere? 

512 Mi. Ad se lit eas: t^cum viver^ vult atque aetatem exlgere. 

513 Py. Egon M illam edm quae nupta sit? Vir 4ius me d6- 


514 Mi. Quin tua causa ^xeglt virum ab se. Py. [eagerly] 

Qui id fdcere potuit? 

515 Mi. Aed^s dotdles hiiius stint. Py. I tan? Mi. Ita pol. 

Py. Iiibe domum Ire : 

516 iam ego illi ero. Mi. Vide ne sies in exspectdtione, 

517 ne illam dnimi excriicies. Py. N6n ero prof^cto. Abite. 

Mi. Abimus. [Exeunt Aceoteleutium and Milphid- 
IPPA into the house.] 
[From a distance Pleusicles is seen approaching; he is got up 
OS a sea captain and disguised by a patch over one eye.] 

518 Py. Sed quid ego video? Pa. Quid vides? Py. Nescioquis 

^ccum incedit 

519 orndtu quid^m thalassico. Pa. It ad nos: vult te profecto. 

520 Naucl^rus hie quidem 'st. Py. Videlicet arc^ssit hdnc iam. 

Pa. Cr^do. 

Scene 9 
Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter Pleusicles. He stops at Pyrgopolinices' door.] 

521 PI. Pultabo. Heus, Acquis hie est? Pa. Adulesc^ns, quid 


522 Quid vis? Quid piiltas? PI. Philocomasium quaerito. 

523 A mdtre illius venio. Si iturd 'st, ed.t. 

524 Omnis mordtur: ndvim ciipimus solvere. 

[525] Py. Iam diidum res pardta 'st. [To Palaestrio] fivoca eam 
hiic fords. 

526 Due ddiutores t^cum ad navim, qui ferant 

527 aurum, ornam^nta, v^stem, pretiosa omnid. 

528 Pa. E6. Pi. [calling after him] Quaeso h^rcle, pr6pera. 

[Exit Palaestrio.] Py. [to Pleusicles] Non mordbittir. 

58 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Scene 10 

Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Palaestrio /rom the hoitse; he is leading Philocomasium, 
who is shedding crocodile tears.] 

529 Pa. Quid modf flend6, quaeso, hodie facies? Ph. Quid ego 

nl fle^m? 

530 X?bi pulch^rrime egi aetdtem, inde dbeo. Pa. [pointing to 

Pleusicles] fim homin^m tibl, 

531 qui d matre et sorore v^nit. Ph. Video. Py. Audi'n, 


532 Pa. Quid vis? Py. Quin tu iiibes ^cferri 6mnid, quae isti 

dedi. [Palaestrio gives the order and hurries hack again.] 

533 PI. Phllocomdsium, sdlve. Ph. fit tu sdlve. PI. Materque 

et soror 

534 tfbi saliitem me iuss^runt dfcere. Ph. Salva^ sient. 

535 PL Grant te ut eas, ventus operam diim dat, lit velum ^x- 


536 ndm matri 6culi si valerent, mecum venissent simiil. 

537 Ph. [turning toward Pyrgopolinices and weeping agaii^] 

Istuc crucior, d vir6 me tdli abdliendri^r. 

538 Pa. Nd,m nil miror, si libenter, Philocomasium, hie erds, 

539 si forma hiiius, mores, virtus dttin^re animum hie tuiim; 

540 ciim ego servus, qud,ndo aspicio hunc, Idcrimo, quia diiungi- 


541 Ph. [to Pyrgopolinices] Cbsecro, licet complecti, prius- 

quam proficisco? Py. Lic^t. 

542 Ph. [darting toward Pyrgopolinices] 6 mi ocule, 6 mi 

dnime! [As she passes Pleusicles, she pretends to faint.] 
Pa. Obsecro, tene miilier^m, 

543 ne ddfligdtur. Py. [seeing her in Pleusicles^ arms] Quid 

istuc, quaeso, 'st? Pa. [to Pyrgopolinices] Quia dbs te 
abit, animo male 

544 fdctum 'st huic rep^nte miserae. Py. [to Palaestrio] Ciirre 

intro d,tque ecf^rto aqudm. 
645 Pa. [apprehensive of trouble] Nil aqudm mor6r; quiescat 
mdlo. [Restraining Pyrgopolinices] Ne interv^neris, 

First Period 59 

546 qua^so, dum resipfscit. Py. [angrily] Capita inter se nfmis 

nexa hfsce habent : 

547 non placet. [To Pleusicles, who is kissing Philocomasium] 

Labra d labellis aufer, naiita; cave malum. 

548 PI. [to Pyrgopolinices] Temptabam spirarent dn non. Py. 

Aurem admotam oportuit. 

549 PL Si magis vis, earn omittam. Py. [afraid that he will he 

unable to get rid of her] Nolo : retine^s. Pa. [on pins and 
needles] Fio miser. 

[550] Ph. [pretending to wake from her swoon] Quid video? Quid 
hoc? PI. [in a loud voice] Resiplsti? Ph. [feigning aston- 
ishment] 6bsecr6, quem amplexa sum 

551 h6minem? P^rii. Siimne ego apud me? PL [whispering] 
N^ time, voluptds med. 
[Enter servants with Philocomasium's luggage.] 

[552] Py. [to the whole party] lie cum dis b^nevol^ntibus. Pa. 
[to Pyrgopolinices] Idm vale. Py. fit tu b^ne vale. 

553 Pa. [aside to Pleusicles and Philocomasium] Ite cito; iam 

ego ddsequdr vos; ciim ero pauca volo loqul. [Exeunt 
Pleusicles and Philocomasium to the ship.] 

554 [To Pyrgopolinices] Qudmquam ali6s fid^liores semper hd- 

buistl tibi 

555 qudm me, tdmen tibi hdbeo mdgnam grd,tidm rerum om- 

[556] Py. Habe animiim boniim. Pa. Non possum; amfsi omn^m 

557 Py. I, sequere fllos, n6 morere. Pa. Bene vale. Py. Et 

tu bene val^. 

558 Pa. [delaying longer, to give Pleusicles and Philocomasium 

a good start] C6gitd,to id^ntid^m, tibi qudm fidelis fiierlm. 

559 [Slyly] Si Id facias, tum demum scibis, tibi qui bonus sit, qui 

660 Py. Vix reprim6r quin te manere iiibeam. Pa. [hastily] 
Cdve istuc f^ceris: 

561 dlcant t^ menddcem n^c verum ^sse, fide nulla 6sse t6. 

562 Ndm si hon^ste c^nsedm te fdcere p6sse, suddedm: 

60 National or Classical Roman Literature 

563 verum non potest; cave fdxis. Py. [impatiently] Abi iam. 

Pa. [with feigned reluctance] Patiar quidquid est. 

564 Py. Bene vale igitur. Pa. [to himself] Ire m^liu'st str^nue. 

[Exit.] Py. [absent-mindedly] Etiam nunc vale. 

565 [To himself] Ante hoc factum, hunc sum d-rbitratus semper 

servum pessimiim: 

566 eum fid^lem mihi esse invenio. [Thinking] Cum egomet 

m^cum cogito, 

567 stiilte feci qui hiinc amisi. [Rousing himself from his 

thoughts] Ibo hinc intro niincidm 

568 dd amores meos. [Pausing] Sed sensi, hinc sonitum fece- 

riint for^s. 

Scene 11 
Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter Milphidippa from Periplectomenus' house.] 

569 Mi. [speaking to those within] Ne me monedtis; m^mini ego 

6fficium meum. [She turns and sees Pyrgopolinices.] 

570 Eh^m, te qua^ro. Sdlve, vir lepidissime, 

571 duo di quern ciirant. Py. Qui duo? Mi. Mars et Veniis. 
[572] Py. Facete dicis. Mi. Intro te lit eas, obsecrat; 

573 te vult; te quaerit; t^que expectans expetit. 

574 Amdnti f^r opem. Quid stas? Quln intro is? Py. E6. 

[Exit into the house; immediately a sound of howling and 
fighting is heard.] 

575 Mi. Nunc in tumiiltum ibo : Intus clamorem audio. [Exit.] 

Scene 12 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Perplectomenus /rom his house; he holds the door open.] 

576 Pe. [to the servants within] Ducite istum; si non sequitur, 

rdpite sublimem foras. 
[Enter the servants carrying Pyrgopolinices.] 
[577] Fdcite inter terram d,tque caelum lit sit; n6 mor^mini. 
578 Py. [abjectly] Obsecro hercle, Periplectomene, te. Pe. 

[sternly] Nequiquam hercle obsecras. 

First Period 61 

[5791 Py. P^rii. Pe. Haud etiam: niimero hoc dicis. [To the 
servants] V^rber^tur fustibus. 

580 [To Pykgopolinices] Ciir es ausus subigitare dlienam lixo- 

rem, impudens? 

581 Py. Ita me di ament, iiltro ventum 'st ad me. Pe. [to one 

of his servants] M^ntitiir : f eri. 
682 Py. [to Periplectomenus] M^ne dum ndrro. Pe. [to the 

servants] Quid cessdtis? Py. Non licet me dicer6? 
583 Pe. Dice. Py. Oratus sum ad eam ut irem. Pe. [seizing 

a cluh and heating him] Cur ire aiisu's? fim tibi! 
1584] Py. [howling] Oiei! Satis est. Obsecro hercle te, mea v^rba 

ut aiidid^s. 

585 Pe. Loquere. Py. Non de nihllo fdctum 'st: viduam hercle 

esse censui; 

586 itaque ancilla, conciliatrix qua^ erat, dicebdt mihi. 

587 Pe. [solemnly] lura te nocitiirum n6n esse homini de hdc re 


588 qu6d tu hodie hie verberdtu's aiit quod verberabere, 

589 si te sd^lvum hinc amittemus, Venerium nepotuliim. 

590 Py. [humbly] Iiiro p^r lovem et Mavortem me nocitiirum 


591 qu6d ego hie hodie vapuldrim, iiireque id factum arbitror. 
[592] Pe. [to the servants] Solvite istunc. Py. Hdbeo gratiam. 

Pe. Edmus nunc. [Exeunt into the house, leaving Pyrgo- 
POLINICES alone.] Py. [seeing his servants returning from 
the harbor] Servos meos 

593 eccos video. [To Sceledrtjs, who is in the lead] Philoco- 

masium iam profecta 'st? Die mihi. 

594 So. Iam dudum. Py. Hei mihi! So. Magis dicas, si scids 

quod ego scio. 

595 Nam illic qui ob oculum habebat Idnam naiita non erat. 

596 Py. Quis erat igitur? So. Philocomasio amator. Py. Qui 

tu scis? So. Scio. 

597 Nam postquam porta exierunt, nihil cessarunt ilico 

598 osculari atque amplexari inter se. Py. Vae misero mihi! 

599 V^rba mihi data esse video. Scelus viri Palaestrio! 
[600] Is me in hanc illexit fraiidem. Eamus ad me. Plaudite. 

62 National or Classical Roman Literature 


The Recognition Scene From Act V 
of The Poenulus 

Hanno, an elderly Carthaginian, traveling the world over in search 
of his long-lost daughters, comes to the Greek city of Cdlydon. Here 
he discovers that one Agorastocles, adopted son of his former friend 
Antidamas, is not only a Carthaginian by birth but also his long-lost 
nephew, kidnapped from Carthage in childhood. In the course of 
his travels Hanno has become a great linguist (perhaps Carthaginian 
traders were always good at that sort of thing) ; but in order to carry 
on his detective work, it is his policy, on meeting people, cunningly to 
conceal this linguistic ability. As the prologue says: 

. . . omnis llnguas sclt sed dissimuldt scions 
se scire: Po^nus pldne 'st. 

In the present scene Agorastocles and his rather impudent servant, 
MiLPHio, see Hanno coming along the street, attired in a flowing 
*' gabardine"; they recognize him as a Carthaginian. A natural 
bluffer, Milphio pretends to understand the Punic language. The 
humor of the scene lies in Milphio's rough and ready interpretation 
of foreign words; he is like the Irishman who told of meeting the 
French sentry: 

''Qui vala?" sez he. 

" Je," sez I, for I shpake the language. 

*' Comment?" sez he. 

''Come on yerself," sez I — and so on. 

Such bilingual puns may not be a very high form of wit, but they 
have been a favorite theme of humor in all ages. 

The actual Punic words and phrases in this play have, for the most^ 
part, been corrupted by scribes who naturally had no understanding 
of what they were writing. Even had the text been correctly trans- 
mitted, the use of the Punic language in a Latin (or Greek) play — 
especially in Hanno's long prayer at the beginning of Act V — would 
still have remained something of a mystery. Did Plautus (or Me- 
nander) know Punic? Did the Latin and Greek audiences understand 
it well enough to enjoy and appreciate Milphio's mistranslations? Or 
was Punic entirely over the heads of the audience and used merely 
for effect? If so, is it genuine or just imitation Punic? At any rate, 
even from these garbled remains one can gather something of the 
Semitic dignity of the widely traveled Hanno. 

First Period 63 

Meter: six-f6ot iambic. 

1 Mi. [seeing Hanno approach] Sed qua^ illaec dvis est quae 

hiic cum tiinicis ddvenlt? 

2 Numnam in ballneis cfrcumductu^st pallio? 

3 Ag. Facies quidem edepol Piinicd 'st. Guggd 'st homo. 

4 Mi. Servos quidem edepol veteres dntiquosque habet. 
6 Ag. Qui scis? Mi. Vide'n omnis sarcinatos consequi? 

6 Atque lit opinor digitos in manibus non hab^nt. 

7 Ag. Quid idm? Mi. Quia inc^dunt cum dnuldtis aiiribus. 

8 Ha. [to himself] Adlbo hosce atque appelldbo punice. 

9 Si respondebunt, punice pergdm loqui; 

10 si non, tum ad horum mores linguam vertero. 

11 Mi. [to Agorastocles] Quid afs tu? Ecquid commeministi 


12 Ag. Nihil edepol. Nam qui scire potui, die mihi, 

13 qui illfm sexennis p^rierim Carthdgine? 

14 Ha. [aside f having overheard Agorastocles] Pro di fmmor- 

tales! Pliirimi ad illunc modum 

15 peri^re piieri liberi Carthdgine. 

16 Mi. [^0 Agorastocles] Quid als tu? Ag. Quid vis? Mi. 

Vl'n appellem hunc punice? 

17 Ag. An scis? Mi. Nulliis me 'st hodie Po^nus P6eni6r. 

18 Ag. Adi atque appella, quid vellt, quid venerit, 

19 qui sit, cuiatis, unde sit. Ne pdrserls. 

20 Mi. Avo, Cuidtes estis aut quo ex oppido? 

21 Ha. Hanno hyn Mytthymhdlle Bechaedreanech. 

22 Ag. Quid alt? Mi. Hannonem se esse alt Carthagin^, 

23 Carthdginiensis Mytthymbdllis fllium. 

24 Ha. Avo. Mi. [to Agorastocles] Salutat. Ha. Donni. 

Mi. [to Agorastocles] Doni vult tibi 

25 dare hlc nescioquid. Aiidi'n poUicitarier? 

26 Ag. [to MiLPHio] Saliita hunc rursus punice verbis mels. 

27 Mi. [to Hanno] Avo donnim, Inquit hlc tibl verbis suls. 

28 Ha. Mehdr hocca. Mi. [aside, referring to Hanno] Istuc 

tlbi sit potius quam mihl. 

29 Ag. [to MiLPHio] Quid alt? Mi. Miseram ^sse praedicat 

buccdm sibl. 

64 National or Classical Roman Literature 

30 Fortdsse medicos n6s esse drbitr^rier. 

31 Ag. Si itd 'st, nega ^sse. Nolo ego errare hospit^m. 

32 Mi. [to Hanno, but forgetting to talk Punic] Audl'n tu? Ha. 

[disregarding Milphio's question] Rufeennycchoissam, 
Ag. [continuing his instructions to Milphio] Sic volo 

33 prof^cto: vera cuncta huic expedirier. 

34 Roga numquid opus sit. Mi. [to Hanno, again omitting the 

Punic] Tii qui zonam non hab^s, 

35 quid in hdnc venistis urbem aut quid quaeritis? 

36 Ha. Murphursa. Ag. Quid ait? Ha. Mivlechidnna. Ag. 

Quid venit? 

37 Mi. Non aiidis? Mures Africanos praedicat 

38 in pompam ludis dare se velle aedilibiis. 

39 Ha. Lechldchandnilimniichot. Ag. Quid nunc alt? 

40 Mi. Ligulds, canalis alt se advexisse et nuc^s: 

41 nunc orat operam ut des sibi, ut ea veneant. 

42 Ag. Mercdtor, credo, 'st. Ha. Assam, Mi. [aside] Arvi- 

ndm quidem. 

43 Ha. Palumergadetha. Ag. Milphio, quid nunc alt? 

44 Mi. PaMs vendendas slbi ait et mergas datas — 

45 [drawing on his imagination] ad messim, cr^do, nisi quid tii 

aliiid sapis, 

46 ut hortum fodiat dtque ut friimentum metat. 

47 Ag. Quid Istuc dd me? Mi. Certiorem te ^sse viilt, 

48 ne quid clam furtim se dcceplsse censeds. 

49 Ha. Suphonnimsycordthim. Mi. [to Agorastocles] Hem! 

cdve si's fecerls, 

50 quod hie te orat. Ag. Quid ait aiit quid orat? Expedi. 

51 Mi. Sub cratim ut iubeas se supponi d,tque eo 

52 lapides imp6ni miiltos, ut sese neces. 

53 Ha. Gunebelhdlsamenyrasd. Ag. Narra. Quid est? 

54 Quid alt? Mi. Non hercle nunc quidem quicquam scio. 

55 Ha. At lit scids, nunc dehinc latlne idm loquar. 

56 Servum hercle te esse oportet et nequam et malum, 

57 homin^m peregrinum at que advenam qui inrldeas. 

58 Mi. [angrily] At hercle te hominem et s;^cophantam et sub- 


First Period 65 

59 qui hue ddvenfsti nos captdtum, mlgdillx, 

60 bisiilci Hngua, quasi pros^rpens bestid. 

61 Ag. [to MiLPHio] Maledfcta hinc atifer. Llnguam c6m- 

pescds fac^. 

62 Maledicere huic t^mperdbis, si sapis. 

63 Meis consanguineis nolo te Iniuste loqul. 

64 [To Hanno] Carthagini 6go sum gnatus, lit tu sis scions. 

65 Ha. O ml popularis, salve. Ag. Et tu ^depol, qulsquis ^s. 

66 Et si quid 6pus, quaeso, die atque Imperd 

67 popularitd^tis causa. Ha. Hdbeo grdtiam. 

68 Sed ecquem adulesc^ntem tu hie novlsti Agorastocl^m? 

69 Ag. Siquidem Antidamdi qua^ris adoptatleiiim, 

70 ego sum Ipsus qu^m tu quaeris. Ha. H^m! quid ego audi6? 

71 Ag. Antidamae gnd^tum me 4sse. Ha. SI ita 'st, tesserdm 

72 eonf^rre si vis hospitdlem, eecam dttuU. 

73 Ag. Agedum hiie ostende. [He looks at it.] Est pdr probe. 

Nam habeo doml. 

74 Ha. mi hospes, sdlve miiltum. Ndm mi tuiis pat4r 
75 h6spes Antidamds fult. 

76 Haec mi hospitdlis t^sserd eum illo fult. 

77 Ag. Ergo hic apud med hospitiiim praebebitiir. 

78 Nam hau repudio hospltium neque Carthdginem. 

79 Inde Slim oriiindus. Ha. Di dent tibi omnes quae veils. 

80 Quid als? Qui potuit fieri utl Carthagini 

81 gnatus sis? Hic autem hd^buisti A^toliim patrem. 

82 Ag. Surriiptus sum lllim. Hie me Antidamds hospes tuiis 

83 emit, et is me sibi adoptdvit flliiim. 

84 Ha. Ecquld meministi tuiim par^ntum nomind, 

85 patrisdtquematris? Ag. Memini. Ha. Memoradiim mihl, 

86 si novi forte aut si sunt cognatl mihl. 

87 Ag, Ampslgura mater mihl fult, lahon pater. 

88 Ha. [sadly] Patrem atque mdtrem — vlver^nt vellem tibl. 

89 Ag. An mortul sunt? Ha. Factum — quod ego aegre tuli. 

90 Nam mlhi sobrlna Ampslgura tiia mater fult. 

91 Pater tuus — is erat frdter patruells meiis. 

92 Et Is me heredem fecit, cum siium obilt diem, 

93 quo privatum med aegre potior mortuo. 

66 National or Classical Roman Literature 

94 Sed si ita ^st, lit tu sis Iah6nis ffliiis, 

95 signum esse oportet In manii laevd tibi, 

96 lud^nti puero quod mom6rdit slmia. 

97 Ostende: insplciam. . . . 

98 Ag. Mi pdtrue sdlve. Ha. fit tu salve, Agordstocles. 

99 Ag. Iterum mihi gndtus videor, cum te repperl. 


EpidicuSj or Too Many Sweethearts 


Plautus himself pays a unique tribute to this play, for in one of his 
other comedies {Bacchides, 1. 214) he makes a character say: 

. . . Epldicum, qudm ego fabulam a^que ac me ipsum am6. 

Dramatis Personae 

(All proper names are Greek.) 

StratIppocles (or Warrior-Bold): a handsome young guardsman; he 

is more often involved in affairs of the heart than in engagements 

with the enemy. 
CHAERiBtJLUs (or Free-Advice) : his friend, who is long on words but 

short on cash. 
Thesprio (i.e., the Thesprotian) : military servant of Stratippocles. 
Periphanes (or Prominent) : wealthy father of Stratippocles, ex-soldier 

and pillar of the state. 
Apoecides: a man of affairs and friend of Periphanes. 
PhilIppa: a woman with whom Periphanes had been infatuated in 

his youth in Epidaurus, but whom he deserted to marry another. 
Epidicus (or Persistent; lit. one who claims his rights) : hero of the play, 

lifelong servant of Periphanes, master hand at intrigue, and staunch 

ally of young Stratippocles. 
AcROPOLisTis (or Toast-Of-T he-Town): a pretty music girl; she is the 

sweetheart of Stratippocles and has been palmed off on Periphanes 

as his natural daughter. 
Telestis (or Perfection) : natural daughter of Periphanes by Philippa, 

and half sister of Stratippocles. 
FiDiciNA (Lat. for music girl) : an unnamed hireling of Epidicus who is 

palmed off on Periphanes as Stratippocles' sweetheart, Acropolistis. 
Miles (Lat. for soldier): an unnamed Rhodian soldier and ardent 

admirer of Acropolistis. 
Danista (Lat. for money lender) : an unnamed Theban usurer. 
Servus (Lat. for servant) : an unnamed slave of Periphanes. 

First Period 67 


The scene is laid in a street in Athens, which leads, on the right, to 
the center of town; on the left, to the harbor and foreign parts. Two 
adjacent dwellings face the street and the spectators. Periphanes 
and his family inhabit the house on the right; Chaeribulus, friend 
of Stratippocles, inhabits that on the left. 


[A full account of the plot was probably contained in the prologue, 
which is now lost.] 

Aided and abetted by his clever servant Epidicus, Periphanes had 
had an affair in his youth with a young woman of Epidaurus, Philippa 
by name, but had deserted her to marry an Athenian heiress. The 
latter had led him a dog's life until her death. After her desertion, 
Philippa had moved to Thebes and there borne Periphanes a daughter, 

Now, after twenty years, the widower Periphanes would like to 
marry his old flame — especially since, as he fondly believes, he has 
just found his daughter Telestis and taken her into his home to live. 
Though Periphanes had not seen his former mistress for twenty years 
and had not laid eyes on his daughter since she was an infant, he had 
kept in touch with them off and on through Epidicus, who there- 
fore knew them well. Only the fear that his grown son, Stratip- 
pocles, will not approve restrains Periphanes from going immediately 
to Philippa and marrying her. 

The experienced Epidicus is at present guiding the amours of the 
son Stratippocles, just as he had formerly guided those of Periphanes 
— even though this brings him into conflict with his elderly master. 
As the play opens, Stratippocles is serving in the campaign of the 
Athenian army against Thebes — a very brief affair of course, as most 
local Greek campaigns were. Just before leaving Athens for the front, 
he had fallen violently in love with Acropolistis, a music girl. He 
had commanded Epidicus to secure her for him; and had constantly 
sent letters to Epidicus during the campaign reminding him of his 
orders and avowing undying affection for the alluring Acropolistis. 

In the absence of Stratippocles, Epidicus had therefore tricked 
Periphanes into believing that Acropolistis was his natural daughter, 
Telestis. Under this misconception Periphanes has just bought, freed, 
and established her in his household — she being not at all loath to 
connive with Epidicus, who triumphantly awaits the return of Stratip- 
pocles. Epidicus fully expects that his young master will be over- 
joyed to find the way so conveniently paved for a secret love affair 
under the very nose of his father! 

Meanwhile the Athenian army has won a great victory and many 

68 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Theban captives, male and female, are offered for sale. Among 
these is the virtuous and beautiful Telestis, with whom the mercurial 
young Stratippocles falls in love at first sight, unaware of the fact that 
she is his half sister. Having borrowed the necessary funds from a 
Theban usurer, he buys Telestis and orders that she- be brought to 

The play opens with the expected return of the victorious Athenian 


Scene 1 

This scene is a canticum} Its meters, however, are not difficult: 
seven-foot trochaics, 11. 1-2, 9-17, 23, 29-36, 44-45, 50-51, 53-57, 
66, 68, 71-72, 79-84, 86, 88, 90-91, 93, 95, .97, 99-103; eight-foot 
trochaics, 11. 67, 69-70, 77-78; "four-foot" ^ trochaics, 11. 3-6, 52a, 
73-76, 90a; six-foot iambics, 11. 24, 46-47, 65; eight-foot iambics. It. 
7-8, 18-22, 25-28, 37-43, 48-49, 58-59, 61-64; four-foot iambic, 1. 60; 
two-foot cretics (^w^ ^w^, with variations), 11. 52, 85, 87, 89, 92, 94, 
96, 98. 

[Enter Thesprio, military servant of Stratippocles, from the 
left; he is carrying a knapsack and other impedimenta. Like mas- 
ter ^ like servant — he strides along with soldierly ferocity. Puffing 
and panting, Epidicus comes hastening after him; he had gone to 
the harbor to meet the returning troops, and spied Thesprio from a 
distance heading for home — hut without Stratippocles!] 

1 Ep. [pursuing Thesprio] Heus, adul^scens. Th. [stopping, 

but not looking around] Quis properantem m^ repreh^ndit 

2 Ep. Fdmiliaris. Th. Fdteor. Nam 6dio *s nfmium fdmili- 


3 Ep. Rdspice v^ro, Thesprio. Th. Oh! 

4 fipidicumne ego conspicor? 
6 Ep. Sdtis recte 6culis uteris. 

6 Th. Sdive. Ep. Di dent quae veils. 

7 Venire salvum gaudeo. Th. Quid c^teriim quod eo dd- 


8 Ep. Cena tibi ddbitur. Th. Spondeo. Ep. Quid? Th. 

Me dccepturum, si dabis. 

^ See p. 28 for explar^ation. 

2 There are really three and a half feet to a line. 

First Period 69 

9 Ep. Quid tu agis? tJt vales? Th. [swelling out his chest] 
Exemplum adesse iniellego. Ep. Eiigepa^! 

10 Corpulentior videre atque habitior. Th. [displaying his left 

hand — symbolical of thievery] Hiiic gratid, 

11 Ep. [laughing] . . . qud-m quidem te i^mdiu edepol p6r- 

didisse oportuit. 

12 Th. [shrugging his shoulders] Mfnus iam furtificiis sum quam 

^ntehac. Ep. Quid ita? Th. [grinning] K^pio pr6pa- 

13 Ep. Di Immortales te InfeKcent! tJt tu's gradibus grdndi- 


14 Nam lit apud portum t^ conspexi, ciirriculo 6ccepf sequf. 

15 Vix adipiscendi potestas modo fuit. Th. Scurrd 's. Ep. 


16 te ^sse equidem hominem mllit^rem. Th. [condescendingly] 

Auddcter quamvis dicito. 

17 Ep. Quid ais? Perpetu^n valulsti? Th. VMe. Ep. Qui 

varie val^nt,. 

18 capreaginum hominum n6n placet mihi neque pdntherimim 


19 Th. Quid tibi vis dfcam nisi quod est? Ep. Ut lllae r^s? 

Th. Satis probe. 

20 Ep. Quid erllis noster fllius? Th. Vdlet ptigilice dtque ath- 


21 Ep. Voluptabilem mihi nuntiiim tuo adv^ntu adp6rtas, 


22 Sed ubl 'st is? Th. Advem't simul. Ep. tJbi is ^rgo 'st? 

— nisi si in vldulo 

23 aiit si in melina attulisti. Th. Di te p^rdant! Ep. T6 

vol6 . . . [pausing for effect] 

24 percontari. Operam da: 6pera reddetur tibl. 

25 Th. lus dicis. Ep. [pompously] Me decet. Th. [dampening 

his spirits] Ifim tu aiitem nobis praet iram geris? 

26 Ep. Quem dices dlgniorem esse hominem hoc [slapping him- 

self on the chest] hodie Athenis aiteriim? 

27 Th. At linum a praeturd tua, Epldice, ab^st. Ep. Quidnam? 

Th. Scies: 

70 National or Classical Roman Literature 

28 lictores du6, duo lilmef fasces virgdrum. Ep. Vae tibf ! ' 

29 Sed quid ais tu? Th. Quid rogds? Ep. Ubi drma sunt 


30 Th. Pol ilia ad hostes trdnsfug^runt. Ep. Armane? Th. 

Atque quid^m cito. 

31 Ep. Mulcib^r, credo, drma f^cit, qua^ habuit Stratippocles: 

32 travoldverunt ad h6stis. Th. [sarcastically] Tiim ille pr6- 

gnatu'st Thetf. 

33 Sine perdat: alia adportabunt N6ref ei filiae. 

34 Ep. S^rione dicis Istuc? Th. Serio, Inquam, hostes hab6nt. 

35 Ep. Edepol f acinus improbum! Th. At iam ante dlii f^ce- 

runt id^m. 

36 Erit illi Ilia r^s hon6ri. Ep. Quf? Th. Quia dnte alils fult. 

37 Ep. Id modo videndum 'st, Tit mat^ries suppetat scutdriis, 

38 si in singulis stipendiis ad hostis exuvids dabit. 

39 Th. Supersede istis rebus iam. Ep. Tu ipse, iibi lib^t, 

fin^m face. 

40 Th. Desiste percontdrier. Ep. Loquere ipse: ubi ^st Stra- 


41 Th. Est causa, qui causi simtil mecum ire v^ritu^st. Ep. 

Quidnam id ^st? 

42 Th. Patrem vid^re se nevolt etidm nunc. Ep. Qudpropter? 

Th. Sci^s: 

43 quia forma lepida et liberdli cdptivam ddulescentulam 

44 d6 praedd mercdtu^st. Ep. [dumbfounded] Quid ego ex te 

audio? Th. Hoc quod fd,bul6r. 

45 Ep. Cur eam emit? Th. Animi caiisa. Ep. [desperately] 

Quot illic h6mo animos habet? 

46 Nam c^rto priiisquam hinc M legionem abiit dom6, 

47 ipse mdndavit mihi, ab lenone ut fidicind, 

48 quam amdbat, ^meretiir sibi. Id [with a tou^ch of pride] ei 

impetrdtum r^ddidi. 

49 Th. [consolingly] Utcumque in dlto ventu^st, fipidice, ^xim 

v^lum vertitiir. 
60 Ep. [overcome by disappointment] Va^ miser6 mihi! Male 
p^rdidit me. Quid ais tu? Th. Quid est? 

First Period 71 

61 Ep. Quid istanc quam ^mit? Qudnti earn ^mit? Th. Vili. 
Ep. Haud Istuc te rogo. 

52 Th. Quid igitur? Ep. Quot minis? 

52a Th. Tot [counting on his fingers] : quadragintd minfs. 

53 Id adeo drgentum db danista apud Thebas siimpsit fenor^, 

54 in dies mindsque argenti singulas nummls. Ep. Papae! 

55 Th. fit is danista advenit lina cum eo, qui ^rgentum petit. 

56 Ep. [laughing in spite of his troubles] Di immortdles! tJt 

ego interii bd,silice! Th. Quid iam, aiit quid ^st, 

57 fipidice? Ep. Hei, me p^rdidit. Th. Quis? Ep. llle qui 

drma perdidit. 

58 Th. Nam quid it a? Ep. Quia cottidie ipse ad me ab Iegi6ne 


59 mittebat — sed taceam optimum 'st. Plus scire sdtiu'st 

quam loqui 

60 servum hominem : ed, sapientia 'st. 

61 Th. [twitting him] Nesci6 edepol quid timidu's. Tr^pidas, 

fipidice. tJt vultum tuum 

62 video, videre commeruisse hie me dbsente in te aliquid 


63 Ep. [flaring up] Poti'n ut molestus ne si^s? Th. Abeo. 

Ep. [regretting his hasty words] Asta. Abire hinc non 

64 Th. Quid nunc m^ retines? Ep. Amatne istam quam emit 

de praedd? Th. Rogds? 

65 Deperit. Ep. Deag^tur corium de tergo meo. 

66 Th. [laughing] Plusque amat quam te limquam amdvit. 

Ep. luppiter te perduit ! 

67 Th. Mitte nunciam me. Nam ille me vetuit domum venire. 

68 Ad sodalem Chaeribulum iussit hue in proximiim. 

69 Ibi manere iussit. E6 ventiiru^st ipsus. Ep. Quid ita? 

Th. Dicam: 

70 quia patr^m prius convenire se non vtilt neque c6nspicari, 

71 qudm id argentum quod debetur pro ilia dinumerd,verit. 

72 Ep. Eli edepol res turbulentas! Th. Mitte me lit eam 


73 Ep. [shrugging his shoulders] Ha^cine libi scibit sen^x, 

72 National or Classical Roman Literature 

74 piippis pereunda ^st prob6. 

75 Th. Quid istiic ad me ^ttin^t, 

76 quo tu Intereas modo? 

77 Ep. [sarcastically] Quia perire s61us nolo: t^ cupi6 perire 


78 benevol^ns cum benevol^nte. Th. Abi in maldm rem mdxi- 

mam a me 

79 cdm istac condicione. Ep. I sane, siquid^m festinas magls. 

80 Th. Numquam homin^m quemquam conveni, unde dbierim 

lib^ntiiis. [Exit into the house of Chaekibulus.] 

81 Ep. [soliloquizing] Illic hinc d-biit. Solus nunc es. Quo In 

loco ha6c res sit vid^s, 

82 fipidic^. Nisi qufd tibi in tete aiixili 'st, absiimptus ^s: 

83 td,ntae in te impendent ruinae. Nisi suffiilcis firmit^r, 

84 non potes subsistere: itaque in te inruiint montes mail. 

85 N^que, ego mine quomodo 

86 me ^xpeditum ex impedito fdciam, consilium placet. 

87 £go mis^r p^rpuli 

88 meis dolis senem, lit cens^ret suam sese ^mere filid,m. 

89 Is suo fili6 

90 fidicinam ^mit quam ille amabat, quam abiens mdndavit 

9oa Si sibi nunc Alteram 

91 ab legione abdiixit animi caiisa corium perdidi. 

92 Nam libi sen^x senserit 

93 sibi data esse verba, virgis d6rsum dispoliet meiim. 

94 [With sudden resolution] At enim tii pra^cave! 

95 [Giving up in despair] At enim — bdt enim: nihil est istuc. 

Plane hoc corruptum 'st capiit. 

96 N^quam homo 's, Epidice. 

97 [Bracing up again] Qui libido 'st mdle loqui? Quia tiite 

tete deseris. 

98 [He reasons with himself.] Quid faciam? Men rogds? 

99 [He scolds himself.] Tii quidem antehd^c aliis solebas ddre 

consilia miitua. 
100 Aliquid dliqua reperiendum 'st. [He sighs and gives up the 
struggle.] Sed ego cesso ire obviam 

First Period 73 

101 ddulescenti, ut qufd negoti sit sciam. [He sees Stratippo- 

CLES approaching.] Atque ipse illic ^st. 

102 Trlstisest. Cum Cha^ribiilo incedit a^quali su6. [He hides 

in the doorway of his own house.] 

103 Hue concedam, orati6iiem unde horum pldcide persequdr. 

Scene 2 

Meters: 11. 104-163, seven-foot trochaic; 11. 164-165, eight-foot 


[Enter Stratippocles from the left, walking slowly and in ear- 
nest conversation with his friend Chaeribulus, who had evidently 
m-et him at the harbor upon his arrival from Thebes.] 

104 St. [finishing the tale of his doubts and fears] Rem tibi sum 

elocutus omnem, Chaeribiile, atque admodiim 

105 meorum maerorum dtque amorum summam edictavi tibl. 

106 Ch. [stopping in front of his house] Praeter aetatem et vir- 

tutem stiiltus ^s, Stratippocles. 

107 Idne pudet te, quia captivam genere prognatdm bono 

108 in praeda 's mercdtus? Quis erit vitio qui id vertat tibi? 

109 St. Qui invident, omnes inimicos mihi illoc facto r^pperi. 

110 At pudicitiae eius niimquam nee vim nee vitium dttuli. 

111 Ch. lam istoe probior es meo quidem animo, cum in am6re 


112 St. [impatiently] Nihil agit qui diffid^ntem verbis s61attir 


113 Is est amicus qui in re dubia re iuvat, ubi r6 'st opiis. 

114 Ch. Quid tibi m6 vis fdeere? St. Argenti ddre quadrdgintd 


115 quod danistae detur, unde ego illud siimpsi fenore. 

116 Ch. Si hercle hab^rem, pollicerer. St. [sarcastically] Ndm 

quid te igitur r^tulit 

117 beneficum esse oratione, si ad rem auxilium em6rtuum 'st? 

118 Ch. Quin edepol egomet clamore differor, diffldgitor. 

119 St. [turning away in disgust] Malim istiusmodi mihi amicos 

furno m^rsos qudm for 6. 

120 Sed operam Epidici nunc me ^mere pretio pretioso velim. 

74 National or Classical Roman Literature 

121 Quern quidem ^go hominem irrigatum plagis pistori dabo, 

122 nisi hodie prius comparassit mihi quadrdgintd minas, 

123 quam "argenti'* fuero elociitus ei postremam syllabam. 

124 Ep. [concealed; aside, sarcastically] Sdlva res est: bene pro- 

mittit. Spero, servabit fidem. 

125 Sine meo sumptu pardtae idm sunt scapulis symbolae. 

126 Adgrediar hominem. [He emerges from concealment and 

approaches Stbatippocles from behind, with lordly dig- 
nity.] Advenientem peregre erum Stratippoclem 

127 impertit salute servus Epidicus. St. [startled] Ubi is est? 

Ep. Adest. 

128 Sdlvum te advenisse hue. ... St. [interrupting him] Tam 

tibi istuc credo quam mihi. 

129 Ep. [ignoring the last remark] Benene usque valuisti? St. 

A morbo valui, ab animo aeg^r fui. 

130 Ep. [ingratiatingly] Quod ad me attinuit, ego curavi. [He 

waits in vain for Stbatippocles to answer.] Quod tu 
mdndasti mihi, 

131 impetratum 'st. [Another pause ensues.] fimpta ancilla 

'st, quod tute ad me litterds 

132 missiculabas. St. [gruffly] Perdidisti omnem 6peram. Ep. 

Ndm qui perdidi? 

133 St. Quia meo neque cdra 'st cordi n^que placet. Ep. Quid 


134 te tantopere mihi manddre et mittere dd me epistulds? 

135 St. [calmly] Illam amd-bam ohm: niinciam dlia ciira impen- 

det p^ctori. 

136 Ep. [aside] H^rcle qui miseriim 'st ingrdtum esse homini id 

quod f acids bene. 

137 figo quod b^nefeci, malef^ci, quia amor miitavit lociim. 

138 St. Desipi^bam mentis cum ilia scripta mittebdm tibi. 

139 Ep. [indignantly] Men pidcuMrem oportet fieri ob stiiltitidm 


140 lit meum tergum tuae stultitiae siibdas succiddneiim? 

141 St. Quid istic? Verba facimus. Huic homini [pointing to 

himself] opu'st quadrdgintd minis 

142 celeriter calidis, danistae quds res61vat ^t cit6. 

First Period 75 

143 Ep. [sarcastically] Die modo: linde auf^rre vfs me? A quo 

tarpezita peto? 

144 St. T3^nde lib^t: nam ni ante solem occasum e loculis ddferes, 

145 meam domum ne inbitas — tii te in pistrinum conferds. 

146 Ep. [bitterly] Facile tu fstuc sine periclo et ciira, corde libero, 

147 fabuldre. Novi ego n6stros. Mlhi dol^t cum ego vdpulo. 

148 St. [fiercely] Quid nunc tii? Pati^ri'n lit ego me interimdm? 

Ep. [mth alarm] Ne feceris. 

149 [With sudden resolve] figo istuc acceddm periclum potius 

dtque auddci^m. 

150 St. [overjoyed] Nunc places. Nunc ego te laiido. Ep. Pa- 

tiar 4go istuc — quodlibet. 

151 St. Quid ilia fiet fidicina igitur? Ep. Aliqua res reperibi- 

tiir . . . [hesitating] 

152 dliqua ope ^xsolvam . . . ^xtricabor dliqua. St. Planus 

consili ^s. 

153 Novi ego te. Ep. [with sudden inspiration] Est Euboicus 

miles locuples, multo aur6 potens, 

154 qui libi tibi istam emptam ^sse scibit dtque banc ddductam 


155 continuo te orabit ultro, ut illam tramittds sibi. 

156 Sed ubi illd 'st quam tu ddduxisti tecum? St. Idm faxo 

hie erit. [He turns away from Epidicus.] 

157 Ch. [to Stratippocles] Quid hie nunc agimus? St. Edmus 

intro hue dd te, ut hiine hodi^ diem 

158 lueulente habedmus. Ep. Ite intro. [He pushes them toward 

Chaeribulus' hov^e — glad to get rid of them.] figo de re 

159 idm sendtum convocdbo in corde consilidriiim, 

160 cui potissimum indicdtur b^Uum, unde drgentum aiiferdm. 

161 £pidic6, vide quid agas: ita res siibito haee obiectd 'st tibi. 

162 Non enim mine tibi dormitdndi n^que cunetdndi copid 'st. 

163 Adeundiim 'st. Senem oppugndre eertum 'st c6nsilium 


164 Ibo intro atque ddulesc^nti dicam, nostro erili filio, 

165 ne hine fords exdmbul^t neve obvidm venidt seni. [Exit 

into the house of Chaeribulus.] 

76 National or Classical Roman Literature 


Scene 1 

This scene is a canticum. Its meters are too complex and varied 
to be indicated here. 

[Enter Periphanes /rom his house with Apoecides; they are dis- 
cussing the former^ s affairs.] 

166 Ap. [to Periphanes, earnestly] Plerique homines, quos, cum 

nil refert, pudet — 

166a ubi pudendum 'st, ibi eos deserit pudor, 

167 cum usu'st ut pudeat. 

168 Is- adeo tu 's. Quid est quod pudendum siet, 

169 genere natam bono pauperem te domum 

170 ducere uxorem, praesertim eam, qua ex tibi 

171 commemores banc, quae domi 'st, 

172 filiam prognatam? 

173 Pe. Revereor filium. Ap. At pol ego te credidi 

174 uxorem, quam tu extulisti, sine pudore exsequi — 

175 cuius quotiens sepulcrum vides, sacrificas 

176 ilico Oreo hostiis (neque adeo iniuria), 

177 quia licitum 'st eam tibi vincere vivendo. Pe. [gloomily] 


178 Hercules ego fui, dum ilia mecum fuit; 

179 neque sexta aerumna acerbior Herculi quam mi ilia obiecta 


180 Ap. [trying to cheer him up] Pulchra edepol dos pecunia 'st. 

Pe. . . . quae quidem pol non marita 'st. [As their con- 
versation grows more confidential, they become completely 
absorbed and lower their voices to a whisper.] 

Scene 2 

The canticum continues through 1. 189. Then plain dialogue is 
resumed. LI. 190-193 and 196-305 are seven-foot trochaics; 11. 194- 
195, eight-foot iambics. 

[Enter Epidicus from Chaeribulus' house.] 
181-2 Ep. [motioning to those within to keep quiet] St! Tacete! 
Habete animum bonum. [He shuts the door behind him, 
but remains out of sight and hearing of the old men.] 

First Period 77 

183-4 Liquido exeo auspicio foras, avi sinistra, 

185 Acutum cultrum habeo, senis qui exenterem marsuppium. 

[He looks about him.] 
I8t> Sed eccum ipsum ante aedis conspicor 

187 cum Apoecide — qualis volo, vetulos duo! 

188 lam ego me convertam in hirudinem atque eorum exsugebo 


189 [mth a sneer] senati qui columen cluent. [He tries to over- 

hear what the old men are saying.] 

190 Ap. [with finality y raising his voice] Continuo lit marltus flat. 

Pe. Laiido consilium tuiim. 

191 Nam ^go ilium audlvi in amore haerere apiid nesci6quam 


192 Id ego excrucior. Ep. [retreating into the doorway and danc- 

ing for joy] Df me hercle omnes ddiuvdnt, augent, amdnt. 
[He gloats over the sudden inspiration Periphanes' remark 
has given him.] 

193 Ipsi hi quid^m mihi ddnt viam, quo pdcto ab se drgentum 

auferam. [He prepares himself for the fray.] 

194 Age nunciam orna te, Epidice, et palKolum in c6Ilum c6nic^. 

195 Itaque ddsimuldto, qudsi per lirbem totam homin^m quaesl- 


196 Age, si quid agis! [He slips out of the doorway and dashes 

across stage, pretending not to see Periphanes.] Di im- 
mortales! "Ctinam convenidm domi 

197 Periphanem, quem omn^m per lirbem siim def^ssus qua^- 

rer^ . . . [panting] 

198 p^r medicinas, per tonstrfnas, in gymndsio atque in for6, 

199 p4r myropolia ^t lani^nas circumque ^rgentdrids . . . 

200 rogitando sum raiicus fdctus, pa^ne in ciirsu c6ncidi. 

201 Pe. fipidice! Ep. [pretending to he fluttered] fipidiciim quis 

^st qui r^vocat? Pe. figo sum P^riphan^s. 

202 Ap. £t ego Apo^cid^s sum. Ep. Et quidem ego sum fipidi- 

cus. Sed, ere, optimd 

203 v6s video opportiinitdte ambo ddvenire. Pe. Quid rei 'st? 

204 Ep. [panting more violently] Mdne si's ! Sine respirem, qua^so. 

Pe. Immo dcqui^sce. Ep. Animo mal6 'st. 

78 National or Classical Roman Literature 

205 Ap. Recipe anhelitiim. Pe, Clementer requiesce. Ep. 


206 d legione omn^s remissi sunt domiim Thebfs. Ap. Quis 


207 scit factiim? Ep. Ego Ita factum ^sse dfco. Pe. Scf n tu 

istuc? Ep. Sci6. 

208 Pe. Qui tu scis? Ep. Quia ego ire vldi milites plenfs viis. 

209 Arma r^erunt et ium^nta diicunt. Pe. Nimis factum ben^ ! 

210 Ep. Tiim captivoriim quid ducunt secum! — piieros, vir- 

gin^s — 

211 binos, ternos — dlius quinque! Fft conciirsus per vids. 

212 Fili6s suos quisque vlsunt. Pe. Hercle rem gestdm bene ! 

213 Ep. [letting his imagination run riot] Tum meretricum nii- 

merus tantus! — quantum in lirbe omnl fuit, 

214 obviam 6rnatae occurebant suis quaeque amat6ribTis. 

215 Eos captdbant. Id adeo qui mdxime dnimadv^rterfm — 

216 pleraeque eae sub v^stimentis s^cum habebant retid. 

217 Cum dd portum venio, dtque . . . [impressively] ego lllam 

illi video pra^stoMri^r. 

218 Et cum ed tiblcinae Ibant qudttu6r. Pe. Quicum, Epidice? 

219 Ep. Cum ilia qudm tuus gndtus dnnos miiltos deamat, de- 


220 ubi fid^mque remque s^que t^que pr6perat perdere. 

221 Ea praestolabdtur Ilium apud p6rtum. Pe. [bitterly] Vide'n 


222 Ep. [heightening the picture and increasing Pebiphanes' fears] 

S^d vestlta, aurata, orndta ut lepide! ut concinne! lit 

223 Pe. [overcome hy curiosity] Quid erat induta? dn regiUam 

indiiculam an mendiculdm? 

224 Ep. [leading the old man on] Impluviatam — ut fstae fdciunt 

v^stim^ntis nomind. 

225 Pe. tJtin impluvium induta fuerit? Ep. [launching into a 

diatribe on women^ s fashions] Quid istuc tdm mirdbil^ 'st? 

226 Qudsi non fundis ^xorndtae multae incedant per vids! 

227 At tributus cum imperdtus ^st, negdnt pendi potis. 

228 Illis, quibus tributus mdior p^nditiir, pendi potest. 

First Period 79 

229 Quid istae quae vestf quotdnnis nomina Inveniiint novd! — 

230 tiinicam rdllam, tunicam splssam, Knteolum caeslcium, 

231 Indusidtam, patagidtam, cdltulam aiit crocotuldm, 

232 subparum aut subnimium, ricam, bdsilicum aiit exoticiim, 

233 ciimatile aut plumatile, cdrinum aut gfeinum — gerrae mdx- 


234 Cd-ni quoque etiam ad^mptum ^st nomen. Pe. Qui? Ep. 

Vocant Laconicum. 

235 Ha^c vocabula auctiones subigunt lit faciant vir6s. 

236 Pe. [impatiently] Quin tu, ut 6ccepfsti, loquere? Ep. [taking 

the hint] Occepere aliae mulier^s 

237 duae sic [illustrating in mimicry] post me fabulari inter se. 

Ego dbscessi sciens 

238 paulum ab illis. Dissimuldbam earum operam sermonl 


239 Nee satis ^xaudlbam, nee sermonis fallebar tam^n, 

240 quae loquerentur. Pe. Id libido ^st scire. Ep. Ibi lllarum 


241 dixit lUi quicum ipsa Ibat . . . [pausing to think what to say 

next] Pe. Quid? Ep. Tace ergo ut aiidids. 

242 [Resuming his tale] . . . postquam illd-m sunt conspicdtae, 

quam tuus gnatus deperit, 

243 *'quam facile ^t quam fortunate evenit lUi — obsecro — 

244 mulieri, quam liber dre viilt amator!" "Quisnam is est?" 

245 inquit altera illi. Ibi ilia nominat Stratippoclem, 

246 Periphanai fllium. Pe. Peril hercle! Quid ego ex te audio? 

247 Ep. Hoc quod actum 'st. Egomet postquam id illas aiidivi 


248 coepi rursum versum ad illas paiisillatim accedere, 

249 quasi hominiim retruderet me vis invitum. Pe. Intellego. 

250 Ep. Ibi ilia interrogdvit illam, ''qui scis? quis id dixit tibi?" 

251 "Quia hodie adlatae tabellae sunt ad earn A Stratippocle : 

252 eum argentiim sumpsisse apud Thebas ^h danista fenor^ — 

253 id paratum et sese ob eam rem id ferre." Pe. [gasping] 

Certo ego occidi! 

254 Ep. Ha6c sic aibat: sic aiidivisse ex ed,pse at que epistula. 

80 National or Classical Roman Literature 

255 Pe. Quid ego fdciam? Nunc consilium a te expet^sso, 


256 Ap. Reperidmus aliquid calidi conducibilis c6nsilf. 

257 Nam file quidem aiit iam hie aderit, cr^do hercle, atit iam 

ad^st. Ep. [silly and with mock humility] Si aequiim siet 

258 m^ plus sdpere qudm vos, dederim vobis consilium catiim, 

259 quod laud^tis, ut ego oplno, ut^rque. . . . Pe. [interrupting 

him] Ergo libi id est, Epidice? 

260 Ep. . . . dtque ad earn rem conducibile. Ap. Quid istuc 

dubitas dicere? 

261 Ep. Vos priores esse op6rtet, nos posterius dfcer^, 

262 qui plus s^pitis. Pe. Ela v^ro! Age, die! Ep. At d^ri- 


263 Ap. N6n edep61 faci^mus. Ep. [to Periphanes] Immo, si 

plac^bit, iitit6r 

264 c6nsiliiim; [to them both] si n6n plac^bit, r^peritote r^ctitis. 

265 Mlhi [piously] istic n^c seritiir nee m^titur, nisi ea qua6 tu 

vis, volo. 

266 Pe. Grdtiam hdbeo. Fdc [ironically] partleipes n6s tuae 


267 Ep. [impressively] Continuo drbitr^tur lixor tu6 gnato; dtque 

ut fidicindm 

268 111am, quam Is vult Uberdre, quae ilium c6rrumplt tibl, 

269 lilciscdre; atque Ita cur^tur, lisque ad m6rtem ut s^rvidt. 

270 Ap. [enthusiastically] Fieri oportet. Pe. [delighted] Fdcere 

cupio quldvis, dum Id Mt modo. Ep. H^m! 

271 Nunc occdsi6 'st faci^ndi, prlusquam in lirbem advenerlt, 

272 sleut crds hie dderit: h6die non venlt. Pe. Qui scls? Ep. 


273 quia mihi dlius dixit, qui lUine v^nit : mdne hue adf ore. 

274 Pe. Quln tu eloquere, quid faciemus? Ep. Sic faciendum 


275 qudsi tu ciipias liberdre fldicinam dnimi grdtia, 

276 qudsique ames vehem^nter tu lUam. Pe. [somewhat alarmed] 

Quam dd rem istiic ref^rt? Ep. Rogds? 

277 tit enim pra^stines arg^nto, prlusquam veniat filius; 

278 dtque ut edm in Ubertdtem dicas emere. Pe. Int^llego. 

First Period 81 

279 Ep. tJbi erit ^mpta, ut dliqu6 ex lirbe earn dmoveds, 

nisi qufd tua 'st 

280 s^cus sententia. Pe. Immo docte. Ep. Quid tu autem dis, 


281 Ap. Quid ego iam? — nisi i6 comm^ntum nimis astiite in- 


282 Ep. [triumphantly] lam fgitur dmota ei Merit 6mnis c6n- 


283 ntiptidrum, ne gravetur qu6d velis. Pe. Yiv6 sapfs, 

284 ^t placet. Ep. Turn tu igitur cdlide, qufdquid dcturti's, 


285 Pe. Rem h^rcle loquere. Ep. Et repperi, d te qui dbscedd-t 


286 Pe. Sine me scire. Ep. Scibis. Aiidi. Ap. Sdpit hie pl^no 


287 Ep. Opus est homine, qui illo arg^ntum d^ferdt pro fidicind. 

288 Nd.m te nolo, neque 6pus facto 'st. Pe. Quid iam? Ep. 

Ne te censeat 

289 fill causa facere. . . . Pe. D6cte! Ep. . . . qu6 ilium ab 

ilia prohibeds, 

290 n6 qua ob edm suspici6nem difficiiltas evendt. 

291 Pe. Qu^m hominem inveniemus dd earn rem litilem? Ep. 

[designating Apoecides, who swells with pride] Hie erit 6p- 

292 Hie poterit cavere r6cte, iiira qui ^t leg^s tenet. 

293 Pe. [to Apoecides] Epidico habeas gratidm. Ep. [to Peri- 

PHANEs, with assumed self-confidence] Sed ego istuc fdciam 

294 Ego ilium conveniam dtque . . . [hesitating] adducam hue 

. . . [to Apoecides] dd te, ciiia 'st fidicind. . . . 

295 atque [with a significant glance at Periphanes] arg^ntum 

ego cum hoc feram. Pe. lUaec qud,nti emi minimo po- 

296 Ep. Ad quadraginta fortdsse eam posse emi minim6 minis. 

297 V^rum si plus dederis, referam. Nil in ea re cdptio 'st. 

298 Atque id non decem occupatum tibi erit argentum dies. 

82 National or Classical Roman Literature 

299 Pe. Quidum? Ep. Quia enim mulierem alius illam adu- 

l^scens deperit, 

300 aiiro opulent us, magnus miles Rhodius, raptor hostiiim, 

301 gl6ri6sus. Hie emet Illam d^ te et dabit aurum libens. 

302 Fdce modo: 'st lucrum hie tibi dmplum. Pe. Deos quidem 

oro. Ep. Impetras. 

303 Ap. [to Periphanes] Quin tu is Intro at que huic arg^ntum 

promis? Eg6 visam ad foriim. 

304 Epidice, eo veni. Ep. Ne abltas, priusquam ego dd te 


305 Ap. tJsque opperiar. [Exit] Pe. [to Epidicus] Sequere tu 

Intro. Ep. [wishing for a moment to himself in which to 
relieve his pent-up feelings] I, niimera. Nil ego te moror. 
[Exit Periphanes into his house.] 

Scene 3 
Meter: six-foot iambic 

306 Ep. [alonCf dancing for joy] Nullum esse opfnor ^go agrum 

In agro Attico 

307 aeque ferdcem quam hic est noster Periphanes. 

308 Quin ex occliiso atque obsignato armario 

309 decutio argenti tantum, quantum mihi lib^t. 

310 Quod p61 ego metuo, si senex resciverlt, 

311 ne ulmos parasitos faciat, quae usque att6ndednt. [He 

knits his brows for a moment] 

312 Sed me una turbat res ratioque: Apo^cidi 

313 quam ostendam fidicinam . . . [deep in thought] dliquam 


314 Atque [he has an inspiration] id quoque habeo: mane me 

iussit senex 

315 conducere aliquam fidicindm sibi hue domum, ut, 

316 dum rem divinam faceret, cantaret sibi. 

317 Ea conducetur, atque ei praemonstrdbitiir, 

318 quo pacto fiat siibdola ddversum sen^m. 

319 Ibo Intro. Argentum accipiam ab ddmnoso sen^. [Exit 

into house.] 

First Period 83 


Scene 1 
A canticum. 
[Enter Stratippocles, worried and overwrought, from Chaeri- 
BULUS^ house. He is followed by the phlegmatic Chaeribulus, 
whose calmness only exasperates him.] 

320 St. Exspectando exedor miser atque exenteror, 

321 quomodo mi Epidici blanda dicta evenant. 

322 Nimis diu maceror. Sitne quid, necne sit, 

323 scire cupio. Ch. Per illam tibi copiam — copiam 

324 parare aliam licet. Scivi equidem in principio ilico 

325 nullam tibi esse in illo copiam. St. Interii hercle ego. 

326 Ch. [fatuously] Absurde facis qui angas te animi. Si hercle 


327 ilium semel prendero, numquam inridere nos 

328 ilium inultum sinam servum hominem. 

329 St. [exploding with wrath] Quid ilium facere vis, qui — tibi cui 

divitiae sunt maximae — 

330 amicis nummum nullum habes, nee sodali tuo in te copia 


331 Ch. Si hercle habeam, poUicear libens; [brightly] verum ali- 

quando aliqua aliquo modo 

332 alicunde ab aliqui aliqua tibi spes est fore mecum fortunam. 

333 St. Vae tibi, muricide homo! Ch. [feeling hurt] Qui tibi 

libet mihi male loqui? 

334 St. Quippe tu mi "aliquid aliquo modo alicunde ab aliqui- 

bus" blatis — 

335 quod nusquam ^st! Neque ego id immitto in auris meas, 

336 nee mihi plus adiumenti das, quam ille qui numquam etiam 

natus est. 

Scene 2 

The canticum continues through 1. 340; thereafter the scene is in 
seven-foot iambics. 

[Enter Epidicus from Periphanes^ house carrying the bag of 

337 Ep. [to Periphanes witMn] Fecisti iam officium tuum. Me 

84 National or Classical Roman Literature 

meum nunc facere oportet. [He chuckles as he closes the 

338 Per banc curam quieto tibi licet esse. Hoc quidem iam 


339 Ni quid bine in spem referas tibi: boc oppido pollinctum 'st. 

340 Crede modo tu mibi: sic ego ago, sic egerunt nostri. 

341 Pro di immortdles! Mibi biinc diem dedistis lucul^ntum! 

342 Ut facilem atque Impetrdbil^m ! Sed [assuming an impor- 

tant air] ego bine migrare c^sso, 

343 ut importem in coloniam bunc meo ausplcio commedtum? 

344 Mibi cesso, ctim sto. Sed quid boc? Ante aedis duo so- 


345 erum et Cbaeribiilum, c6nspic6r. [He approaches them.] 

Quid bic dgitis? [He bows to Stratippocles] Accipe boc 
si's. [He hands him the moneybag.] 

346 St. [too excited even to thank him] Quantum bic inest? Ep. 

[airily] Quantum sat est, et plus satis. Superfit. 

347 Decem minis plus dttuli, quam tii danistae debes. 

348 Dum tibi ego placeam atque obsequdr, [posing as a hero] 

meum tergum flocci facio. 

349 St. Nam quid ita? Ep. Quia ego tuiim patrem facid^m 


350 St. Quid istiic est verbi? Ep. Nil mor6r Vetera et vulgata 


351 "peratum diictare*': bodie ego follitum diictitdbo. 

352 Nam [boastfully] leno omne argentum dbstulit pro fidicina 

(ego resolvi! 

353 bis manibus dinumerdvi!) — pater suam ndtam quam esse 


354 Nunc [triumphantly] iterum ut fdllatur pat6r tibique aiixi- 

lium adparetur, 

355 inveni. Nam ita suasi seni (dtque banc bdbui 6rati6nem), 

356 ut ciim redisses n^ tibi eius copia esset. St. Eiige! 

357 Ep. Ea iam domi 'st pro filiL St. Iam t^neo. Ep. Nunc 


358 dedit mi ad bdnc rem Apo^cidem (is dpud foriim man^t 


First Period 85 

359 quasi qui d me cdveat. St. Haud mal^ iam Ipse caiitor 


360 Ep. Ipse In meo coUo tiius pat^r crumlnam c611ocdvit. 

361 Is adornat, . . . [nonchalantly] ddveniens domi ext^mplo 

ut maritus fias. 

362 St. [indignantly] Uno persuddeblt modo, si illdm quae ad- 

ducta 'st mecum 

363 mi ad^mpsit Orcus. Ep. Ntinc ego astiitiam hdnc instftui: 

364 dev^niam ad lenon^m domum ^gomet solus; eiim doc^bo 

365 (si qui dd eum adveniat) lit sibl datum esse argentum dlcat 

366 pro fidicina, argenti minds se habere qufnquaglnta — 

367 quippe ^go qui niidiust^rtius meis mdnibus dlnumerdvi 

368 pro ilia tua amica, qudm pater suam filiam ^sse r^tur. 

369 Ibi 16no sceleratiim caput suum imprudens adligdbit, 

370 quasi pro ilia argentum acceperit, quae tecum addiicta ntinc 


371 St. Versiitior es qudm rotd figuMris. Ep. Iam ego pardbo 

372 aliquam dolosam fidicindm, nummo condiicta qua^ sit, 

373 quae se ^mptam simulet, quae senes duo d6cte liidific^tur. 

374 Eam diicet slmul Apo^cid^s ad tuiim patrem. St. tJt pa- 


375 Ep. Eam p^rmeditdtam mefs dolls astiitiisque ontistam 

376 mittdm. Sed nimis longiim loquor. Diu me ^stis d^mo- 


377 Haec scitis iam lit futiira slnt. Abeo. St. Bene dmbuldto. 

[Exit Epidicus to the right.] 

378 Ch. Nimis doctus ille ^st dd mal6 faciendum. St. Me ^qui- 

dem certo 

379 servdvit consiliis suls. Ch. Abedmus fntro hinc ad me. 

380 St. [somewhat apologetically] Atque dliquant6 lib^ntiiis quam 

abs t^ sum egressus Intus. 

381 Virtiite atque aiispicio Epidicf cum praeda in cdstra r^deo. 


Scene 3 

Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter Periphanes from his house; he is very content in the belief 
that all his troubles are over.] 

86 National or Classical Roman Literature 

382 Pe. [philosophizing] Non 6ris caiisa m6d6 homines aequiim 


383 sibi habere speculum, ubi 6s cont^mplar^nt suiim, 
384-5 sed qui perspicere p6ssent cordis c6pidm; 

386 ubi id Inspexlssent, c6gitarent p6sted, 

387 vitam lit vixlssent 61im in ^dulesc^ntid. 

388 Fuit c6nducibile hoc qufdem med, sent^ntid. 

389 Velut ^gomet dudum fili causa co^perdm 

390 animi med excrucidre, qudsi quid fllius 

391 meus deliqulsset m^d erga — aut non plurimd 

392 malefdcta mea Assent solida in ddulesc^ntid. 

393 Prof^cto deliramus interdtim sen^s. [He glances down the 

street to the right] 
[Enter Apoecides with the music girl whom they both think is 


394 Sed m^us sodalis It cum pra^da Apoecides. 

395 [He calls out merrily to Apoecides.] Venire sdlvum m^rca- 

torem gaude6. 

396 Quid fit? Ap. Di deaeque te ddiuvdnt. Pe. Om^n placet. 

397 Ap. Quin omini 6mnes siippetunt res prospera^. 

398 Sed tu Istanc Intro iiibe si*s dbduci. Pe. [calling toward his 

house] Heiis fords 

399 exlte hue dliquis. [Enter a servant from the house.] Duce 

istam Intro mulierem. 

400 Atque audi'n? Se. Quid vis? Pe. Cdve sirls cum filid, 

401 mea c6pulari hanc neque consplcere. Idm ten^s? 

402 In a^diculam Istanc se6rsum concludl vol6. 

403 Div^rtunt mores virginl longe ac lupae. 

404 Ap. Docte et sapi^nter dicis. Numquam nlmis potest 

405 pudicltiam qulsquam suae servdre filial. 

406 Edep61 ne istam hodie temperl gnato tuo 

407 sumus pra^mercdti. Pe. Quid iam? Ap. Quia dixit mihl 

408 iam dudum se dlius tuum vidlsse hie filium. 

409 Hanc edepol rem appardbat. Pe. Pldne hercle h6c quid^m 


410 Ap. Ne tu habes servum grdphicum et qudntivls pretl. 

411 Non cdru'st aiiro contra. Ut lUe fldicindm 

First Period 87 

412 fac6te fecit n^scire esse emptdm tibl! 

413 Ita ridibundam atque hilaram hue ddduxit simul. 

414 Pe. Mirum hoc qui potuit fieri. Ap. Te pro fili6 

415 facturum dixit rem esse divinam doml, 

416 quia Thebis salvus redierlt. Pe. Rectam institit. 

417 Ap. [recounting the supposed hoax with relish] Immo Ipsus llli 

dixit conductam ^sse earn, 

418 quae hic administraret dd rem divinam tibi. 

420 Ego lllic me aiitem sic adsimulabdm; quasi 

421 stolidiim combardum m6 faciebam. Pe. Immo ita dec^t. 

422 Ap. [regarding this as a compliment and taking his leave with 

an air of great importance] Res magna amici apud forum 
dgitur. Ei volo 

423 ire ddvocatus. Pe. At, quaeso, libi erit otiiim, 

424 revertere M me extemplo. Ap. Continuo hic er6. [Exit to 

the right.] 

425 Pe. [alone] Nihil homini amlco 'st opportiino amlcius: 

426 sine tuo labore quod veils actum 'st tamen. 

427 Ego si adlegassem aliquem hominem ad hoc negotiiim 

428 minus quam hunc doctum minusque ad hanc rem callidiim, 

429 OS sublitum esset mi atque me dlbis dentibus 

430 meus derideret filiiis meritissimo. 
[Someone is seen approaching from the right.] 

431 Sed quis illic est quern hue ddvenientem conspicor, 

432 suam qui undantem chlamydem qudssando faclt? 

Scene 4 
Meter: six-foot iambic. 
[Enter the Rhodian soldier ^ admirer of Acropolistis. Note that 
he arrives much sooner than Epidicus had expected. He is accom- 
panied hy a servant and inspects the houses intently as he comes 

433 Mi. [to his servant] Cave praeterbitas lillas a^dis, quin roges, 

434 senex hic ubi habitat P^riphanes Plateniiis. 

435 Incertus, tuum cave dd me rettulerfs pedem. 

436 Pe. [addressing the soldier] Adulescens, si istunc h6minem, 

quem tu quaeritds, 

88 National or Classical Roman Literature 

437 tibi commonstrasso, ecquam dbs te inlbo grdtidm? 

438 Mi. [assuming his usual haughty manner] Virtiite b^lli arm^ 

tus promerui, tit mihl 

439 omnfs mortalis agere d^ceat grdtids. 

440 Pe. [calling his bluff] Non r^pperisti, adulescens, trdnquilliim 


441 ubi tuds virtiites ^xplices, ut p6stuld,s. 

442 Nam strenuiori deterior si pra^dicdt 

443 suas piignas, de lllius illae fiunt s6rdida6. 

444 Sed istiim quem qua^ris P^riphan^m Plat^nium, 

446 ego sdm, si quid vis. Mi. [realizing that he has met his m^tch, 
and resorting to flattery] N^mpe quem in ddulesc^ntia 

446 memorant apud r^ges drmis, drte duellicd, 

447 divitias mdgnas indeptum? Pe. [sarcastically] Immo si au- 


448 meas piignas, fdgias mdnibus dfmissis domiim. 

449 Mi. [vnth frankness] Pol ^go magis linum qua^ro, meds cui 


450 quam eum qui m^moret suds mihi. Pe. Hfc non ^st loous. 

451 Proin tu alium quaeras, cul centones sarcids. 

452 Atque [aside] ha^c stultitia 'st m^ illi vitio verier^, 

453 egomet quod factitdvi in ddulesc^ntid, 

454 cum militabam. Piignis m^morandis mefs 

455 erddicabam hominum aiiris, qudndo occ^perdm. 

456 Mi. [acknowledging his defeat and coming down to buMness] 

Animadverte, ut, quod ego dd te venio, int^llegds : 

457 meam amicam audfvi te esse m^rcatum. Pe. [aside] Attatae ! 

458 Nunc demum scio ego hunc qui sit: quem dudum fipidiciis 

459 mihi praedicavit militem. [To the soldier] Adu\esc6Tis,it^'stj 

460 ut dicis: emi. Mi. [meekly] Volo te verbis paiiculfs, 

461 si tibi molestum non est. Pe. N6n edepol sci6, 

462 molestum necne sit, nisi dicis quid veils. 

463 Mi. Mi illam lit tramlttas, argentum dccipids. [He shows 

his wallet.] Adest. 

464 Nam quid ego apiid te vera pdrcam proloqul? 

465 Ego illdm volo hodie fdcere llbertdm medm, 

466 mihi concubina quae sit. Pe. Te dbsolvdm brevl. 

First Period 89 

467 Argenti qufnquaginta mihi ilia emptd 'st minis. 

468 Si sexaginta mihi diniimerantur mina^, 

469 tuas [with a chuckle] p6ssid^bit miilier fdxo f^rids — 

470 atque ita profecto, ut earn ^x hoc exoneres agro. 

471 Mi. Estne empta mihi istis legibiis? Pe. Habeds lic^t. 

472 Conciliavisti pulchre . . . [calling into the house] heus, f6ras 


473 quam introduxistis ffdicinam . . . [resuming his remarks to 

the soldier] dtque etidm fid^s, 

474 ei quae access^re, tibi dono dddam grdtils. 

[Enter the music girl who had just arrived with Apoecides, and 
whom Periphanes thought was Acropolistis.] 

475 Age, dccipe hdnc si's. Mi. [angrily, to Periphanes] Qua^ 

te int^mperiae tenant? 

476 Quas tii mihi tenebras triidis? Quin tu fidicindm 

477 intiis iubes prodiici? Pe. Haec ^rgo 'st ffdicind. 

478 Hic dlia nulla 'st. Mi. N6n mihi niigari pot^s. 

479 Quin tu hue producis fidicinam AcropoHstid^m? 

480 Pe. Haec, inquam, 'st. Mi. Non haec, fnquam, 'st. N6n 

novisse me 

481 meam rere amicam p6sse? Pe. Hanc, inquam, filiiis 

482 meus deperibat fidicinam. Mi. Ha^c non ^st ed. 

483 Pe. Quid? Non est? Mi. Non est. Pe. tJnde haec igitur 

gentium 'st? 

484 Equidem hercle arg^ntum pro hdc dedi. Mi. Stult^ datum 

485 reor, peccdtum largit^r. Pe. Immo ha^c ed 'st. [He begins 

to get fluttered.] 

486 Nam servum misi, qui ilium sectari solet — 

487 meum gnatum : is ipse hanc destindvit f idicindm. 

488 Mi. Em istic homo te articulatim concldit, sen^x — 

489 tuus s^rvus. Pe. Quid ''concidit"? Mi. [shrugging his 

shoulders] Sic suspicio 'st. 

490 Nam pr6 fidicina haec cerva siipposita 'st tibi. 

491 Senex, tibi 6s est sublitiim plane et probe. 

492 Ego illam requiram iam, ubiubi 'st. Pe. [sarcastically] Bel- 

lator, vale. [Exit the soldier; Periphanes reflects bitterly 
to himself.] 

90 National or Classical Roman Literature 

493 Euge, edge, Epidice! Frugi 's; piignastf ; hom6 's— 

494 qui m^ munxisti mticidiim, minimi preti. [He turns svd- 

denly to the music girl.] 

495 Mercdtus te hodie 'st d^ lenone Apoecid^s? 

496 Fi. [indignantly] Fando ^go istuc n6men niimquam audivi 

ante hiinc diem, 
^97 neque me quidem ^mere qulsquam uUS peciinia 

498 potuft: plus idm quinquennium sum libera. 

499 Pe. [angrily] Quid tibi negoti 'st meae domi Igitur? Fi. 


500 Condiicta v^ni ut ffdibus cdntar^m seni, 

501 dum rem divlnam faceret. Pe. Fdteor me 6mniiim 

502 hominum esse Athenis Atticls minimi preti. 

503 Sed tii novlstin fidicinam Acropolistidem? 

504 Fi. Tam fdcile qudm me. Pe. Ubi habitat? Fi. Postquam 

libera 'st, 

505 ubi hdbitet dicere admodum fncerte scio. 

506 Pe. Eho, an libera ilia 'st? Quis eam liberdverit, 

507 volo scire, sf scis. Fi. Id quod aiidivi, audies. 

508 Stratippoclem ^iunt, P^riphandi flliiim, 

509 absentem ciiravlsse ut fieret liberd. 

510 Pe. Peril hercle, si Istaec v6ra sunt, planissim6. 

511 Meum exenterdvit fipidiciis marsiippiiim. 

512 Fi. [losing interest] Haec sic audivi. Numquid m6 vis cete- 


513 Pe. [savagely] Malo crucidtu ut pereas atque abeds cito. 

514 Fi. Fid^s non reddis? Pe. Neque fides neque tlbids. 

515 Properd si's fugere hinc, si te dl amant. Fi. Abiero. 

516 Flagltio cum maiore post reddes tamen. [Exit.] 

517 Pe. [in a fury] Quid mine? Qui in tantis positus siim sen- 


518 edmne ego slnam impune? Immo etiam si dlteriim 

519 tantum perdendum 'st, perdam potius qudm sinam 

520 me impune irrlsum esse, habitum d^peculatul. 

521 Hei! [bitterly] Sic data ^sse v^rba pra^senti palam! 

522 Atque [chuckling] m6 minoris facio prae illo, qui omnium 

523 legum dtque iiirum flctor conditor cluet. 

First Period 91 

524 Is ^tiam s^se sdpere memorat: mdllelim 

525 sapi^ntiorem vidi — exciisso mdnubrio. [He remains deep in 



Scene 1 

LI. 526-546 form a canticum; 11. 547-569 are in seven-foot trochaics. 

[Enter Philippa from the left. She has hastily followed the army 
from Thebes in the hope of tracing her captured daughter y Telestis. 
Unable to locate her in Athens, she is now — as a last resort — looking 
up her old lover Periphanes, to appeal to him for help.] 

526 Ph. Si quid est homini miseriarum, quod miserescat, miser 

ex animo 'st. 

527 Id ego experior, cui mult a in unum locum 

528 confluunt, quae meum pectus pulsant simul. 

529 Multiplex aerumna me exercitam habet. 

530 Paupertas, pavor territat mentem animi. 

531 Neque ubi meas spes collocem, habeo usquam munitum 

locum : 

532 ita gnata mea hostium 'st potita, neque nunc ubi sit scio. 

533 Pe. [mildly curious] Quis illaec est timido pectore, quae 

peregre adveniens ipsa se 

534 miseratur? Ph. [to herself] In his dictu'st mihi locis habi- 

tare Periphanes. 

535 Pe. Me nominat haec. Credo ego illi hospitio usus venit. 

536 Ph. Pervelim mercedem dare, qui monstret eum mi homi- 

nem aut ubi habitet. 

537 Pe. [staring] Noscito ego hanc? Nam videor nescio ubi 

vidisse mihi prius. 

538 Estne ea an non ea 'st, quam animus retur mens? 

539 Ph. [seeing Periphanes] Di boni! Visitavi hunc ego um- 

quam antidhac? 

540 Pe. Certo ea 'st, quam in Epidauro pauperculam memini 

comprimere . . . 

541 Ph. Plane hie ille est, qui mihi in Epidauro primus pudici- 

tiam pepulit. 

542 Pe. . . . quae meo compressu peperit filiam — quam domi 

nunc habeo. 

92 National or Classical Roman Literature 

543 Quid si adeam? Ph. Hau scio an congrediar. Pe. Si haec 

ea 'st! Ph. Si is est homo! 

544 Pe. Sicut anni multi dubia dant . . . ! Ph. Longa dies 

meum incertat animum. 

545 Pe. Sin ea 'st quam incerte autumo, hanc congrediar astu. 

546 Ph. Muliebris adhibenda mihi malitia nunc est. 

547 Pe. C6mpellabo. Ph. Ordtionis dciem contra conferdm. 

548 Pe. Sdlva sis. Ph. SaWtem accipio mi et mels. Pe. Quid 


549 Ph. Sdlvus sis: quod credidisti r^ddo. Pe. Haud dccus6 


550 N6vin ego te? Ph. Si ^go te n6vi, dnimum indiicam ut 


551 Pe. tJbi te visitdvi? Ph. Inlque iniiiriti^s. Pe. Quid idm? 

Ph. Quid 

552 tua4 memoriae int^rpretdri me a^quum censes. Pe. C6m- 


553 fdbuldta ^s. Ph. Mira m^moras, P^riphane. Pe. fim istuc 


554 M^minfstin . . . ? Ph. M^mini id qu6d memini. Pe. 

... in Epidaiiro. . . . Ph. Ah, giittula 

555 pectus drdens mi ddspersisti. Pe. . . . virgini paup^rcula6 

556 tua^que mdtri m^ levdre paiipertdtem? Ph. Tun is ^s, 

557 qui per voliiptatem tuam in me aeriimnam obs^visti gra- 


558 Pe. Ego sum. Sdlve. Ph. Sdlva siim, quia te esse sdlvum 


559 Pe. C^do manum. Ph. Accipe. A^rumnosam et miseri- 

drum compotem 

560 mulier^m retinas. Pe. Quid est quod vultus tiirbatii^st 


561 Ph. Filidm, quam ex te suscc^pi, . . . Pe. Quid earn? Ph. 

. . . eductam perdidi. [She hursts into tears.] 

562 Hostiiim 'st potita. Pe. Habe dnimum lenem et trdn- 

quilliim. Tac^. 

563 D6mi meae ^ccam sdlvam et sdnam. Ndm postquam 

audivi llico 

First Period 93 

564 ^x meo servo, illam esse cdptam, continue drgentum dedl, 

565 lit emer^tur. Ille earn rem adeo sobrie et frugaliter 

566 ddcurdvit — litut ad dlias r^s est fmpense Improbiis. 

567 Ph. [greatly excited] Fdc videdm, si mea — si sdlva mihi sit. 

Pe. [calling into his house] fiho, istinc, Cdnthard! 

568 Iiibe Telestidem hue prodire filiam ante aedis me^m, 

569 lit suam videat mdtrem. Ph. [drying her tears] Remigrat 

animus mine demiim mihl. 

Scene 2 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Acropolistis from Periphanes* house.] 

570 Ac. Qufd est, pdter, quod me excivlsti ante aMis? Pe. 

tJt matrem tuam 

571 vldeas, ddeas, adveni^nti des saliitem atque osculiim. 

572 Ac. [puzzled] Quam meam matrem? Pe. [pointing to Phil- 

IPPA, whose gaping astonishment he misinterprets] Quae 
^xanimata exsequitur d^dspectiim tuiim. 

573 Ph. Quis istaec ^st, quam tu osculiim mihi f^rre iub^s? 

Pe. Tua fiHa. 

574 Ph. Ha^cine? Pe. Haec. Ph. Egone 6sculum huic dem? 

Pe. Ciir non, quae ^x te ndta sit? 

575 Ph. Tii, homo, insdnis. Pe. Egone? Ph. Tii ne. Pe. 

Ciir? Ph. Quia ego istanc quae siet 

576 neque scio neque novi, neque ego hanc oculis vfdi ante 

hiinc di6m. 
577-8 Pe. Sclo quid toes: quia vestitum atque 6rnatum haec 
habet miitatiim. 

579 Ph. [haughtily] Quia leonis aliter catuli longe ol^nt, alitor 


580 N^ ego me nego nosse hanc quae sit. Pe. [exploding] Pro 

deum dtque hominiim fidem! 

581 Quod ego lenocmium facio, qui habeam dlienas domi, 

582 dtque argentum egiirgitem domo prorsus? Quid tu [turning 

angrily to Acropolistis], quae patrem 

583 tuiim vocas me atque osculdris — quid stas stiipida? Quid 


94 National or Classical Roman Literature 

584 Ac. [brazenly] Quid loqudr vis? Pe. Ha^c negdt se tuam 

esse mdtrem. Ac. Ne fuat, 

585 si non vult. Equidem, hdc invita, tam^n ero mdtris filid,. 

586 Non med istanc cogere a^quum 'st meam esse matrem, si 


587 Pe. Cur me igitiir patrem vocabas? Ac. Tua istaec ciilpa 

'st, n6n mea. 

588 Non patrem ego te nominem, ubi tu tuam me appelles 


589 Hdnc quoque etiam, si me appellet filiam, matrem voc^m. 

590 N^gat haec filidm me suam esse. Non ergo haec mater 

med 'st. 

591 Postremo [growing angrier] haec mea culpa non est: quae 

didici, dixi omnid,. 

592 Epidiciis mihi fuit magister. Pe. Peril. Plaiistrum per- 


593 Ac. Numquid ego ibi, pat^r, peccavi? Pe. Si hercle te 

umquam audivero 

594 me patrem vocare, vitam tiiam ego interimam. Ac. [coolly] 

Non voco. 

595 tJbi voles pater esse, ibi esto: ubi noles, ne fueris pat^r. 

596 Ph. [to Periphanes] Quid? Si 6b eam rem hdnc emisti, 

quia tudm gnatam ratii's, 

597 quibus de signis dgnoscebas? Pe. Nullis. Ph. Qudre 


598 credidisti nostram? Pe. Servus Epidiciis dixit mihi. 

599 Ph. Quid si servo aliter visum ^sset, non poterds nosse, 


600 Pe. Quid ego? — qui illam ut primum vidi, numquam vidi 


601 Ph. [weeping] Peril misera! Pe. N6 fle, miilier. Intro abi. 

Hdbe animiim boniim. 

602 figo illam reperiam. Ph. [sohhing] Hinc Ath^nls civis eam 

emit Atticus. 

603 Adulescentem equidem dicebant emisse. Pe. Invenidm. 


604 Abi modo i^tro atque hdne ads^rva Circam, Solis filidm. 

First Period 95 

605 figo relictis r^bus fipidicum 6peram qua^rendo dabo. 

606 Si invenio, exitiabilem ego llli fdciam hunc lit fidt di^m. 

[Philippa leads Ackopolistis into the house. Exit Peri- 
PHANES to the right.] 


Scene 1 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 
[Enter Stratippocles from the house; he is impatiently awaiting 
the arrival of Telestis and the money lender.] 

607 St. Mdle morigerus mlhi 'st danista, quod a me argentum 

non petit, 

608 neque illam addiicit quae ^x praeda empta 'st. [Enter 

Epidicus hurriedly from the right, having dodged Peri- 
PHANES.] Sed eccum inc^dit Epidicus. 

609 Qufd illuc est, quod illi cd^perat frons severitudine? 

610 Ep. [mumbling to himself] Si lindeclm deos praeter sese secum 

addiicat luppiter, 

611 ita non omnes ex cruciatu p6terunt eximere Epidiciim. 

612 Periphanem emere lora vidi. Ibi dderat una Apoecides. 

613 Nunc homines me quaeritdre credo. Senseriint, sciunt, 

614 sibi data esse verba. St. [debonairly, to Epidicus] Quid 

agis, mea commoditas? Ep. Quod miser. 

615 St. Quid est tibi? Ep. Quin tii mi adornas ad fugam vidti- 


616 priusquam pereo. Nam per urbem duo defloccati senes 

617 quaeritant me. In mdnibus gestant copulas secum simul. 

618 St. Habe bonum animum. Ep. [ironically] Quidni ego, cuf 

libertas in mundo sit a 'st. 

619 St. figo te servabo. Ep. [laughing sarcastically] Edepol me 

llli melius, si nancti f uant ! [He looks down the street.] 

620 S^d quis haec ^st muli^rcula et ille grdvastellus qui venit? 
[Enter the money lender and friends, escorting Telestis.] 

621 St. [excitedly] Hie est danista; haec ilia 'st autem, quam 

ego emi ex praeda. Ep. Haecine 'st? 

622 St. [proudly] Ha^c est. [They draw near.] fistne ita, lit 

tibi dixi (adspecta et contempla, fipidic^) — 

96 National or Classical Roman Literature 

623 lisque ab linguiculo ad capfllum siimmum 'st f^stivfssimd? 

624 Estne conslmilis, qudsi cum signum pfctum piilchre ad- 


625 Ep. fix tuis verbis meum futiirum corium piilchruin pra^di- 


626 qu6m Apella atque Zeiixis du6 pigm^ntis pfngent lilmefs. 

627 St. [irritably, to the money lender] Di Immortales! Slcine 

iiissi ad me ires? P^dibus pliimbels 

628 qui perhibetur, prius venisset, qudm tu adv^nistf mihf. 

629 Da. [gruffly] Ha^c edep61 remordta m^d est. St. [with a 

languishing glance at Telestis] Si quidem istius grdtm 

630 id remordtu's, quod ista voluit, nimium adv^nistl cit6. 

631 Da. Age, age, absolve me dtque arg^ntum ntimera n^ comi- 

t6s morer. 

632 St. Pernumerdtum 'st. Da. [handing Stratippocles an 

empty wallet] Tene cruminam; hue inde. St. Sdpient^r 

633 Cpperire, dum effero M te arg^ntum? Da. Mdturd. St. 

Domi *st. [He goes in.] 

634 Ep. [regarding Telestis with increasing interest] Sdti'n ego 

6culis utilitatem obtineo sincere dn parum? 

635 Videon ^go Telestid^m te, P^riphandi Midm, 

636 6 Philippa mdtre ndtam Thebis, fipidauri satdm? 

637 Te. Quis tu homo 's, qui meum. parentum n6meii m^moras 

^t meum? 

638 Ep. Non me novisti? Te. [shaking her head] Quod quidem 

nunc v^niat in ment^m mihi. 

639 Ep. N6n meministi me aiiream dd te adf^rre ndtali di6 

640 liinulam dtque an^llum aur^olum in digituliim? Te. Me- 

mini, mi hom6. 

641 Tun is ^s? Ep. Ego sum. fit istic frdter, qui te m^r- 

catu'st, tuii'st. 

642 Te. H^m! Meus frdter ille ut fiat? Ep. Alia mdtre, un6 


643 Te. Quid pat^r meus? Vivu'st? Ep. [seeing the possibili- 

ties of a rich reward, but careful not to give away his hand 
too soon] Animo liquido et trdnquill6 's. Tace. 

First Period 97 

644 Te. D£ me ex perdita servdtam ciipiunt, sf vera aiitumas. 

645 Ep. Non habeo ullam occdsionem, ut dpud te falsa fdbul^r. 

646 St. [returning from within] Accipe argentum hoc, danfsta. 

Hie sunt quadragintd minae. 

647 Siquid erit dubium, immutabo. Da. Bene fecfsti. B^ne 

vale. [Exeunt money lender and friends.] 

648 St. [embracing Telestis] Nunc enim tu med 's. . . . Te. 

[holding him off] . . . sor6r quidem edepol — ut tu aeque 

649 Sdlve, frdter. St. [to Epidicus] Sanan ha^c est? Ep. Sdna, 

si dppellat suiim. 

650 St. Quid? Ego quomodo huic sum frdter fdctus, dum in- 

troeo atque exeo? 

651 Ep. [mysteriously] Quod boni 'st, id tdcitus tdceas tiite t6- 

cum — et gaiideas. 

652 St. [gloomily] P^rdidisti et repperisti m6, sor6r. Ep. Stul- 

tu's, Tac^. 

653 Tibi quidem, quod am6s, domi pra^sto 'st — ^ffdicind — operE 


654 fit sororem in libertdtem idem opera c6ncili6 mel. 

655 St. [apologetically] fipidice, fateor. . . . Ep. [interrupting 

him] Abi intro ac iube huic aquam calefieri. 

656 Cetera ha^c post^rius fdxo scibis, ubi erit otiiim. 

657 St. S^quere m^, soror, hac. Ep. [excusing himself from at- 

tending them further] Ego dd vos Thesprionem iusser6 

658 htic translre. S^d [rapidly formulating plans for dealing with 

Pekiphanes and Apoecides] memento, si quid sa^vibunt 

659 siippetids mihi cum sorore f^rre. St. Fdcile istiic erft. 

[Exeunt Stratippocles and Telestis into the house.] 

660 Ep. [calling in at the door of Chaeribulus' house] Th^sprio, 

^xi istac per hortum. Abi domum auxilio mihf. 

661 [He folds his arms with satisfaction.] Mdgna 'st r^s. Mi- 

noris multo fdcio qudm dudum senes. 

662 R^meabo Intro ut ddcur^ntur ddveni^ntes hospit^s. 

663 fiadem haec fntus ddocebo, quae ^go scio, Stratfppocl^m. 

98 National or Classical Roman Literature 

664 N6n fugio. Domi adesse certum 'st, n^que ille haud obi- 

ciet mihi 

665 pedibus sese provocatum. Abeo Intro. Nlmis longum 

loqu6r. [Exit into house.] 

Scene 2 
Meter: seven-foot trochaic. 

[Enter Periphanes and Apoecides from the right, cross and 
tired. They have searched in vain for Epidicus and for news of 
Telestis^ whereabouts.] 

666 Pe. [to Apoecides] Satine illic homo ludibri6 nos v^tulos 

decrepitos duos 

667 habet? Ap. Immo edepol tii quidem miserum med habes 

miseris modfs. 

668 Pe. Td.ce. Sine modo me hominem aplsci. Ap. Dfco ego 

tibi nunc, ut scias: 

669 dlium te tibi comitem meliu'st quaerere. Ita, dum t6 se- 


670 lassitiidine invaserunt misero in genua fl^mind. 

671 Pe. [paying no attention to his complaints] Quot illic h6mo 

hodie me exemplis ludificatu'st — atque te! 

672 tJt illic autem exenteravit mihi opes argentd,rias ! 

673 Ap. Apage ilium a me! Nam ille quidem Volcdni irdti 'st 

filiiis : 

674 quaqua tdngit, omne ambiirit; si astes, aestu calefacft. 
[Enter Epidicus from Periphanes' house, unobserved.] 

675 Ep. [aside] Duodecim dis plus quam in caelo deorum 'st 


676 mihi nunc auxilio adiutores sunt et mecum militant. 

677 Quicquid ego malefeci, auxilia mi et suppetiae sunt domi. 

678 Apolactizo inimicos 6mnis. Pe. [to Apoecides] tJbi ilium 

quaeram gentium? 

679 Ap. Dum sine me quaeras, quaeras mea causa vel medio in 


680 Ep. [stepping forward boldly] Quid me quaeris? Quid la- 

boras? Quid hunc [pointing to Apoecides] sollicitas? 
ficce me! 

First Period 99 

681 Niim te fiigi? Num db domo absum? Num 6culis con- 

cessi d tufs? 
683 1 N^c tibi siipplico. Vincfre vfs? Em, ostendo maniis. 

684 Tii habesl6ra:ego te ^mere vidi. Quid nunc cessas? Con- 


685 Pe. [aside, dumbfounded] Ilicet. Vadimonium ultro mi hfc 

faclt. Ep. Quin conligas? 

686 Ap. fidepol mancipium scelestum! Ep. [sarcastically] Te 

profecto, Apoecides, 

687 nil mor6r mihi deprecari. Ap. Facile exoras, fipidice. 

688 Ep. [to Periphanes] ficquid agis? Pe. Tuon arbitratu? 

Ep. Meo h^rcle vero atque haii tu6 

689 conligdndae haec sunt tibi hodie. Pe. At non libet. Non 


690 Ap. [to Periphanes] Tragulam in te inicere adornat. N^- 

scioqudm fabricdm facit. 

691 Ep. [to Periphanes] Tibi moram facis, cum ego solutus asto. 

Age, inquam, conliga. 

692 Pe. At mihi magis libet soliitum te rogitdre. Ep. At nil 


693 Pe. [to Apoecides] Quid ago? Ap. Quid agas? M6s gera- 

tur. Ep. [sarcastically] Friigi 's tu homo, Apoecides. 

694 Pe. Cedo maniis igitur. [He ties Epidicus' ha7ids.] Ep. 

Mordntur nil — atque arte conliga. 

695 Pe. Nihil moror. Ep. Obnoxiose! Pe. [tightening the knot] 

Fdcto opere, arbitramino. 

696 Ep. Bene hoc habet. Age, minciam ex me exquire, rogita 


697 Pe. Qui, fidiicia aiisu's primum, quae empta ^st niidiuster- 


698 filiam meam dicere esse? Ep. [defiantly] Libuit: ea fidiicia. 

699 Pe. Ai'n tu? Libuit? Ep. Aio — [taunting him] vel da pig- 

nus, ni ea sit filia. 

700 Pe. Quam negat novisse ''mater " ? Ep. [making fun of him] 

Ni ergo matris filid 'st, 

701 in meum niimmum, in tuiim talentum pignus da. Pe. 

[catching on] Em istaec cdpti6 'st. 

* For the omission of I. 682, see Notes (p. 276). 

100 National or Classical Roman Literature 

702 S^d quis ea *st mulier? Ep. [calmly] Tui gndti arnica — ut 

6mnem rem scids. 

703 Pe. D^din tibi mind^s triginta ob flliam? Ep. [coolly] Fateor 

datds — 

704 et eo arg^nto illam me emfsse amicam fill fidicindm 

705 pro tua filia. Is te eam 6b rem t^tigi triginta minis. 

706 Pe. Quomodo me ludos fecisti de ilia conducticid 

707 fidicind! Ep. Factum h^rcle v^ro et recte factum iiidico. 

708 Pe. Quid postremo argento factum 'st, quod dedi? Ep. 

Dicdm tibi. 

709 Neque malo homini neque maligno — [pausing for effect] tu6 

dedi Stratippocli. 

710 Pe. Ciir dare ausu's? Ep. Quia mi libitum 'st. Pe. Quae 

ha6c, malum, impud^ntid 'st? 

711 Ep. [with sublime effrontery] Etiam incMmitor quasi s^rvus? 

Pe. [ironically] Ciim tu 's liber gaudeo. 

712 Ep. Merui ut fierem. Pe. Tu meruisti? Ep. Vise Intro. 

figo faxo sci^s 

713 hoc ita esse. Pe. [puzzled] Quid est negoti? Ep. lam ipsa 

res dicet tibi. 

714 Abi modo intro. Ap. [to Periphanes] I, illuc non temere 

'st. Pe. Adserva istum, Apoecides. [Exit hurriedly into 
the house.] 

715 Ap. Quid illuc, Epidice, est negoti? Ep. Mdxima h^rcle 


716 vinctus asto, cuius haec hodie opera inventa 'st filid,. 

717 Ap. Ai'n tu te illius invenisse filiam? Ep. Inveni ^t domi 


718 Sed ut acerbum 'st, pro benefdctis ciim mali messim metds! 

719 Ap. Qudmne hodie per lirbem uterque sumus defessi quae- 


720 Ep. Ego sum defessiis reperire, vos defessi quaerere. 
[Enter Periphanes from the house.] 

721 Pe. [speaking to his son and daughter within] Quid istl ordtis 

opere tanto? Me meruisse intellego, 

722 lit liceat merito hiiius facere. [To Epidicus] Cedo tu, ut 

^xsolvam, mamis. 

First Period 101 

723 Ep. Ne dttigds. Pe. Ost6nde v^ro. Ep. N6I0. Pe. N6n 

aequiim facis. 

724 Ep. Numquam hercle h6die, nisi supplfcium mlhi das, m^ 

solvi sinam. 

725 Pe. Cptimum atque aequlssimum oras: s6ccos, tunicam, 


726 tibi dabo. Ep. Quid defnde porro? Pe. Llbertdtem. Ep. 

At posted? 

727 Novo lib^rto opus est, quod pdppet. Pe. Ddbitur: prae- 

beb6 cibiim. 

728 Ep. Ntimquam hercle h6die, nfsi me orassis, s61ves. Pe. 

6ro te, fipidice, 

729 mlhi ut ign6scas, si quid imprudens culpa p^ccavl me^. 

730 At ob edm rem liber 6sto. Ep. Invltus do hdnc venidm 


731 nisi necessitate cogor. Solve sdne, si lib6t. 


732 Hlc is homo 'st, qui llbertdtem malitia Invenlt sua. 

733 Plaildite et val^te. Liimbos porgite dtque exsiirgit^. 

(BoBN IN 239; active fkom 204-169 B.C.) 

Q. Ennius, the fourth author of this period, was a universal 
man-of-letters and a pioneer in several fields. Born in a Greek, 
or semi-Greek, town in Calabria, he was probably an Oscan, 
and was therefore thoroughly Hellenized before Cato brought him 
to Rome, in 204 B.C. Ennius himself eaid that he had three 
minds — Greek, Oscan, and Latin — for he was master of all three 
languages; nevertheless, compared with the Greeks, he was dis- 
tinctly a "barbarian" and somewhat of a pedant (as the newly- 
cultured are inclined to be) — he imbibed more of the learning of 
contemporary Greece than he could digest. His works are lost, 
save for fragments. Many of these we owe to Cicero, who made 
artistic use of quotations from the archaic and rugged verses of 
Ennius in his polished prose essays. 

102 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Ennius seems to have carried on the established traditions in 
tragedy and comedy, and very little is known about his miscel- 
lanies or "satires'' (not satires in the classic sense). However, 
the great achievement that earned for Ennius the title "father 
of Latin literature'' was his introduction into Latin of the quan- 
titative hexameter in place of the old Saturnian. His most im- 
portant work was an epic in this new meter, the Annates, which 
— like the Bellum Punicum of Naevius — treated Roman legend 
and history. 

A survey of the existing fragments of the Annates suggests, 
first of all, the primitive crudeness of Ennius' hexameters. Occa- 
sionally their barbarism is quite "medieval." 


For example, taking too literally the principle of Homeric 
tmesis (i.e., the apparent cutting in two of a word — in reality, 
only the use of verbs with separable prefixes) — Ennius committed 
the monstrosity of chopping the noun cerebrum in two: 

. . , sax6 cere- c6mminuft -brum. 

Following a supposed Greek analogy, Ennius took naive liber- 
ties with the principle of apocope, or abbreviation, and reduced 
domus to do: 

. . . 4ndo sudm do. 


A childish indulgence in alliteration is illustrated by the two 
following examples: 

Tite tiite Tatl tibi tdnta tyrdnne tulfsti. 
Mdchina mtUta mindx minitdtur mdxima milris. 


Another example of infelicity is the following line, in which 
there is no overlapping of words and feet — hence the weak 
rhythmical pattern: 

Spdrsis hdstis 16ngis cdmpus spl^ndet et h6rret. 

First Period 103 

In the following passage the rhythm of the first four lines, 
reminiscent of the Saturnian, is too monotonous (the poet is 
describing the chopping of wood for funeral pyres) : 

Incediint arbusta per dlta; seciiribus caedunt; 

p^rcelliint magnds quercus; excfditur Ilex; 

frdxinus frdngitur, dtque abi^s const^rnitur dlta; 

plnus pr6cerds perv^rtunt; 6mne sondbat 

drbustiim fremiti! silvdi fr6ndosdi. 

Another well-known passage, consisting of two fragments 
quoted by Cicero (Brutus XV, 58), illustrates Ennius' quaint 
style — a style that charms the sophisticated reader in spite of 
its shortcomings : 

[a] The first fragment conveys with astounding contortions 
the prosaic information that the golden-tongued orator {orator 
suaviloquenti ore) Marcus Cornelius Marci filius Cethegus (note 
the pomposity of the full legal name) held the consulship with 
Tuditanus as his colleague: 

Additur 6rat6r Cornelius sudviloqu^nti 
6re Cethegus Mdrcus c6nlega^ Tuditdno 
Mdrci filius. . . . 

[b] The second fragment, with its wholly redundant second 
line, quaintly attests the fame of Cethegus as a speaker: 

... Is dictii ^st ollis populdribus olim, 

qui turn vlvebdnt homines atque a^vum agitdbant, 

fl6s dellbatiis popull suada^que medulla. 

Nevertheless, Ennius could and did rise to greater heights. 
Occasionally he produced rugged and forceful lines, which have 
the flavor of Elizabethan English : 

[a] From the famous eulogy of the Roman Commonwealth: 

M6ribus dntiquls stat r^s Romdna virlsque. 

[b] A tribute to humble worth: 

Ille vir baud magnd cum r6 sed planus fid^i. 

104 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[c] From the eulogy of Fabius Maximus, renowned in the Sec- 
ond Punic War for his "Fabian" tactics: 

Cnus hom6 nobfs cunctando r^stituft rem; 
noirium riimor^s pon^bat dnte salutem; 
^rgo p6stque magisque virl nunc gl6ria cldret. 


There are also longer passages, which happily contain only the 
best qualities of Ennius' verse. Such is the stirring reply of 
Pyrrhus to the Roman envoys, in which he refuses to accept a 
ransom for his Roman prisoners of war and sm-renders them 
gratis instead: 

N^c mi aurtim posc6, nee mi pretiiim dederitis; 
n6n caup6nantes belliim sed belligerent es, 
f^rro, n6n aur6, vitam cerndmus utrique. 
V6sne velft an m6 regnd,re, era quldve ferdt Fors, 
5 vlrtute ^xperidmur. Et h6c simul dccipe dictum: 
qu6rum vfrtutf belli Fortiina pep^rcit, 
e6rund6m lib^rtatf me pdrcere c^rtum 'st. 
D6no (diicite!) d6que volentibus ciim magnfs dig. 


Ennius composed the following couplet in the elegiac meter 
(hexameter plus pentameter) for his own epitaph: 

Nemo m6 lacrimfs decor^t nee f linera fl^tu 
fdxit. Ciir? Volit6 vivus per 6ra vinim. 

All these contrasting examples display Ennius^ imperfect com- 
mand over a new and extremely difficult medium — difficult par- 
ticularly in its adaptation to the Latin tongue. Mastery of the 
Latin hexameter was to require another hundred and fifty years 
of effort. 

(Born in 234; active from 200-U9 B.C.) 
Cato the Censor, whom tradition has pictured as the bitter 
opponent of Greek influence in Roman life, was a conservative- 

First Period 105 

He is regarded as the founder of Roman prose literature> and his 
greatest work is the history of Rome, the Origines. 

Whatever may have been the character of his other works, 
however, his de Agri Cultura (the only one of his compositions 
preserved in full) is so old-fashioned that, although it was pub- 
lished toward the end of the first period of national Roman litera- 
ture, one might almost take it to be representative of native 
Latin literature before the period of Greek influence. The style 
is abrupt, unadorned, monotonous, laconic, and at times con- 
densed to the point of obscurity. The contents vividly portray 
the hard, shrewd, puritanical Roman landowner; but in com- 
parison with later and far more extensive treatises on the science 
of agriculture, Cato's pithy compendium might be entitled sim- 
ply Advice to the Husbandman. 

The first chapter gives an idea of the work. Its short, matter- 
of-fact sentences present no difficulty for translation, save where 
excessive brevity hampers the logic (as in the old Roman laws, 
see pp. 8-10). While containing much that is terra incognita to 
a beginner, the vocabulary is composed of homely, everyday 
Latin words. 

De Agri Cultura 


1 Praedium cum parare cogitabis, sic in animo habeto: uti 

2 ne cupide emas, neve opera tua parcas visere, et ne satis 

3 habeas semel circumire. Quotiens ibis, totiens magis place- 

4 bit quod bonum erit. Vicini quo pacto niteant, id animad- 

5 vertito: in bona regione bene nitere oportebit. Et uti eo 

6 introeas et circumspicias, uti inde exire possis. 

7 Uti bonum caelum habeat ; ne calamitosum siet ; solo bono 

8 sua virtute valeat. Si poteris, sub radice montis siet; in 

9 meridiem spectet, loco salubri; operariorum copia siet bo- 

10 numque aquarium; oppidum validum prope siet aut mare 

11 aut amnis qua naves ambulant aut via bona celebrisque. 

12 Siet in his agris qui non saepe dominos mutant. Qui in his 

106 National or Classical Roman Literature 

13 praedia veDdiderint, eos pigeat vendidisse. 

14 Uti bene aedificatum siet. Caveto alienam disciplinam 
16 temere contemnas. De domino, bono colono bonoque aedi- 

16 j&catore, melius emetur. 

17 Ad villam cum venies, videto vasa torcula et dolia mul- 
ls tane sient: ubi non erunt, scito pro ratione fructum esse. 

19 Instrumenti ne magni siet, loco bono siet. Videto, quam 

20 minimi instrumenti sumptuosusque ager ne siet. Scito 

21 idem agrum quod hominem: quam vis quaestuosus siet, si 

22 sumptuosus erit, relinqui non multum. 

23 Praedium quod primum siet, si me rogabis, sic dicam : de 

24 omnibus agris optimoque loco iugera agri centum. Vinea 

25 est prima si vino bono vel si vino multo est, secundo loco 

26 hortus inriguus, tertio salictum, quarto oletum, quinto pra- 

27 tum, sexto campus frumentarius, septimo silva caedua, 

28 octavo arbustum, nono glandaria silva. 


{175-86 B.C.) 

The Period of Apprenticeship 
TO Classical Greek Models of Style 

The Second Period 

After the popular success of the writers of comedy and the 
scholarly work of Ennius, the Romans entered upon a new 
phase of literary production with a dawning appreciation of dis- 
tinctions of style and the superiority of earlier, or classical, Greek 
models. Roman literary groups — ^notably the "Scipionic Cir- 
cle" * — became consciously aloof from the unlettered crowd, and 
the cleavage between literary and popular, or vulgar, Latin be- 
came manifest. Through the careful study of Greek originals, 
verging often on slavish imitation, devotees of culture began to 
imbue the literary language with some degree of flexibility and 
grace — first in verse, and then in prose. 

This era of apprenticeship to the Greek masters has suffered 
more than any other from the ravages of time, for only two of 
its many authors survive in readable form : Terence, whose com- 
edies belong to the earlier part; and the unknown author of the 
Rhetorica ad Herenniunij who may be regarded as the last of 
that period. It would be difficult to trace the various lines of 
literary development during this epoch (in so far as they may be 
deduced from the scanty evidence) and quite beyond the limits 
of our present survey of extant Roman literature. Eclipsed by 
the literary giants of the Ciceronian and Augustan eras, most 
authors of this period passed into an early oblivion, and did not 
form part of that heritage of classical Roman literature which- 
so deeply influenced the medieval and modern worlds. 


(Born in 185 B.C.; active from 165-159 B.C.) 

His Life and Works 

Terence, protege and intimate friend of the cultured nobles of 
the Scipionic Circle, was a brilliant youthful prodigy, who died 

1 This was a literary coterie that gathered about the patron Scipio Afri- 
canus the Younger. It included in its membership the playwright Terence 
and the satirist Lucihus. 


110 National or Classical Roman Literature 

at the age of twenty-six. Despite his extreme youth and the 
fact that Latin was not his mother tongue, he composed six 
plays that have always been regarded as models of classic style. 
According to Suetonius (who wrote in the second century A.D.), 
Terence was born at Carthage and brought as a child to Rome, 
where he became a slave of the senator Terentius Lucanus, who 
soon manumitted him and gave him a liberal education. But 
these statements of Suetonius only whet our curiosity. Neither 
the birthplace nor " Roman ^' name of Terence indicate his na- 
tionality. Though born at Carthage, he was not a Phoenician, 
for he would then have been called P. Terentius Poenus — the 
general term Afer (which Terence took as his cognomen) denotes 
Numidian, Gaetulian, or some other North-African race. Fur- 
thermore we do not know his original name, for he did not incor- 
porate it in his adopted Roman name, as did L. Livius Andronicus 
— perhaps it was too outlandish to be Romanized! So the mys- 
tery remains. The only other clue is Suetonius' remark that 
Terence's complexion was swarthy. 

The plays of Terence are more polished, academically more 
"correct'' — in short, more bookish — ^than those of Plautus. 
They reproduce with greater fidelity the excellence of their Greek 
originals in plot and characterization; and carry over into the 
Latin those profound comments on life, that sententious philoso- 
phy, which Plautus generally omits from his rollicking farces. 
The Latin style of Terence is remarkably pure and smooth; and 
because of his youth and foreign birth he was suspected, even in 
his own lifetime, of being the mere mouthpiece of some noble 
Roman playwright who preferred to remain anonymous — a curi- 
ous anticipation of the Bacon-Shakespeare controversy. There 
are, however, no real grounds for this gossip concerning Terence. 
His achievement was remarkable enough, but not superhuman — 
for it must be remembered that he merely paraphrased from the 
Greek. Moreover his productions, although polished, lack the 
native tang and virile genius of Plautus' rough-and-ready adap- 
tations. Caesar was right when he called Terence a "half- 
Menander," possessing the technical skill, but lacking the origi- 
nality and insight of his great Greek exemplar. 

Second Period 111 

The Meters of Terence's Plajrs 

Terence is far more subdued, far less exuberant and extrava- 
gant than Plautus, in his metrical effects. Dance scenes {caiv- 
tica) are fewer and shorter in his plays than in those of his 
predecessor. For dialogue he uses the traditional iambic meas- 
ures (six-, seven-, and eight-foot) and trochaic (seven- and eight- 
foot). Occasional four-foot iambics or trochaics are of course 
merely half lines. 

Terence differs from Plautus, however, in his indiscriminate 
use of these dialogue meters; any possible differentiation that 
may have existed between them in the time of Plautus seems 
now to have disappeared and been forgotten. In fact^-except 
for the prologue and the exposition, which are always composed 
entirely in six-foot iambics — Terence purposely mingles all these 
meters in each and every sense, passing freely from one to an- 
other with no appreciable change of effect. 


^delphoe (ue.^ The Brothers)^ or The 
Puritan s Conversion 

(Abridged for rapid reading.) 
Dramatis Personae 
\2 -p.^ ^ > : brothers: Micio, a wealthy bachelor, extravagant, easy- 
going, genial, and worldly; Demea, a closefisted, hard-working 
farmer, and a strict Puritan and martinet. 

(J\ C " r brothers; sons of Demea: Aeschinus, adopted by 

Micio and brought up indulgently in the ways of the town; 
Ctesipho, kept at home by Demea and reared with old- 
fashioned severity. 

(5) PXRMENoI , r K u- 

)n{ (^ )'- servants of Aeschinus. 

(7) Sannio: a slave dealer. 

(8) Bacchis: a slave girl of the demimonde. 

(9) S6strata: a poor widow. 

(10) Canthara (or Wine-Jug): her old family nurse. 

112 National or Classical Roman Literature 

(11) Geta: her faithful manservant. 

(12) PXmphila (lit., beloved of all): her daughter; secretly betrothed 

to Aeschinus. 

(13) HiSgio: a highly respected citizen and old family friend of So- 


The scene is laid in a street in Athens, on which stand the houses 
of Micio and Sostrata, facing the audience. 


1 Postqud,m po6ta sensit scripturdm sudm 

2 ab inlquis observdri et adversdrios 

3 rapere In pei6rem pdrtem quam dcturi sumtis 

4 indlcio d^ se ipse 6rit, vos iritis iudic^s, 

5 laudln an vltio dtici id fdctum op6rtedt. 

6 Syndpothnesc6ntes Dfphili como^did 'st: 

7 earn C6mmori6ntis Plaiitus f^cit fdbuldm. 

8 In Graeca adul^scens ^st, qui l^noni ^riplt 

9 meretrfcem in prima fdbula: edin Plautiis locdm 

10 relfquit Integrum. Eum hie locum sumpslt sibl 

11 in Ad^lphos; v^rbum d6 verbo ^xpressum ^xtulit. 

12 Eam n6s actiiri siimus novdm: pernoscit^ t^^ 

13 furtumne factum exfstumetis dn lociim 

14 repr^nsum, qui praeteritus n^gleg^ntid *st. 

15 Nam qu6d isti dicunt mdlivoli, h6mines n6bilis 

16 hunc ddiutdre adsidueque una scriber6: 

17 quod illi maledictum vehemens esse existimdnt, 

18 eam laiidem hie diicit mdximdm, cum illis placet. ^ 

19 qui vobis univ^rsis 6t populo plac^nt, -^y^if '^' 

20 quorum opera in bello, in 6tio, in neg6ti6 kj^''-''. 

21 suo quisque tempore usu^st sine sup^rbid. ^^^ 

22 Dehinc ne ^xpectetis drgumentum fdbula^: 

23 sen^s qui primi venient, ei partem dperi^nt, 

24 in agendo pdrtem ostendent. Fdcite aequdnimitds 

25 po^tae ad scribendum aiigedt industridm. 

Second Period 113 

Scene 1 
[Dawn. Enter Micio from his house. He looks apprehen- 
sively up and down the street for his adopted son, Aeschinus — 
the apple of his eye — who has failed to return frotn a dinner party 
which he attended the night before.] 

1 Mi. [calling loudly and then listening for a reply] Storax! 

[As no one answers, he muses sadly.] Non rediit hdc nocte 
d cena Aeschinus. 

2 Quibus nunc sollicitor r^bus, ne aut ille alserft 
[3] aut lispidm ceciderit osque fregerit! 

4 Atque ^x me hie ndtus non est, sed ^x fratre 'st meo. 

5 Disslmili is studio 'st iam inde ab ddulesc^ntid : 

6 ego hdnc clementem vitam urbd^nam atque otium 

7 seciitus sum ^t (quod fortundtum isti putant) 

8 uxorem niimquam habui. Ille contra haec 6mnid: 

9 ruri agere vitam; semper parce ac diiriter 

10 se habere; uxorem duxit; ndti filii 

11 duo; Inde ego hiinc maiorem adoptavi mihi; 

12 ediixi a parvulo; habui, amdvi pro meo. 

13 Ille lit item contra me habeat, fdcio s^dulo: 

14 do, pra^termltto, non necesse habeo omnia 

15 pro meo iure dgere; postremo, alii clanculiim 

16 patres quae faciunt (quae fert adulesc6ntia), 

17 ea n^ me c^let consuefeci f ilium. 

18 Pudore et liber dlitate liberos 

19 retin^re satius esse credo quam metu. 

^-20 Haec fratri mecum non conveniunt neque plac6nt. 

21 Venit dd me saepe cldmans, ''Quid agis, Micio? 

22 Cur perdis adulescentem nobis? Ciir amat? 

23 Cur p6tat? Cur tu his rebus sumptum siiggeris? 

24 Vestitu nimio indulges. Nimium ineptus es." 

25 Nimium ipse 'st durus praeter aequumque et boniini; 

26 et ^rrat longe — mea quidem sententia — 

27 qui imperium credat grdvius esse aut stabiliiis, 

28 vi quod fit, quam illud quod amicitia adiungitiir. 

29 Hoc pdtrium 'st: potius consuefacere filium 

30 sua sponte r^cte f dcere quam dlieno metu : 

114 National or Classical Roman Literature 

31 hoc pdter ac d6minus Interest. Hoc qui neqdlt, 

32 fatedtur n^scire fmperdre liberfs. 

33 Sed ^stne hie Ipsus, d6 quo agebam? Et c^rte is €st. 
[Enter Demea from the country.] 

34 Nesci6quid tristem video: cr^do iam, tit sol^t, 

35 iurgdbit. Sdlvum te ddvenlre, Darned, 

36 gaudemus. De. [gruffly] Ehem, 6pportune: te fpsum qua^ 


37 Mi. Quid trlstis ^s? De. Rogds me (ubi n6bis A^schiniis 

38 si^t), quid tristis ^go sim? Mi. [to the audience] Dlxin hoc 


39 [To Demea] Quid f ^cit ? De. Quid ille f ^cerlt ? — quern n6que 


40 quicqudm nee m^tuit qu^mquam n^que leg^m putdt 

41 tenure se tillam. Nam ilia quae dntehac fdcta sunt 

42 omltto: m6d6 quid d^signdvit? Mi. Quidnam id 4st? 

43 De. For^s ecfr^git atque in a^dis Inrult 

44 ali^nas; ipsum d6minum atque 6mnem fdmilidm 

45 mulcdvit lisque ad m6rtem; erlpuit mulier^m 

46 quam amdbat. Cldmant 6mnes, Indignlssim^ 

47 factum ^sse. Hoc ddveni^nti quot mihi, Mlci6, 

48 dix^re! In ore 'st omni p6pulo. D^niqu^, 

49 si confer^ndum ex^mplum 'st, n6n fratr^m vid^t 

50 rei ddre operdm, ruri ^sse pdrcum ac sobrium? 

51 Nullum hiiius simile fdctum. Haec cum lUi, Mlci6, 

52 dic6, tibi dlco: tu ilium corrumpl sinls. 

53 Mi. Homine Imperlto ntimquam qulcquam iijitistiti'st, 

54 qui nisi quod Ipse f^cit nil rectiim putdt. 

55 De. Quorsum Istuc? Mi. Quia tu, D^mea, ha^c male iiidi- 


56 Non ^st flagltium, mlhi crede, ddulesc^ntuliim 

57 scortdri — n^que potdre (n6n est!) n^que for^s 

58 ecfrlngere. Ha^c si n^que ego n^que tu f^cimiis, 

59 non slit eg^stas fdcere n6s. Tu mine tibi 

60 id laudi ducis, qu6d tum fecisti Inopia? 

61 Iniiirium 'st: nam si esset linde id fler^t, 

62 facer^mus. fit tu ilium tuum, si ess^s hom6, 

Second Period 115 

63 siner^s nunc fdcere, diim per a^tat^m lic^t. 

64 De. Pro luppit^r, tu homo ddigis me dd insdnidm. 

65 Non ^st flagitium fdcere haec ddulesc6ntulum? Mi. Ah, 

66 ausciilta, n6 me obtiindas de hdc re sa^piiis. 

67 Tuum f Ilium dedisti adoptandum mihl; 

68 is m^us est fdctus. SI quid p^ccat, D^med,, 

69 mihi p^ccat: ego illi mdximdm partem fero. 

70 Obsonat, p6tat, olet ungu^nta: d^ meo! 

71 Amat: ddbitur d me arg^ntum, dum erit commodiim — 

72 ubi non erlt, fortdsse excliidetur fords! 

73 For6s ecf regit : r^stituentur. Dfscidit 

74 vest^in: resdrci^tur. fit (dis grdtid) 

75 est unde haec fiant, ^t adhuc non mol^sta sunt. 

76 De. Pater ^sse dlsce ab lllis, qui ver^ sciiint. 

77 Mi. Natiira tu lUi pdter es, consiliis eg6. 

78 De. Tun c6nsilils quicquam? Mi. Ah, si pergis, dbier6. 

79 De. Sicine agis? Mi. An ego totiens de ^adem re aiididm? 

80 De. Cura6 'st mihi. Mi. fit mihi curae 'st. V^rum, D^- 


81 curemus a^quam ut^rque pdrtem: tu dlteriim, 

82 ego item dlteriim — nam ambos curdre pr6pemodum 

83 reposcere ilium 'st quern dedisti. De. Ah Micio! 

84 Mi. Mihi sic videtur. De. Quid istic? Si tibi istuc placet, 

85 profiindat, p^rdat, pereat: nil ad me dttin^t. [Exit to the 


86 Mi. Non nil molesta haec sunt mihi, sed ost^nder^ 
[87] me aegr6 pati lUi nolui, quamquam A^schinus 

88 nonnullam in hdc re nobis facit iniiiridm. 

[89] Quam hie non amdvit? Niiper (credo iam omnium 

90 taedebat) dixit velle uxorem ducer6. 

91 Sperdbam idm defervisse ddulescentidm : 

92 gaudebam. Ecce aiitem de integro! Nisi, quidquid ^st, 

93 volo scire atque hominem convenire, si apiid foriim 'st. 

[Exit to the town.] 

Scene 2 

[Enter Aeschinus and Parmeno from the town, escorting Bac- 
CHis and followed by the battered and bandaged Sannio.] 

116 National or Classical Roman Literature 

94 Sa. [wringing his hands] 6bsecr6, populdres, f^rte mlsero 

atque Innoc^nti auxllium. 

95 siibvenlte inopi. Ae. [calming the fears of Bacchis] 6ti6se: 

ntinciam llico hlc consiste. 

96 Quid resp^ctas? Nil perlcli 'st: numquam, dum ^go adero, 

hlc te tdnget. 

97 Sa. figo istam invltis 6mmbtis. . . . [He mutters inaudible 


98 Ae. Quamqudm 'st scel^stus, n6n commlttet h6die umquam 

Iterum ut vdpul^t. 

99 Sa. A^schine, aiidi, n^ te igndrum fuisse dlcas me6rum m6- 

[100] l^no ego siim. Ae. Scio equidem. Sa. Cr^de hoc: ^go 
meiim ius p^rsequdr, 

101 n^que tu verbis s61ves umquam, qu6d mihi r4 male f^cerfs. 

102 Ae. [to Parmeno] Abi pra^ strenue dc fores dperi. Sa. 

C^terum h6c nil! facls? 

103 Ae. [to Bacchis] I intro nunciam tu. Sa. Enim n6n sinam. 

[Sannio grabs Bacchis by the arm.] Ae. Accede llliic, 
Parmen6 ; 

104 nlmium istuc abfsti; hie pr6pter hiinc [pointing to Sannio] 

adsiste; em sic vol6. 

105 Cave nunciam 6culos d meis 6culis qudquam d^moveds 


106 ne m6ra sit, si innuerim, quin piignus continuo in mala 


107 Sa. Istiic volo ^rgo ipsum ^xperiri. Ae. [to Parmeno] Em 

s^rva. [To Sannio] Omitte miilier^m. [As Sannio re- 
fuses to obeyy Aeschinus nods and Parmeno strikes him.] 

108 Sa. O indignum fdcinus! Ae. Nisi cav^s, gemindbit. 

[Parmeno mistakes this for an order and punches Sannio 
again.] Sa. Hei misero mihi! 

109 Ae. [to Parmeno] Non innuerdm; verum in istam pdrtem 

potius peccato tam^n. 

110 [To Bacchis] I nunciam. [Exeunt Bacchis and Parmeno 

into Micio's house.] Sa. Quid hoc rei 'st? Regnumne, 
A4schine, hie tu possid^s? 

Second Period 117 

111 Ae. Si p6ssid^rem, orndtus ^sses ^x tuis virtiitibiis. 

112 Sa. Quid tlbi rei mecum 'st? Ae. Nil. Sa. Quid? N6stin 

qui sim? Ae. Non desidero. 

113 Sa. Tetigin tui quicquam? Ae. Si attigisses, ferres infor- 


114 Sa. Qui tibi magis licet meam habere, pro qua ego drgen- 

tum dedi? 
[115] Ae. Tu si molestus pergis esse, iam intro abripiere, dtque 

116 usque M necem operiere loris. Sa. Loris liber? Ae. Sic 


117 Sa. O hominem impiirum! Hicine libertatem aiunt ^sse 

aequam 6mnibus? 

118 Ae. Si sdtis iam debacch^tus es, leno, aiidi — si vis — ntinc- 
— idm. 

.^119 Sa. Egon d^bacchatus sum autem an tu in me? Ae. Mitte 
ista dtque ad rem redi. 

120 Sa. Quam r^m? Quo redeam? Ae. Idmne m^ vis dicere 

id quod ad te attinet? 

121 Sa. Cupio — aequi modo aliquld. Ae. Vah! L^no iniqua 

m^ non viilt loqui. 
-122 Minis viginti tii illam emisti — quae res tibi vertat mal6! 

123 Arg^nti tdntum dabitur. Sa. Quid si ego tibi illam n61o 

v^ndere ? 

124 Cog^s me? Ae. Mlnime. Sa. Namque id m^tui. Ae. 

N^que vendendam censeo, 

125 quae liberd 'st; nam ego liberali illam adsero causa manil. 

126 Nunc vide utriim vis, argentum accipere an causam m^di- 

tari tudm. 

127 Delibera hoc, dum ego redeo, leno. [Exit into the hoii^e.] 

Sa. Pro supreme Iiippit^r. 
[Enter Syrus from Micio's house.] 

128 Sy. [speaking to Aeschinus within] Tace, ^gomet conveniam 

ipsum : cupide accipiat f axo atque ^tiam 

129 bene dicat s^cum esse dctum. [Coming forward] Quid istuc, 

Sannio, *st, quod te aiidio 

118 National or Classical Roman Literature 

130 nesci6quid c6ncertdsse cum ^ro? Sa. Ntimquam vidi inf- 


11 X certationem c6mpardtam, quam ha^c hodie Inter n6s fuft: 

132 ego vapuldndo, ille verberdndo, usque dmbo d^fessf sumiis. 

[1331 Sy. Tua ciilpa. [Glancing down the street j he abruptly deserts 

Sannio.] Ct^siphonem video: nunc de arnica la^tus 4st. 

[Enter Ctesipho from the town. He is overjoyed to hear from 

Sannio that Aeschinus has kidnapped Ms {i.e., Ctesipho's) 

sweetheart, Bacchis.] 

134 Ct. O frdter, frdter, quid ego mine te latidem? Sdtis certo 


135 numquam Ita magnlfice qulcquam dlcam, id virtus quin 

super^t tua. 

136 Itaque unam hanc r^m me habere pra^ter dlios pra^cipuam 

\)Sl 137 fratrem h6inini n^mini ^sse prlmarum drtiiim magis prln- 


138 Sy. O Ctesipho. Ct. 6 Syre, A^schintis ubi 'st? Sy. fiUum 

te ^xspectdt domi. Ct. H^m. 

139 Sy. Quid est? Ct. Quid sit? Illius 6pera, Syre, nunc vivo. 

F^stiviim capiit— 7 

140 qui, cum 6mnid sibi post putdvit ^sse pra6 meo c6mmod6, 

141 maledlcta — ^f dmam — meum lab6rem et p^ccatum In se trans- 


142 Nil p6te suprd. [He starts forward eagerly.] Quidndmforis 

cr^puit? Sy. Mdne, mane: Ipse exit fords. 
[Enter Aeschinus from the house.] 

143 Ae. [looking for Sannio] Ubi 'st Ille sdcrilegiis? Sa. Me 

qua^rit. [He looks to see if Aeschinus has a moneybag in 
his hand.] Niimquidnam ^cfert? Occidl: 

144 nil video. Ae. Ehem, 6pportune: te Ipsum qua^ro. [He 

suddenly sees Ctesipho and promptly turns his back on 
Sannio.] Quid fit, Ct4siph6? 

145 In tiito 'st 6mnis r6s: omltte v^ro trlstiti^m tudm. 

146 Ct. Ego illam h^rcle v4ro omltto, qui quidem te Mbeam 

frdtrem. O mi A^schin^! 

147 O ml germdne! Ah, v^reor c6ram in 6s te laMare dmpliiis, 

Second Period 119 

148 ne id ddsentdndi mdgis, quam quo hdbeam grdtum, fdcere 


149 Ae. Age, in^pte, qudsi nunc n6n norlmus n6s int^r nos, 


150 Hoc mlhi dol^t, nos s6r6 r^scisse, ^t rem pa^ne in eiim 


151 redisse, ut, si 6mnes ciiperent, tfbi nil possent atixilidri^r. 

152 Ct. Pud^bat. Ae. Ah, stultltia 'st Istaec, n6n pud6r. Tarn 

ob pdrvuldm 

153 rem pa^ne e pdtria! Tiirpe dlctu. Deos quaeso ut fstaec 

[1541 Nunc dd forum Ibo, ut hiinc [pointing to Sannio] absolvam. 
Tu i Intro ad 111am, Ctesipho. 

155 Sa. [to Syeus] At ut 6mne r^ddat. Sy. Cmne r^ddet; tdce 

modo dc sequere hac. Sa. Sequor. [Exeunt Aeschinus, 
Sannio, and Syrus.] 

156 Ct. [calling hack Syrus] Heus heus, Syre. Sy. Quid est? 

Ct. Obsecr6 te hercle, h6minem istum Impurlssimum 

157 quam primum abs61vit6te, ne, si mdgis irritatiis si^t, 

158 aliqua M patrem hoc permdnet atque ego turn perp^tuo 


159 Sy. Non fiet: b6no anim6 's. Tu cum ilia te Intus 6blecta 


160 et l^ctulos iube st^rni n6bis 6t pardri ceterd. 

161 Ego, idm transdcta re, convertam m^ domiim cum'obs6ni6J 

162 Ct. Ita quaeso. Qudndo hoc bene succ^ssit, hllarem hunc 

sumamus diem. [Exit Ctesipho into the house, and 
Sybjjs to the forum.] 

Scene 3 
[Enter Sostrata from her house, with Canthara.] 

163 So. Miserdm me! Neminem hdbeo. Solae siimus. Geta 

aiitem hic non adest — 

164 n^c quern ad 6bstetrlcem mlttam, n^c qui arc^ssat A^schi- 


165 Ca. Pol is quidem iam htc dderit, ndm numquam tinum in- 

t^rmittit diem. 

120 National or Classical Roman Literature 

166 quin semper veniat. So. Solus mearum mlseridnim *st 

[Enter Geta from the town^ troubled.] 

167 Ge. [muttering to himself] Nunc illud est cum, si 6mnia 

6mnes sua consllia conferant 

168 atque huic malo saliitem quaerant, aiixili nil ddferdnt: 

169 tot r^s rep^nte cfrcum valiant se, linde emergi non potest — • 

170 vis egestas iniustitia s61itudo infamid. 

171 So. Me miseram! Quidnam ^st quod sic video tlmidum et 

properant^m Getdm? 

172 Oe, [hearing her]'^T2^. So. Quid est? Quid tr^pidas? Ge. 

Hel mi! Ca. Quid festlnas, ml Geta? 

173 Animam recipe. Ge. Prorsus. . . . So. Quid istuc "pror- 

sus" ergo 'st? Ge. Periimiis. 

174 Actum *st. So. Eloquere, 6bsecr6 to. Quid fit? Ge. 

lam. ... So. Quid "iam/* Geta? 

175 Ge. A^schinus . . . So. Quid is ergo? Ge. . . . alienus 

est a nostra fdmUia. So. H^m, 

176 p^rii! Qud re? Ge. Amare occ^pit aliam. So. Vae mise- 

ra6 mihl! 

177 Ge. N^que id occulte f^rt: a l^none Ipsus eripult paMm. 

178 So. Sdti^n hoc c^rtum 'st? Ge. C^rtum: hisce oculis ^go- 

met vldi, Sostrata. So. [sohhing] Ah, 

179 me miseram! Quid iam credas, aut cui credas? N6- 

strumne A^schinum! 

180 Nostrum vitam — 6mnium! In quo n6strae sp^s op^sque 

omn6s sita^ 

181 erant! Qui sine hac iurabat se linum niimquam vlcturiim 


182 Qui se In sul gremi6 positurum piierum dlcebdt patrls — 

183 ita 6bsecrdturum, lit liceret hanc sibi uxorem ducer^! 

184 Ge. Era, Idcrimas mltte ac potius quod ad hanc rem opus 

est porro prospic^: 

185 patidmurne dn narr^mus culpiam? Ca. Aii au, ml homo, 

sdnu'n ^s? 

186 An hoc profer^ndum tlbi videtur lisquam? Ge. Ml quidem 

n6n placet. 

Second Period 121 

187 lam prfmum, ilium dlieno dnimo a nobis esse, res ipsa in- 


188 Nunc si hoc palam proferimus, file infitias ibit, sdt sci6: 

189 tua fdma et gnd^tae vita in dubium veniet. Turn, si maxim^ 

190 fatedtur, cum amet aliam, non est utile banc illi dari. 

191 Quapr6pter quoquo pacto tacito 'st opus. So. Ah, mlnime 

gentium ! 

192 Non faciam. Ge. Quid ages? So. Proferam. Ca. H^m, 

mea Sostrata, vide quam rem agds. 

193 So. Peiore res loco non p6tis est 6sse quam In quo ntinc 

sita 'st. 

194 Experiar. Ge. Quid istic? Cedo, ut melius dicis. So. 

Tu, quantum potest, 

195 abi at que H^gioni cognato eius rem enarrdto omnem 6rdine. 

196 Nam is nostro Simulo fuit siimmus et nos coluit maxim^. 

197 Ge. Nam hercle alius nemo respiclt nos. [Exit to the town.] 

So. Propere tii, mea Cdnthara, 

198 curre: 6bstetricem arcesse, ut, cum opus sit, ne In mora 

nobis siet. [Exit Canthara to the 'town, and Sostrata 
into the house.] 

Scene 4 
[Enter Demea from the town, much disturbed.] 

199 De. Disperii. Ctesiphonem audivi f ilium 

200 una fuisse in raptione cum Aeschino. 

201 Ubi ego ilium quaeram? Credo abdiictum in gdneiim 

202 aliquo: persuasit ille impurus, sat scio. 

203 Sed eccum Syrum ire video: iam hinc scibo ubi si^t. 

204 Atque hercle hie de grege illo 'st: si me senserit 

205 eum quaeritare, numquam dicet carnifex. 

[Enter Syrus, returning from the forum with a basketful of pro- 
visions for the feast.] 

206 Non ostendam id me v^lle. Sy. [to himself] Omn^m rem 

modo seni 

207 quo pdcto haberet, ^narramus ordine: 

208 nil quicquam vidi laetius. De. Pro Iiippiter, 

209 hominis stultitiam! Sy. Conlaudavit filium. 

122 National or Classical Roman Literature 

210 Mihi, qui Id dedlssem consilium, ^git grdtids. 

211 De. Disrumpor! Sy. Argentum ddnumerdvit llic6; 

212 dedlt praeterea in siimptum dimidiiim mina6; 

213 id dlstribiitum sdne 'st ^x sententia. De. [sarcastically] 

214 Huic mandes, si quid r^cte curatum veKs. 

215 Sy. Ehem, Demea, baud asp^xerdm te. Quid agitiir? 

216 De. Quid agdtur? Vestram n^queo mirarl satis 

217 rationem. Sy. [pretending to agree with Demea] Est h^rcle 
in6pta — n^ dicdm dolo, 

(^^\ [ 218 absiirda. [Aside, to the other servants] Plscis ceteros purga, 
^"^ ^ Drom6; 

219 congrum Istum md,ximum In aqua slnito liider6 

220 tantlsper: libi ego rediero, ^xossdbitiir; 

221 prius nolo. De. [continuing his previous reflections] Haeclne 

flagltia! Sy. Ml quidem non plac^nt, 

222 et cldmo saepe. [AszcZe] Sdlsamenta haec, Stephani6, 

223 fac mdcerentur piilcbre. De. Dl vestrdm fid6m! 

224 Utnim studione id slbi habet an laudl putat 

225 fore, si perdlderit gndtum? Vae misero mihi! ^ 

226 Sy. Istuc est sdpere, non quod ante pedes modo 'st 

227 vid^re, sed etiam Ilia quae futura sunt 

228 prosplcere. De. [ignoring Syeus^ philosophizing] Quid? 

Istaec idm pen^s vos psdltrid 'st? 

229 Sy. Ellam Intus. De. Eho, an doml 'st habitiirus? Sy. 

[resuming his pious manner] Cr^do, ut 6st 

230 dementia. De. Haecin fieri! Sy. In^pta lenitds 

231 patris ^t facllitas prdva. De. Frdtris me quidem 

232 pud^t pig^tque. Sy. Nlmium inter vos, Demed 

233 (non quia ades praesens, dlco hoc) — pernimium Interest. 

234 Tu, quantus qu^ntu's, nil nisi sapientid- 's; 

235 ille s6mnium. Num slneres v^ro ilium tuiim 

236 facere haec? De. Sinerem ilium? Aut non sex totis m^n- 


237 prius 61feclssem, qudm ille qulcquam co^per^t? 

238 Sy. Vigildntidm tuam tti mihi ndrras? De. [with paternal 

pride] Sic si4t 

Second Period 123 

239 modo, ut ntinc est, qua^so. Sy. Ut qulsque suiim vult ^sse, 


240 De. Quid eiim? Vidistin h6die? Sy. Tuumne f ilium? 

241 [Aside] Abigam hiinc rus. [To Demea] Idm dudum dliquid 

ruri agere d-rbitror. 

242 De. Sati'n scis ibi ^sse? Sy. Oh qui egomet produxi! De. 

Optim^ 'st. 

243 Metul ne haereret hie. Sy. Atque iratum ^dmodum. 

244 De. Quid aiitem? Sy. Adortu'st iurgio fratrem d,pud forum 

245 de psdltria Istac. De. [delighted] Afn vero? Sy. Ah, nil 


246 Nam, ut niimerabdtur forte arg^ntum, intervenit 

247 homo de Improviso: co^pit clamare ''O Aeschine, 

248 haeclne flagitia f acere te ! Haec te admittere 

249 indlgna genere nostro!" De. Oh, lacrimo gaiidio. 

250 Sy. '*Non tu hoc argentum p^rdis, sed vitam tudm.'^ 

251 De. Salviis sit, spero: est similis mdiorum suum. Sy. Huf! 

252 De. Syre, pra^ceptorum plenu'st Istorum file. Sy. Ph^l 

253 Domi habuit unde discer^t. De. Fit s6dul6. 

254 Nil pra^termltto ; c6nsuefdcio; denique 

255 insplcere tdmquam in speculum in vitas omnium 

256 iubeo dtque ex dliis sumere exempliim sibi: 

257 "hoc facito." Sy. R^cte sane. De. ''Hoc fiigito.'* Sy. 


258 De. ''Hoc laudi 'st.'' Sy. Istaec res est. De. "Hoc vitio 


259 Sy. Probissim^. De. Porro autem. . . . Sy. N6n hercle 

otiiim 'st 

260 nunc mi auscultdndi. Piscis ex sententia 

261 nactus sum: ei mlhi ne corrumpdntur, caiitio 'st. 

262 Nam id nobis tdm flagitium 'st quam flla, Darned, 

263 non fdcere vobis, quae modo dixti; et quod queo, 

264 conservis ad eundem Istunc pra^cipio modiim: 

265 "hoc salsum 'st" — "hoc adiistum 'st" — "hoc lautiim 'st 

pariim" — 

266 "illud recte" — "iterum sic memento." Sedulo 

267 moneo, quae possum pro med sapi^ntid: 

124 National or Classical Roman Literature 

268 postr^mo tamquam in speculum in pdtinas, Demed, 

269 inspicere iiibeo et moneo quid facto lisus sit. 

270 In^pta haec esse, nos quae fdcimus, s^ntio. 

271 Veriim quid facias? Ut homo 'st, ita morem geras. 

272 Num quid vis? De. M^ntem vobis m^liorem dari. 

273 Sy. Tu riis hinc ibis? De. R^cta. Sy. [aside] Nam quid 

tu hie agds, 

274 ubi si quid b^ne praecipias, n^mo obtemperet. [Exit into 

the house.] 

275 De. [to himself] Ego vero hinc dbeo, quando is, quam 6b 

rem hue v^neram, 

276 rus dbiit. Ilium ciiro unum; ille ad me attinet: 

277 quando ita vult frdter, de istoc ipse viderit. 

278 Sed quis illic ^st, quem video procul? Estne Hegio 

279 tribulis noster? Si satis cerno, is est hercle; vah, 

280 homo amicus nobis iam inde a piiero. O di boni! 

281 Ne illius modi iam n6bis mdgna civiiim 

282 pemirid ^st, antiqua virtute dc fid6! 

283 Opp^riar h6minem hie, lit saliitem et c6nloqudr. 
[Enter Geta and Hegio from the town, deep in conversation.] 

284 He. Pro di immortdles, facinus indigniim, Geta, 

285 quod ndrras! Ge. Sic est factum. He. Ex illan famiM 

286 tam illiberdle fdcinus ^sse ortum! O Adschine! 

287 De. [aside] De psditria hac audivit: id illi nunc dolet 

288 ali^no; pdter eius nili pandit. Hei mihi, 

289 utinam hie prope ad^sset dlicubi dtque audiret hacc. 

290 He. Nisi facient quae illos aequum 'st, haiid sic aufer6nt. 

291 Ge. In t^ spes omnis, H^gio, nobis sita 'st: 

292 te solum hab^mus, tu 's patronus, tii pater: 

293 ill6 tibi m6riens nos comm^ndavit senex: 

294 si d^seris tu, p^riimus. He. Cave dixeris: 

295 neque fdciam n^que me sdtis pie posse drbitror. 

296 De. [to himself] Adibo. [To Hegio] Solvere H^gionem pluri- 


297 iubeo. He. Oh, te quaerebam ipsum : salve, Demed. 

298 De. Quid aiitem? He. Mdior filiiis tuus, A^schinus, 
290 quem frdtri adoptandiim dedisti, n^que boni 

Second Period 125 

300 neque liberdlis functus oflficilim 'st viri. 

301 De. Quid istuc est? He. Nostrum amicum n6ras Sfmulum 

302 aequ^lem? De. Quid ni? He. Filiam ^ius virginem 

303 vitiavit. De. H6m! He. Mane: nondum audisti, Darned, 

304 quod ^st gravlssimum. De. An quicquam ^st etiam dm- 


305 He. Vero dmplius. Nam hoc quidem ferendum aliqu6 modo 


306 persudsit n6x am6r vinum ddulesc^ntia: 

307 humanum ^st. IJbi scit factum, ad mdtrem virginls 

308 venit ipsus ultro Idcrimans orans obsecrdns 

309 fid^m dans, iurans se 111am diicturum domiim. 
[310] Virgo lUa gravida fdcta 'st (mensis decimus 6st): 

311 ille bonus vir nobis psdltridm, si dfs placet, 

312 pardvit, quicum vlvat; illam deserlt. 

313 De. Pro certon tu Istaec dlcis? He. Mater vlrginfs 

314 in medio 'st — ^ipsa vlrgo — r^s ipsa — hic Getd 

315 praet^rea, ut captus ^st servorum, non maliis. 

316 De. Pud^t: [aside] nee quid agam n^que quid hulc respon- 

[317] sci6. [From So strata's house comes the voice of Pamphila 
crying out in childbirth] Pa. luno Luclna, s^rva me, 6b- 

318 He. Numnam Ilia, quaeso, pdrturlt? Ge. Certe, H^gio. 

He. fim, 

319 illa^c fidem nunc vestram impl6rat, Demea: 

320 quod vos ius c6git, Id voluntate Impetr^t. 

[321] De. Ne tlmeas: flent quae fieri a^quum *st omnid. 

322 He. Decet te facere. Geta, due me Intro ad S6stratdm. 

[Exeunt Geta and Hegio into Sostrata^s house.] 

323 De. [to himself] Non me Indic^nte haec flunt: titinam hic 

sit modo 

324 defunctum. Verum nlmia illaec lic^ntid 

325 prof^cto evadet In aliquod magnum malum. 

326 Ibo dc requlram frdtrem, ut In eum haec ^vomdm. \Exit 

to the town.] 

126 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[Enter Hegio from the house, returning from his interview with 


327 He. Bono dnimo fdc sis, S6strata; et istam, qu6d pot^s, 

328 fac c6nsol^re. Ego Mici6nem, si dpud foriim 'st, 

329 conv^niam, atque lit res gesta 'st ndrrabo 6rdin^. 

330 Si 'st, Is factiirus ut sit 6fficium suiim, 

331 facidt; sin dliter de hdc re 'st eius sent^ntia, 

332 resp6ndedt mi, ut quid agam qudm primiim scidm. [Exit 

to the town.] 

Scene 5 

[Enter Ctesipho and Syrus from Micio's house.] 

333 Ct. Ai'n patrem hlnc ablsse rus? Sy. [not knowing that 

Demea had met Hegio and stayed in town] lam dtidum. 
Ct. Dfc sod^s. Sy. Apud vfllam 'st: 

334 ntinc cum mdxime operis dliquid fdcere cr^do. Ct. Utindm 


335 Quod ciim saMte eius flat, ita se d^fetlgarlt velfm, 

336 ut triduo h6c perp^tuo prorsum e l^cto n^queat siirger^. 

337 Sy. Ita fiat, et Istoc, si quid potis est, r^ctiiis. Ct. Ita; 

nam hunc di^m 

338 miser^ nimis ciipio, ut co^pi, p^rpetupm In laetitia d^gere. 

339 £t illud rtis nulla dlia caiisa tdm male 6di, nisi quia pr6pe 

340 qu6d si ab^sset 16ngiiis, ^ 

341 prlus nox 6ppresslsset illi eum, quam Mc rev^rti posset 


342 Niinc ubi me lUic n6n vid^bit, iam hue reciirret, sdt sci6: 

343 rogitdbit m^ ubi fiierim: "ego h6c te t6to n6n vidl di^." 

344 Quid dlcam? Sy. Nllne in mentem ^st? Ct. Niimquam 

qulcquam. Sy. Tdnto n^quior. 
346 Cli4ns, amicus, hospes, n^mo 'st v6bis? Ct. Siint. Quid 

346 Sy. Hisce 6pera ut ddta sit. Ct. Qua^ non ddta sit? N6n 

potest fieri. Sy. Potest. 

347 Ct. Int^rdius; sed si hie pern6cto, caiisae quid dicdm, Syre? 

348 Sy. Vah, qudm vellem ^tiam n6ctu amlcis 6peram mos ess^t 


Second Period . 127 

349 Quin tu 6ti6sus ^sto: ego illlus s^nsum piilchre cdlle6: 

350 cum f^rvit md-xime, tarn pldcidum qudsi ovem r^ddo. Ct. 

Quo modo? 

351 Sy. Lauddri t6 lib^nter audit: fdcio te apud ilium detim: 

352 virtiites ndrro. Ct. Meds? Sy. Tuds. Homini ilico Idcri- 

ma^ cadunt 

353 quasi puero gaiidio. [He happens to glance down the street 

and starts vnth astonishment.] Em tibi aiitem ! Ct. Quld- 
nam est ? Sy. Lupus in f dbuld. 

354 Ct Pater est? Sy. Is Ipsus. Ct. S^re, quid dgimus? Sy. 

Fiige modo fntro : ego vldero. 

355 Ct. Si quid rogdbit, nusquam tii me . . . Audfstin? Sy. 

P6ti'n ut d^sinds? 
[Enter Demea, returning from his search for Micio; he pauses 
at a distance from the latter^ s house to ruminate.] 

356 De. N^ ego hom6 sum inf^lix: frdtrem misquam inv^nio 


357 Praeterea aiitem, dum ilium qua^ro, a villa m^rcenndriiim 

358 vldi: is flliiim negat ^sse riiri. N^c quid agdm sci6. 

359 Ct [opening the door a crack] Sfre. Sy. Quid est? Ct Men 

qua^rit? Sy. V^rum. Ct. P^rii. Sy. Quln tu animo 
bon6 's. 

360 De. [still unaware of the others* presence] Niinc redeo: si 

forte frdter redierlt, vis6. Ct. Syr^, 

361 6bsecr6, vide ne llle hue prorsus se Inrudt. Sy. Etidmtac^s? 

362 figo cav^bo. Ct. Niimquam hercle h6die ego Istuc c6m- 

mittdm tibl, 

363 ndm me iam In cellam dliquam cum lUa concludam: Id 

tutlssimiim 'st. 

364 Sy. Age, tamen ego hunc dmovebo. [Exit Ctesipho.] De. 

S6d eccum sceleratum Syriim! 

365 Sy. [assuming a tone of injured innocence and speaking to 

himself loud enough to be overheard] Non hercle hie, qui 
vult, durdre qulsquam, si sic fit, potest. 
[366] Scire equid^m volo, quot mlhi sint domini. De. Quid rei 

'st? Quldtibrst? \ tx 

128 National or Classical Roman Literature 

367 Sy. R6gitas? Ct^sipho me pugnis miserum et Istam psdl- 

tridm A-"-^/ 

368 lisque occidit. De. Hem, quid narras? Sy. fim, vide ut 

discidit labriim. 

369 De. Quam 6b rem? Sy. Me Impulsore banc emptam esse 

ait. De. Non tu eum rus hinc modo 

370 produxe albas? Sy. Factum; verum venit post insd-niens. 

371 Nil pep^rcit. Non puduisse verberare hominem senem! 

372 Quern ^go modo pueriim tantillum in manibus g^sta\^ 

mels. \^ 

373 De. Laiido: Ct6siph6, patrissas: d,bi, viriim te iiidic6. ,^' 

374 Sy. Laiidas? Ne ille contin^bit posthac, si sapi^t, mantis. 

375 De. S^d estne filter Intus? Sy. N6n est. De. TJbi ilium 

inv^niam, c6git6. 

376 Sy. [pretending surliness] Scio ubi sit, verum hodie num- 

quam m6nstrabo. De. H6m, quid ais? Sy. ltd. 

377 De. Dimminu^tur tibi quid^m iam cerebrum. Sy. At n6- 

men n^scio 

378 Ulius hominis, s6d lociim novi libi sit. De. Die erg6 lociim. 

379 Sy. N6stin porticum dpud mac^Uum hac deorsum? De. 

Quid ni noverim? 

380 Sy. Pra^terito Mc recta pldtea siirsus: libi e6 veneris, 

381 clivus deorsum versus ^st: hac praecipitdto. Postea 

382 ^st ad hdnc manum'sac^llum: ibi dngiportum propter ^st. 

383 De. Qu6dnam? Sy. Illi ubi etidm caprificus magna 'st. 

De. N6vi. Sy. Hac pergito. 

384 De. Id quidem dngiportum non est p6rvium. Sy. Verum 

h^rcle! Vdh! 

385 C^nse'n hominem me ^sse? Erravi. In porticiim rurstim 


386 sdne hac miilto propius ibis ^t minor ^st errati6. 

387 Sci'n Cratini huius ditis a^dis? De. Scio. Sy. Ubi eAs 


388 M sinistram h4c r^cta platea; ubi dd Didnae veneris, 

389 ito ad d^xtram. Priusquam ad portam v^nias, apud ipsdm 


Second Period 129 

390 ^st pistrfUa et 6xadversum fabrica: ibl 'st. De. Quid Ibi 


391 Sy. [with a sly twinkle] L^ctulos in s61e ilignis pedibus fd- 

ciendos dedit. 

392 De. [scornfully] Ubi potetis v6s: bene sane. Sed cesso ad 

eum perger^? [Exit to the town.] 

393 Sy. I sane: ego te e^^ercebo hodie, ut dignus 6s, silic^rnium! 

394 A^schinus odiose cessat; prdndium corrumpitiir; 

395 Ct^sipho autem in amore 'st totus. Ego iam prospiciam 

mihi. N> 

396 Ndm iam adibo atque linum qulcquid (qu6d quidem erit 


397 carpam et cyathos sorbilans paulatim hunc producam diem. 

[Exit into Micio's house.] 

Scene 6 
[Enter Hegio and Micio from the town^ deep in conversation.] 

398 Mi. Ego in hac re nil reperio, quam 6b rem lauder tanto- 

pere, Hegio. 

399 Meum officium facio. Quod peccdtum a nobis ortum 'st, 


400 He. Sed quaeso ut una m6cum ad matrem virginls eas, 


401 atque istaec eadem quae mihi dixti tute dfcas miilierf : 

402 suspicionem banc propter fratrem eius esse et lUam psdl- 

tridm ... 

403 Mi. [interrupting him] Si ita a^quum censes aiit si ita 6pus 

est facto, edmus. He. Bene facis: 

404 nam et illi ita dnimum iam relevabis, qua^ dolore ac miserid 

405 tab^scit, et tuum officium fiieris functus. Sed si aliter 


406 egomet narrabo quae mihi dixti. Mi. Immo ego ibo. He. 

Bene facis. [Exeunt into the house of Sostrata.] 
[Enter Aeschinus a moment later, in great agitation; he too is 
headed for So strata's house. Returning from the forum, where 
he paid off Sannio, he heard everyone talking of his escapade and 

130 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Jears that it may have reached the ears of Sostrata, who will not 
know that Bacchis was kidnapped for Ctesipho.] 

407 Ae. Vah, quo modo hdc me exp^diam turba? Tdnta niinc 

408 suspfcio de me Incidit. 

409 Ha^c adeo mea culpa fdteor fieri. Non me hanc r^m patri, 

410 titut erdt gesta, Indic^sse! Exorassem, ut eam ducer^m. 

411 Nunc hoc prlmum *st: dd illas Ibo, ut piirgem me. Acce- 

dam dd for^s. ' c^r-^^' 

412 P^rii: horr^sco semper, ubi pultdre hasce 6ccipi6 miser. 

413 Heiis, heus: A^schinus ego sum. Aperite ^liquis dctutum 

6stiiim. c.^Xj'^ - ""^ ^-> ■ ^ 

414 Prodit n^scioqufs: conc^dam hue. [He steps to one side, as 

Micio enters from his interview with Sostrata.] Mi. Ita 
ut dixi, Sostratd, 

415 fdcite. Ego A^schimim conv^niam, ut qu6modo dcta haec 

slnt sci^t. 

416 S^d quis ostium hoc puMvit? Ae. [as^c?e] Pater hercle est : 

perii. Mi. A^schine.^ 

417 Ae. [aside] Quid huic hie neg6ti *st? Mi. Tiine has pepu- 

listi for^s? 

418 [Aside] Tacet : ciir non liido hunc dliquantisper ? Melius est, 

419 quand6quidem hoc niimquam mi Ipse voluit dfcer^. 

420 [To Aeschinus] Nil mlhi respondes? Ae. Non equidem fstas, 

quod scidm. 

421 Mi. Ita? Ndm mirdbar quid hie negoti ess^t tibf. 

422 [Aside] Eriibuit: sdlva res est. Ae. Die, sod^s, pat^r, 

423 tibi v6ro quid istic est rei. Mi. Nil mi quidem. 

424 Amicus quldam me d foro abduxit modo 

425 hue ddvocdtum slbi. Ae. Quid? Mi. Ego dicdm tibl: 

426 habitant hie quaedam mulieres pauper culae 

427 (ut opfnor eds non nosse te — et certo scio, 

428 neque enim diu hue migrarunt). Ae. Quid tum p6stea? 

429 Mi. Virgo ^st cum mdtre. Ae. P^rge. Mi. Haec vlrgo 

orbd 'st patre. 

430 Hie m^us amicus illi g^nere 'st proximiis. 

431 Huic l^ges cogunt mibere hdnc. Ae. [aside] Perii? Mi. 

Quid est? 

^^^ Second Period 131 

V -^ ^ 

432 Ae. Nil: r^cte. Perge. Mi. Is v^nit ut secum avehdt, 

433 nam habitat Mileti. Ae. Hem, vfrginem lit secum dvehdt? 

434 Mi. Sic 6st. Ae. Miletum usque, obsecro? Mi. Ita. Ae. 

[aside] Animo male 'st."-%> *^^^^ 

435 [ToMicio] Quidipsa^? Quidafunt? Mi. Quid illas censes? 

Nil enlm. 

436 Comm^nta mater ^st: esse ^x ali6 viro 

437 nescioquo piierum ndtum, neque eum nominat; ^ 

438 priorem esse ilium, non oportere hufc dari. " c>.vm*^ 

439 Ae. Eho, nonne haec iusta tibi vid^tur poscere? 

440 Mi. Non. Ae. Obsecro, non? An illam hinc dbduc^t, 


441 Mi. Quid illam ni abdiicat? Ae. Factum a nobis durit^r 

442 immiserecordit^rque atque ^tiam, si 'st, pater, 

443 dic^ndum magis aperte, illiberdlit^r. 

444 Mi. Quam ob rem? Ae. Rogds me? Quid illi tandem 


445 fore animi misero, qui ilia consuevit prior? 

[446] Mi. Veriim quid nobis cum illis? Abeamus. Quid ^st? 

447 Quid lacrimas? Ae. Pater, obsecro, ausculta. Mi. A^- 

schine, audivi omnia ^,..; ;> 

448 ^t scio, nam te amo: quo magis quae agis curae sunt mihi. 
[449] Ae. At me tui pudet. Mi. Credo hercle, nam ingeniiim 

novi tuum 

450 liberdle, sed vereor ne indiligens nimium sies. 

451 In qua civitate tdndem te arbitrare vivere? 

452 Virgin^m viti^sti, qud,m te non ius fiierat tanger6. 

453 lam id peccatum primum magnum — magnum, at huma- 

num tamen: ^ ^j^ 

454 f^cere alii saepe item boni. At postquam id evenit, cedo, 

455 numquid circumsj^exti? Aut niimquid tiite prospexti tibi? 

456 Nolim ceterarum rerum te socordem eodem modo. 

457 Bono animo 's; duces uxorem. Ae. Hem. Mi. Bono animo 

's, inqud-m. Ae. Pat^r, 

458 6bsecr6, num ludis tii me? Mi. Ego te? Quam ob rem? 

Ae. Nescio. 

459 Quia tam misere hoc ^sse cupio v6rum, eo vereor magis. 

132 National or Classical Roman Literature 

460 Mi. Abi domum ac deos comprecare, ut uxorem drcessds: 

abi. x.^--"^ 

461 Ae. Quid? .^lam uxorem? Mi. lam. Ae. lam? Mi. Idm, 

quant umri potest., Ae. Di me, pater, 

462 omnes 6derint, ni md-gis te quam oculos nunc ego am6 meos. 

463 Mi. Qufd? Quam illam? Ae. Aeqtie. Mi. P^rbenfgne. 

Ae. Quid? Ille ubi 'st Mil^siiis? 

464 Mi. Periit. Abiit^ Navem ascendit. Sed cur cessas? 

Ae. Abi, pat^r, 

465 tti potius deos comprecdre, ndm tibi eos, cert6 scio, 

466 qu6 vir melior miilto 's qudm ego, obt^mperdtur6s magis. 

467 Mi. Ego eo Intro, ut quae opus sunt parentur. Tti fac ut 

dixi, si sapis. [Exit into his house.] ^ \ ,„:^ 

468 Ae. Quid hoc est ne^6ti? Hoc ^st patrem esse aut hoc est 

filium 6sse? k 

469 Si frdter aiit sodalis esset, qui magis m6rem gereret? 

470 Hie non amdndus? Hicine n6n gestdndus in sinii 'st? 

Hem! "^ 

471 Itaque ddeo magnam mi inicit sua conlmoditdte ciiram, 

472 ne imprudens fdciam forte quod nolit: scions cav^bo. 

473 Sed c^sso ire intro, n^ mora^ meis niiptiis egom^t sim? 

[Exit into Micio's house.] 

Scene 7 
[Enter Demea, returning from his mid goose chase.] 

474 De. Def^ssus sum dmbuMndo. Ut, Bfre, te ctim tud 

475 monstrdti6ne mdgnus p^rdat luppit^r! 

476 Perr^ptavi tisque omne 6ppidum : dd portam, M lactim, 

477 quo n6n? Neque illi fdbrica erdt nee frdtrem hom6 

478 vidisse se aibat quisquam. Nunc ver6 doml 

479 certum obsid^re 'st lisque, d6nec r^dierit. 

[Enter Micio from his house, busy with preparations for the 
wedding and on his way to Sostrata's.] 

480 Mi. [to himself] Ibo: illis dicam nullam esse in nobis mordm. 

481 De. Sed eccum ipsum. T6 iam diidum qua^ro, Mici6. 

482 Mi. Quidndm? De. Fero dlia fldgitia dd te ing^ntid 

483 boni illius ddulesc^ntis. Mi. Ecce aut^m! De. Novd, 

Second Period 133 

484 capitdlia! Mi. Oh^ iam! De. Niseis qui vir sit. Mi. 

[impatiently] Scio. 
[485] [He pushes Demea aside] Ego Ms conv^nio: p6st hue redeo. 

[Exit into Sostrata's house.] De. O luppiter! 

486 Hancine vitam! H6scin m6res! Hdnc dem^ntidm! 

487 Uxor sine d6te v^niet; Intus psdltrid ^st; 

488 domus sumptuosa; adul^scens liixu perdittis; 

489 senex delirahs. ^ Ipsa sf cupidt SaMs, £ ^ 

490 servdre prorsus^non potest hanc f amilidm. * "" 
[Enter Syilvs from Micio's house f tipsy.] ^ -- 

491 Sy. Edepol, Syrisc^, t^ curdsti m611it^r ^^A:^'\.-^-^^ 

492 laut^que munus adminlstrastl tuiim. 

493 Abi. Sed postquam Intus sum 6mnitim reriim sattir, 

494 prodedmbuldre hue libitum /st. De. Illud, sfs, vid^: 

495 exemplum dlseipllna,e! Sy. Eeee autem hie ad^st 

496 senex nosterl [To Demea] Quid fit? Quid tu 's trlstis? 

De. Oh seelus! er^^-'^ 

497 Sy. Ohe idm! Tu verba fundis hie, sapiential 

498 De. [angrily] Tu si meus Asses'. . . Sy. [interrupting him 

and finishing the sentence for him in a way Demea did not 
intend] Dls quidem esses, D^med, 

499 ac tudm rem eonstabillsses. De. [ignoring the interruption] 

. . . 6xemplo omnibus 

500 eurdrem ut esses. Sy. Quam 6b rem? Quid feel? De. 

Rogds? «' : ; - 
[501] Quasi r^ bene gesta, nlmium potastl, seeMs. 

[Parmeno puts his head out at Micio's door and calls.] 
502 Pa. Heus, Syre, rogdt te Ct^sipho lit rededs. Sy. Abl. 
[Parmeno withdraws.] 

603 De. [startled] Quid Ct^siphonem hie ndrrat? Sy. Nil. De. 

Eho, carnifex, 

604 est Ctesipho Intus? Sy. [lying] Non est. De. Cur hie 

505 Sy. Est dlius quldam, pdrasitdster paiiluliis: 

606 nostln? De. Iam selbo. [He starts for Micio^s house.] 

Sy. [grabbing him] Quid agis? Quo abis? De. Mltte m^. 

607 Sy. Noli, Inquam. De. Non manum dbstin^s, mastlgid? 


134 National or Classical Roman Literature 

608 An tibi iam mdvis cerebrum dfspergam hie? [Exit, breaking 

away and running , into Micio's house.] Sy. Abit. 

609 Edepol commfssatorem haud sane c6mmodum, 

610 praes^rtim Ct^siph6ni! Quid ego nunc agdm? 

611 Nisi, dum ha^c sil^scunt turbae, int^rea in dnguMm 

612 aliquo dbeam atque edormiscam hoc villi: sic agam. [Exit.] 
[Enter Micio from Sostrata's house.] 

613 Mi. [starting for home] Pardta a n6bis siint, ita ut dixi, 

Sostratd : 

614 ubi vis . . . [He hears a commotion in his house.] Quisnam 

d, me pepulit tdm gravit^r for^s? 
[Enter Demea, bursting out of Micio^s house.] 

615 De. Hei mihi! Quid fdciam? Quid agam? Quid clamem 

aiit querdr? ^ ,v y 

616 O caelum, o terra, o mdria Neptuni! Mi. fim tibi: 

617 rescivit omnem rem: id nunc clamat scilicet. 


618 Pardtae lites: siiccurr^ndum 'st. De. ficcum adest 

619 commiinis corrupt^la nostrum liberum. > , 

620 Mi. Tandem reprime iraciindiam atque ad t6 fedi. > ^'^ 

621 De. [with enforced calm] Repr^ssi, r^dii, mitto mdledicta 

6mnid: i , ''^''^' 

622 rem ipsdm put^mus. Dictum hoc inter n6s fuit 

623 (ex te ddeo 'st ortum), n^ tu curares meiim 

624 neve ego tuiim? Responde. Mi. [embarrassed] Factum 

^st, non nego. ^^^ 

625 De. Cur nunc apiid te potat? Cur recipis meum? 

626 Quando ^go tuum non euro, ne cura meiim. 

627 Mi. [awkwardly] Non aequum dicis. De. Non? Mi. [try- 

ing to mollify Demea] Nam v^tus verbum hoe quid^m 'st: 

628 eommiinia esse amicorum inter se omnid. 

[629] De. [scornfully] Facete! At . . . Mi. [interrupting him 
jovially] Mitte iam istaec; dd, te hodi^ mihi; 

630 exporge frontem. De. [reluctantly] Scilicet ita tempus fert; 

631 faciendum 'st. [Sternly] Ceterum ego rus eras cum fili6 

632 cum primo luci ibo hinc. Mi. De nocte, c^nseo: v <' 
533 hodi^ modo hilarum f^c te. De. Et istam psdltridm" .^ 

[534] una illiic mecum hinc dbstraham. Mi. Probissim^. 


Second Period 135 

635 De. Atque fbi favlllae pl^na, fiimi, ac p611iiiis 

536 coqu^ndo sit faxo ^t mol^ndo; piaster ha^c 

537 merldie Ipso fdciam ut stlpulam c611igdt: 

538 tarn exc6ctia]a[i r^ddam atque dtram qudm carb6 'st. Mi. 

Placet. , 

539 I ergo Intro. Et cui rei 'st, el rei hunc siimainfis di^m. 


Scene 8 

[Enter D^MBA from Micio's house.] ir^^^"'^ y 

540 De. [to himself] Niimquam ita qulsquam b^ne subdticta 

rdtione dd vitdm f ult, ■ 

641 quln res a^tas lisus semper ^liquid ddportet novl, 

542 dliquid m6neat: lit ilia, qua^ te sclsse cr^das, nescids, 

543 ^t quae tlbi putdris prima, in ^xperi^ndo ut r^pudi^s. 

644 Quod nunc mi ^venlt; nam ego vltam diiram, qudm vixi 

lisque adhiic, 

645 prope iam exciirso spatio, omltto. Id quam 6b rem? Re 

Ipsa r^pperl, 

546 fdcilitdte nil esse homini melius n^que dementia. 

547 Id esse v^rum, ex me dtque ex frdtre culvis f dcile 'st n6scer^. 

548 lUe suam ^git s6mper vltam in otio. In convlviis, 

549 cleiiiens, pldcidus, nulli laedere 6s, adrldere 6mnibiis; 

550 slbi vixlt, sibi siimptum fecit : 6mnes bene dicunt amdnt. 

551 Ego ille agr^stis, saeviis, trlstis, pdrcus, truculentiis, tendx 

552 duxi ux6rem: quam Ibi miseriam vidi! Ndti fllil: 

553 dlia ciira! Heia aiitem, dum studeo lllis ut quam pliiri- 


654 f dcerem, c6ntrivi In quaer^ndo vltam £^tque aetat^m medm. 

655 Nunc, exacta aetdte, hoc friicti pr6 lab6re ab els fer6: 

556 6dium. Ille dlter sine lab6re pdtria p6titur c6mmodd. 

557 Ilium amdnt; me fiigitant. llli credunt c6nsilia 6mnid; 

558 Ilium dlligunt; apud Ilium sunt ambo: ego desertus sum. '^^ 

559 Ilium ut vlvat 6ptant; meam aiitem m6rtem exsp^ctant 


660 Ita eos, m^o lab6re ediictos mdximo, hlc fecit su6s 

661 paiilo siimptu. Miseriam 6mnem ego cdpio; hie p6titur 



136 National or Classical Roman Literature 

562 Age age, nunciam experidmur contra, ecquid ego possiem 

563 bldnde dicere aiit benigne fdcere, quando hoc provocdt. 

564 figo quoque d mels me amdri et magni fieri p6stul6. ' 
665 Si Id fit dd.ndo atque obsequ^ndo, non post^rior^s ferdm. 

566 D^erit: Id mea mlnime refeft, qui sum ndtu maximtis. 
[Enter Syrus from Micio's house.] 

567 Sy. Heus, D^mea, orat frater ne abeas longius. 

568 De. [to himself] Quis homo? [To Syrus, affably] Syre 

noster, sdlve. Quid fit? Quid agitur? 

569 Sy. [astounded] Recte. De. Optime ^st. [Aside] lam ntinc 

haec tria primum dddidi 

570 praetor naturam: "O n6ster" — "quid fit?" — "quid agitur?" 

571 [To Syrus] Servum haud illiberdlem pra^bes te, ^t tibi 

572 lib^ns bene fdxim. Sy. [still nonplused] Gratiam habeo. 

De. Atqui, Syre, 

573 hoc v^rum 'st et ipsa re experi^re propedi^m. [Exit Syrus.] 
[Enter Geta, hurrying out of Sostrata's house,] 

574 Ge. Era, ego hue ad hos proviso, qudm mox virgin^m 

575 arc^ssant. Sed eccum D^medm. [To Demea, dutifully] 

Salvus sies. 

576 De. [gushingly] O qui vocare? Ge. G^ta. De. Geta, h6- 

minem maximi 

577 preti te esse hodie iiidicavi anim6 meo; 

578 nam is mihi prof^cto ^st servus spectatiis satis, 

579 cui dominus Mrae 'st, ita uti tibi sensi, Getd; 

580 et tibi ob eam rem, si quid usiis venerit, 

581 Hb^ns bene fdxim. [Aszcie] Meditor ^sse affdbilis, 

582 et bene proc^dit. Ge. [much impressed] Bonus es, cum haec 


583 De. [aside] Pauldtim plebem primuliim faci6 meam. [Geta 

is about to go in when Aeschinus comes strolling out of 
Micio^s house; he lingers,] 

584 Ae. [to himself] Occidunt me quidem, diim nimis sanctas 

nuptids vv-v*'' 

585 student fdcere: in dppardndo consumiint di^m. 

686 De. Quid dgitur, A^schine? Ae. fihem, pater mi, tu hie 

Second Period 137 

587 De. Tuus h^rcle v6ro et dnimo et ndtura pat^r, 

588 qui te amat plus quam hosce oculos! Sed cur n6n domum 

589 uxorem arc^ssis? Ae. Ciipio, v^rum hoc mlhi mora^ 'st: 

590 tiblcina, et hymena^um qui cantent. De. Eh6, \^ 

591 vi'n tu huic seni aiiscultdre? Ae. Quid? De. Missa ha^c -\. 

fac6 ^ ' \^-^^^ 

592 — hymena^um tiirbas Mmpadds tibicinds — 

593 atque hdnc in h6rto mdceriam iube dirui 

594 quantum potest. Hac transfer; linam fac domiim; 

595 traduce et mdtrem et fdmiliam omnem ad n6s. Ae. Placet, 

596 pater lepidissime. De. [to himself] Eiige, idm lepidiis vocor; 

597 fratri a^des fiunt p^rvia^; turbdm domiim 

598 addiicet; siimptu amittet miilta. [With malicious glee] Quid 


599 [To Syrus] Syre, cessas fre ac fdcere? Sy. Quid ego? De. 

Dlrue. [^xi7 Syrus.] 

600 [To Geta] Tu illds abi ^t traduce. Ge. Dl tibi, D^med, 

601 bene fdciant, cum te video nostrae fdmilia^ 

602 tam ex animo fdctum v611e. De. [benignly] Dlgnos drbitr6r. 

[Exit Geta; Demea turns to Aeschinus.] 

603 Quid tii ais? Ae. Sic oplnor. De. Miilto r^ctiu'st 

604 quam illdm pu^rperam hue nunc diici p^r vidm 

605 aegr6tam. Ae. Nil enim vldi melius, ml pater. 

606 De. Sic soleo. Sed eccum Mlcio ^greditiir fords. 
[Enter Micio, mitch excited.] 

607 Mi. lubet frdter? Ubi Is est? [Seeing Demea] Tiin iub^s 

hoc, Demea? 

608 De. Ego vero iiibeo et hdc re et dliis omnibus 

609 quam mdxime linam fdcere n6s hanc fdmilidm, 

610 colere, ddiuvdre, adiiingere. Ae. Ita quaeso, pat^r. 

611 Mi. [tactfully] Haud aliter c6nseo. De. Immo hercle Ita 

nobis dec^t. 

612 Primum [pointing to Aeschinus] huius uxori 'st mdter. Mi. V \ 

[curtly] fist: quid p6stea? ^*->- '' 

613 De. Proba 4t mod^sta. Mi. Ita diunt. De. [blandly] Ndtu 



138 National or Classical Roman Literature 

614 Nee qui edm resplciat, quisquam 'st: s61a 'st. Mi. Quam 

hie rem agft? 

615 De. Hane te a^quum 'st dueere, et [to Aeschinus] te operam 

lit fidt dare. 

616 Mi. Me diicere aiitem? De. T^. Mi. Me? De. Te in- 

quam. Mi. In^ptis. De. [to Aeschinus] Si tu sis homo, 

617 hie fdciat. Ae. [coaxingly] Mi pat^r! Mi. [to Aeschinus] 

Quid tu aiitem huic, dsine, ausciiltas? De. [to Micio] 

618 Fieri aliter n6ii potest. Mi. Deliras. Ae. Sine te exorem, 

mi pat^r. 

619 Mi. Insdnis; aiifer. De. Age, da v^niam fflio. Mi. Sati'n 

sdnus es? A 

620 Ego novus maritus dnno d^mum quinto et s^xagesimo 

621 fiam, dtque aniim decr^pitam ducam? Idne estis aiictores 


622 Ae. Fae; promisi ego illis. Mi. Promisti aiitem? D6 te 

ldrgit6r, pu^r. 

623 De. Age, quid si quid te mdius 6ret? Mi. Qudsi non hoc sit 

mdximiim ! 

624 De. Da veniam. Ae. N^ grav^re. De. Fac; promitte. 

Mi. Non omittitis? 

625 Ae. Non nisi te ex6rem. Mi. Vis est haee quidem. De. 

Age prolixe, Mici6. 

626 Mi. Etsi hoc mihi prdvum in^ptum absiirdum atque dlienum 

d vitd mea 

627 vid^tur, si vos tdntopere istuc viiltis, fiat. Ae. B^ne facis. 

628 De. Merito te am6. Veriim. ... Mi. [interrupting him] 

Quid? De. figo dicam, hoc cum c6nfit quod vol6. 

629 Mi. Quid mine quod r^stat? De. Hegio 'st hie his cogndtus 


630 adfinis nobis, paiiper: b^ne nos aliquid fdcere illi dec^t. 

631 Mi. Quid fdcere? De. Agelli 'st hie sub lirbe paiilum, quod 

locitds fords: 

632 huic demus, qui frudtur. Mi, Paiilum id aiitem ^st? De. 

Si multiim 'st, tam^n 

Second Period 139 

633 faciendum 'st. Pr6 patre hulc est, b6nus est, n6ster ^st: 

rect6 datiir. 
[6341 Mi. Qufd isttc? Ddbitur. Ae. Gaiideo. [Enter Syrus, 

pickax in hand.] Sy. Factum 'st qu6d iusslsti, Darned. 

635 De. Friigi hom6 's. Ergo ^depol h6die, med quid^m sen- 


636 itidic6 Syrum fieri esse a^quum Hberum. Mi. Istunc libe- 


637 Qu6dnam ob fdctum? De. Miilta. Sy. O n6ster D^mea, 

^depol yir bonii^s. 

638 figo istos v6bis \isque a pueris curavi dmbos s^dul6. 

639 D6cui, m6nui, b^ne praec^pi semper quae potui 6mmd. 
[640] De. [drily] Apppr^t: in psdltria ista em^nda hie ddiut6r 


641 hfc curdvit. Pr6desse a^quum 'st. Alii m^Iior^s eriint. 

642 D^nique hfc vult fieri. Mi. [to Aeschinus] Vl'n tu hoc 

fieri? Ae. Cupio. Mi. Si quid^m 

643 t\i vis — Syre, ^ho accede hue M me. Liber ^sto. Sy. 

Bene facis. 

644 6mnibus grdtiam hdbeo, et se6rsum tibi praet^rea, D6med. 

645 De. Gaudeo. Ae. fit ego. Sy. Cr^do. Utinam h6c per- 

petuum fiat gaiidium, 

646 Phrygian! ut uxor^m meam una m^cum videam liber dm! 

647 De. Cptimdm quidem mulierem! Sy. Et quidem tu6 ne- 

poti, huius fili6, ^^ 

648 h6die prima mdmmam d^dit haec. De. Hercle v^ro s6ri6, 

649 siquidem prima d^dit, baud diibium ^st quin emitti aequum 


650 Mi. 6b eam rem? De. Cb eam. Postremo d me arg^n- ,a 

tum, qudnti 'st, sumito. ^ - - ' 

651 Sy. Di tibi, D^mea, omnes semper omnia optata 6fferdnt. 

652 Mi. [sarcastically] Syre, proc^ssisti hodie pulchre. De. 

[cheerfully] Siquidem porro, Micio, 

653 tii tuum officium fdcies, atque huic dliquid paiilum pra^ 


654 d^deris linde utdtur, r^ddet tibi cito. Mi. [toith mock grati- 

tvde] Istoc vilius! 

140 National or Classical Roman Literature 

655 Ae. Frugi homo ^st. Sy. Reddam h^rcle, dd modo. Ae. 

Age, pat^r! Mi. Post consulam. 

656 De. [cheerfully] Fdciet. Sy. O vir optime! Ae. 6 pat^r mi 

f^stivfssime. [Exit Syrus.] 

657 Mi. [to Demea] Quid istuc? Quae res tdm rep^nte mores 

miitavit tuos? 

658 Quod proliibium? Qua6 istaec siibita 'st Idrgitds? De. 

Dicam tibi: ^ 

659 tit id ostender^m — quod te fsti facilem et f^stivilm putant, 

660 id non fieri ex v^ra vita n^que adeo ex aequo 4t bono^ 

661 s^d ex ads^ntando, indulgendo, et largiendo, Micio. ^, >, 

662 Nunc ade6 si ob edm rem vobis m^a vita invisa, Aeschine, j}( 


663 quia non iusta iniiista prorsus omnia omnino obsequor, 

664 missa f acio : ecf lindite, ^mite, f acite quod vobis lib^t. 

665 Sed si id viiltis potius — quae vos propter dduleseentiam 

666 minus videtis, mdgis imp6ns6 cupitis, c6nsulitis pariim, ,/v^^ 

667 ha^c reprehendere 6t corrigere me ^t secundare in loco, ' 

668 ^cce me qui id fdciam v6bis. Ae. Tibi, pater, permittimiis: 

669 plus scis quid facto opus sit. Sed de frdtre quid fiet? De. 


670 habeat; in istac finem fdciat. Mi. Istuc r^cte. Cantor 

Plaudite. [Exeunt.] 


Opening Scene of the Heautontimorumenos 

//.^., The Self-Tormentor)^ or The 

Penitent Father 

The plays of Terence may seem somewhat conventional after 
those of Plautus, but they do excel in one respect (not essen- 
tially dramatic) — namely, in narration. This is particularly true 
of the ** exposition" that regularly comprises the first act of a 
play. Some of Terence's first acts or scenes are justly famous 
as pictures of human life and character — stories swiftly and 

Second Period 141 

vividly told. Among these perhaps the most celebrated is the 
first part of the Heautontimorumenos. 

The dramatis personae in this scene are: Mej^^ediemus, the peni- 
tent father; and Chremes, his neighbor. 

Terence's adherence to finer Greek tradition is evidenced by 
the fact that, at the opening of the play, Menedemus is not a 
"comic" figm-e in the modern sense: on the contrary, he is wholly 
pathetic — even tragic. According to the Greek conception, a 
''comedy'^ is a play that deals with humble folk and ends hap- 
pily; a "tragedy,'^ one that deals with gods and heroes and ends 
unhappily. The greatest Greek writer of comedies, Menander, 
produced plays that ''held the mirror up to nature" because they 
presented human life with laughter and tears commingled. 
Menedemus is a father who repents bitterly, even fanatically, 
his severity toward his wayward son. After the son runs away^ 
from home, Menedemus imposes upon himself the penance of 
renouncing all luxury and moves into a humble dwelling (next 
door to Chremes), where he voluntarily takes up a life of degrad- 
ing manual drudgery. Chremes, his new neighbor, is an arrant 

The scene represents the adjacent houses of Chremes and 
Menedemus. Menedemus is discovered toiling in his garden. 
Chremes, unable longer to contain his curiosity, seeks to elicit 
from the reticent Menedemus an explanation of all his melan- 
choly toil. 

The meter is six-foot iambic. 


Scene 1 

1 Ch. [approaching Menedemus and interrupting his labor] 

Quamquam haec inter nos nuper notitia admodum 'st 

2 (inde ddeo cum agrum in pr6ximo hie mercdtus es), 

3 nee ref fere sdne hoc ampliiis quicqudm fuft, 

4 tamen vel virtus tua me v^l vicinitds 

5 (quod ego In proplnqua pdrte amfcitia^ puto) 

6 facit lit te auddcter m6neam et fdmilidrit^r, * 

142 National or Classical Roman Literature 

7 quod mihi vid^re pra^ter a^tatem tudm 

8 facere ^t praet(^r quam r^s te adh6rtatiir tud,. 

9 Nam pr6 deum dtque hominiim fid^m, quid vis tibf? 

10 Quid qua^ris? Annos s^xagfnta ndtus ^s, 

1 1 aut pills eo, lit conlcio. In his regionibus 

12 meli6rem agrlim neque pr6ti mai6ris n^mo hab^t. 

13 Serv6s compluris! Prolnde qudsi nemo siet: 
--^14 ita att^nte tute illorum officia fungere. 

15 Numqudm tam mdne egredior neque tam vesper! 

16 domiim revertor, qufn te in fundo conspic^r 

17 foder^ aut ardre aut dliquid f^rre. Deniqu6 

18 nullum remlttis tempus n^que te r^spicis. 

19 Haec n6n voluptati tibi esse, sdtis cert6 scio, ^ j ^'^ 

20 "Enim" dices "quantum hie operis flat pa^nit^t." 

21 Quod in opere fdciendo operae c6nsumls tua^, , 5^^ 

22 si siimas in lllis ^xerc^ndis, plus agds. , , ^ ' ^ 
^V^'*-" 23 Me. [frigidly] Chremes, tantiimne ab r6 tud ^st otl tibl, 

24 ali^na ut cures ea quae nil ad te dttinent? 

25 Ch. [sententiously] Homo sum: humani nil a me dlieniim 


26 Vel me monere hoc v^l perc6ntarl puta: 

27 rectum 'st, ego ut fdciam; n6n est, te lit deterredm^ j 

28 Me. [wearily] Mihi sic est lisus; tlbi ut opiis fact6 ^st, face. 

29 Ch. [persisting] An culquam 'st lisus h6mini, se lit cruci^t? 

Me. [stubbornly] Mihi! 

30 Ch. Si quid labori /st, noUem. S^d c^uid istiic mall ^st? 

31 Quaeso, quid de te tdntum c6mmerulsti? Me. [weeping] 


32 Ch. Ne Idcruma, atque Istuc quldquid ^st fac me lit scidm. 

33 Ne r^tice, n^ verere, crede inqudm mihi: 

34 aut consoldndo aut consilio aiit re iiivero. 

,.^^— 35 Me. [incredulously] Scire hoc vis? Ch. Hdc quidem caiisa 
'^ qud dixl tibi. 

36 Me. Dic^tur. [He starts to resume his work while talking.] 

Ch. At Istos rdstros Intered tam^n 

37 adpone; n^ lab6ra. Me. Mlnime. Ch. [astonished] Qudm 

rem agls? 

Second Period 143 

38 Me. Sine m^, vodvum t^mpus n6 quod d^m mihf 

39 lab6ris. Ch. [taking the mattock away from him] N6n sinam, 

Inquam. Me. Ah, non aequum facls. 

40 Ch. [hefting the mattock] Kui, t^m gTSivis hos qusi^so? Me. 

Sic meritlim 'st meum. 

41 Ch. Nunc loquere. Me. [wearily] Fflium linicum ddules- 


42 habeo. [Groaning] Ah quid dfxi? Habere me? Immo 

habuf, Chromes: 

43 nunc hdbeam necne incertum 'st. Ch. Quid ita isttic? 

Me. Sci^s. 

44 Est 6 Corintho hie advena amis pauperculd. 

45 Eiusiiliam llle amdre coepit p^rdit^, 

46 prope ut pro uxore haberet: ha^c clam me omnid. 

47 Ubi r^m rescivi, coepi non humdnitus ^ 

48 neque ^t dnimum d^cuit aegrotum ddulesc^ntulf \^ 

49 tractdre, s^d vi et via perviilgat^ patrum. 

50 Cottldie accusdbam: "Hem tlbine haec dfutiiis 

51 lic^re speras facere, m6 vivo patr6, 

52 amicam ut habeas prope iam in lixorls loco? 

53 Erras, si id cr^dis, ^t me ignoras, Clinid. 

54 Ego t^ meum esse dici tdntisp^r volo, 

55 dum quod te dignum 'st fdcies; sed si id n6n facfs, 

56 ego quod me in te sit fdcere dignum invenero. 

57 Nulla ddeo ex re istuc fit nisi ^x nimio 6ti6. 

58 Ego istiic aetatis non amori operdm dabdm, 

59 sed in Asiam hinc dbii propter pauperiem atque ibl 

60 sim\il rem et gloriam drmis b^lli repperi." 

6 1 Postr^mo adeo res r^diit : ddulesc^ntuMs 

62 saepe ^adem et grdviter aiidi^ndo vfctus ^st. 

63 Aetdte me putdvit ^t sapi^ntia 

64 plus scire et pr6vid^re qudm se ipsiim sibi. 

65 In Asiam ad regem militdtum abift, Chremes. 

66 Ch. [shocked] Quid ais? Me. Clam me profectus m^nsis trfs 


67 Ch. [judiciously] Ambo dccusdndi; etsi illud inceptum tam6n 

68 animl ^st pud^ntis signum et non instr^nui. 

144 National or Classical Roman Literature 

69 Me. [sadly] Ubi c6mperi ^x eis, qui fuere ei conscil, 

70 domum reverter maestus atque animo fere 

71 pertiirbato dtque incerto prae aegritudine. 

72 Adsido; accurrunt servi; soccos detrahunt; 

73 video alios festinare lectos sternere, 

74 cenam appardre; pro se quisque sedulo 

75 faciebant, quo illam mlhi lenirent miseriam. ^ 

76 Ubi video, haec coepi cogitare: "Hem, tot mea^ 

77 solius solliciti sunt caiisa, lit me unum expleant? 

78 Ancillae tot me vestidnt? Sumptiis domi 

79 tantos ego solus faciam? Sed gnatum uniciim, 

80 quem pariter liti his d^cuit aiit etiam ampliiis, 

81 quod ilia aetas magis ad haec utenda idonea 'st, 

82 eum ego hinc eieci miserum iniiistitia mea! 

83 Malo quidem me quovis dignum d^put^m, 

84 si id Mciam. Nam lisque dum ille vitam illdm colet 

85 inopeiu, carens patriam 6b med,s iniurias, 

86 interea usque illi de me supi)iicium dab6 

87 laborans, pdrcens, quaerens, illi s^rvi^ns." 

88 Ita facio prorsus. Nil relinquo in aedibiis, 

89 nee v^s nee vestimentum. Conrasi omni^. 

90 Ancillas, servos, nisi eos qui opere rustico 

91 faciendo facile siimptum exercerent suiim, 

92 omnis produxi ac vendidi. Inscripsi ilico 

93 aedis mercede. Qudsi talenta ad quindecim 

94 coegi. Agrum hiinc mercatus sum. Hie me exerce6o 

95 Decr^vi tantisper me minus iniiiriae, 

96 Chremes, meo gndto fdcere, dum fiam mis6r; 

97 nee fas esse lilla me voliiptate hie frui, 

98 nisi ubi ille hue salvus redierit mens pd^rticeps. 

99 Ch. Ingenio te ^sse in liberos leni puto, ^ , 

100 et ilium obsequentem, si quis recte aut c6mmod6 

101 tractaret. Verum nee tu ilium satis noveras, 

102 nee te ille: hoc quod fit, ubi non vere vivitiir. 

103 Tu ilium numquam ostendisti qudnti penderes, 

104 nee tibi ille ^st credere ausus quae 'st aequum patri. 

105 Quod si esset factum, haec numquam ev^nissent tibi. 

Second Period 145 

106 Me. [sadly] Ita r^s est, fdteor: peccatum d me maximum 


107 Ch. [more cheerfully] Mened^me, at p6rro r^cte spero, et 

illiim tibi 

108 salvum ddfuturum esse hie confido propediem. 

109 Me. Utinam ita di fdxint! Ch. Facient. Nunc si c6m- 

modum 'st, 

110 Dion^sia hie sunt hodie: apiid me sis volo. 

111 Me. Non possum. Ch. Cur non? Quaeso tdndem aliqudn- 


112 tibi pdrce: idem dbsens fdcere te hoc vult filius. 

113 Me. Non convenlt, cui ilium dd lab6rem hinc p^pulerim, 

114 nunc me fpsum fugere. Ch. Sicine 'st sent^ntid? 

115 Me. Sic. Ch. B^ne vale. Me. £t tu. [Exit into his own 

house,] Ch. [shaking his headj sadly] Ldcrimas ^xcussft 


In the remainder of the play, the plot takes a turn for the comic. 
Clinia, Menedemus' son, returns. Ignorant of his father's grief and 
repentance, he takes refuge from anticipated parental ire with Cli- 
TiPHO, son of Chremes. Chremes now undertakes to manage every- 
one's affairs: he persuades Menedemus to teach Clinia a belated 
lesson by pretending to refuse a reconciliation, but meanwhile to keep 
him supplied with funds (through Chremes) and to allow him clan- 
destinely to marry his sweetheart. Chremes improves the occasion 
by preaching the folly of Clinia to his own son — not knowing, how- 
ever, that Clitipho also has a sweetheart. Meanwhile the two young 
men have *' cooked up" a plot to share the funds that come from 
Menedemus, to pass off Clitipho's sweetheart as Clinia's (thus 
gaining access for her to Clitipho's house), and to disguise Clinia's 
sweetheart as the other girl's maid. The plot is successfully and 
ludicrously carried out, and when finally the truth is discovered, 
Menedemus has the laugh on Chremes. Naturally the young men 
are forgiven and Uve happily ever after. 

146 National or Classical Roman Literature 


Opening Scene of the Andria^ or The 

Woman Of Andros 

The first act of the Andria is a clever piece of "exposition" and 
a charming romantic story. Mr. Thornton Wilder has taken it 
as the basis of his novel, The Woman of Andros, 

A successful play, whether modern or ancient, is an extraor- 
dinary piece of condensation. The action begins at the moment 
of impending climax, following a long series of preliminary events; 
and the dramatist must therefore carry us both forward and 
backward, so to speak. He spreads a panorama before our eyes, 
beginning at the middle and unrolling it at both ends. As 
neither dramatist nor audience can do two things at once, the 
processes must naturally alternate; but the dramatist must keep 
them both in view: he must reveal to the audience the series of 
events that preceded the action of a play and, at the same time, 
carry the action swiftly forward to its denouement. The account 
of what has already happened comes first, and is called the 

The simplest and crudest form of exposition is the soliloquy. 
This may even be distinct from the play proper — ^i.e., it may 
constitute the prologue— and the audience be thus unceremoni- 
ously informed of preceding events in the story. But the Greek 
writers of comedy of manners had already achieved a more artis- 
tic technique of exposition by casting it in dialogue form, incor- 
porating it in the play proper, and giving it some simple natural 
motivation and action of its own. Combining in this play the 
Andria and Perinthia of Menander, Terence produced a lively 
exposition of this sort. 

The characters are: Simo, an elderly citizen of Athens, who is 
burdened with a problem of parental authority; and Sosia, his 
faithful (if not obsequious) freedman and confidant, who now 
occupies the position of steward or cook in Simo's household. 
An interesting development rivets one's attention at the very 
start. Enter (on the customary scene) Simo, deferentially at- 

Second Period 147 

tended by Sosia and followed by slaves, carrying a sumptuous 
assortment of provisions for a feast. The feast, as we soon learn, 
is intended for the wedding of Simo's son. 

Note the care with which the characterization of Simo and 
Sosia (and their mutual relation) is carried out. Thus this first 
act, or exposition, may almost be regarded as a play within a 
play — for Sosia appears only in this scene ; there is no further use 
for him in the rest of the play. A character that serves only to 
motivate the exposition and then disappears was called by the 
ancient critics a "protatic," or preliminary, character, 


Scene 1 

1 Si, [to the slaves carrying the provisions] Vos istaec intro 

auferte. Abfte. [Exeunt slaves into Simo's house; Simo 
detains Sosia.] Sosid, 

2 ad^s dum: paucis te volo. So. [briskly] Dictum putd: 

3 nempe lit cur^ntur recte haec? Si. Immo aliiid. So. Quid 

^st , 

4 quod tlbi mea ars efficere hoc p6ssit dmpUus? 

5 Si. [solemnly] Nil istac 6pus est drte ad hdnc rem qudm 


6 sed eis quas semper In te intellexi sitas — 

7 fide et tacitiirnitate. So. [very curious] Exspecto quid veils. 

8 Si. [impressively] Ego postquam te 6mi, a pdrvulo lit semper 


9 apiid me iiista et clemens fiierit servitiis 

10 scis. Feci ex s^rvo ut esses libertiis mihf, 

1 1 propterea quod servibas liberaliter : ^ 

12 quod habui siimmum pretium p^rsolvi tibi. 

13 So. [taken aback] In memoria hdbeo. Si. Haud miito fac- 

tum. So. [concealing his uneasiness] Gaiideo, 

14 si tibi quid feci aut fdcio quod placedt, Simo; 

15 et id grdtum fufsse adv^rsum te, hdbeo grdtidm. 

16 Sed hoc mihi mol^stum 'st: nam Istaec c6mmemordti6 

17 quasi 4xprobrdti6 'st imm^mori b^neficf. 

148 National or Classical Roman Literature 

18 Quin tu lino verbo die, quid est quod me velfs? 

19 Si. Ita faciam. Hoc primum in hdc re praedic6 tibf : 

20 quas credis esse has non sunt verae nuptiae. 

21 So. Cur simulas igitur? Si. Rem omnem a prfncipio aiidies: 

22 60 pdcto et gnati vitam et consilium meum 

23 cogn6sces et quid fdcere in hd,c re te velfm. 

24 Nam is postquam exc^ssit ex ephebis, Sosia, et 

25 liberius viv^ndi fult pot^stas (nam dntea 

26 qui scire posses aiit ing^nium noscer^, 

27 dum aetas m6tus magister prohibebdnt? So. ltd ^st.) 

28 Si. . . . quod pl^rique omnes Mciunt adulescentulf, 

29 ut d-nimum ad dliquod stiidium adiiingant (aut equ6s 

30 alere aiit canes ad venandi aut ad phllosophos), 

31 horum ille nil egr^gie praeter ceterd 

32 stud^bat — et tamen omnia haec mediocriter. 

33 Gaud^bam. So. Non iniiiria; nam id arbitror 

34 adprime in vita esse utile, lit "ne quid nimis.'^ 

35 Si. Sic vita erdt: facile ofhriTs perferre ac pati; 

36 cum quibus erat cumque una, eis sese dedere; 

37 eorum studiis obsequi; ad versus n^mini; 

38 numqudm praeponens se lllis — ita ut facfllime 

39 sine invidia laiidem invenias ^t amicos pares. 

40 So. Sapienter vitam instituit; namque hoc tempore 

41 obsequium amicos, veritds odiiim pant. 

42 Si. Int^rea miilier qua^dam abhinc trienniiim "" ^.^ "^ '^' 

43 ex Andro commigravit hiic vicfnidm, 

44 inopia et cognatorum negleg^ntia 

45 codcta, egregia forma at que aetate integrl. ^;., 

46 So. Hei, vereor ne quid Andria ddportet mali! 

47 Si. Primo haec pudfce vitam parce ac diiriter 

48 agebat, Idna ac tela vfctum quaeritdns; 
Y^>A^ ' 49 sed postquam amans accessit pr^tium pollicens 

50 unus et item dlter, ita ut ing^nium 'st orrmiiim 

51 hominum db labore proclive dd libidinem, 

52 accepit condicionem, dein quaestum occiplt. 

53 Qui tum fllam amdbant forte, ita lit fit, filiiim 
^4 perdiixere illilc, secum ut una ess^t, meiim. 



Second Period 149 

65 Egom6t continue m^cum, "c^rte cdptus ^st: 

56 habet." Observdbam mdne illorum s^rvulos 

57 venientis aiit abeuntis: rogitabam, "heiis pu^r, 

58 die sodes, quls heri Chrysidem hdbuit?" — nam Andria^ 

59 illi id erat nomen. So. Teneo. Si. Phaedrum aut Clinidm 

60 dic^bant aiit Nic^ratum. HI tres turn simul 

61 amdbant. "Eho, quid Pamphiliis?" "Quid? Symboldm 

62 dedit, cendvit/' Gaudebam. Item alio die 

63 quaer^bam : c6mperf bam nil ad Pdmphilum , :J^ 

64 quicquam dttin^re. Enim v6ro sp^ctatiim satis 

65 putabam et mdgnum exemplum c6ntin^ntia^; 

66 nam qui cum ing^niis conflictatur ^ius modi 

67 neque c6mmovetur dnimus In ea r^ tam^n, \ » 

68 scias posse habere iam Ipsum sua^ vita^ modum. 

69 Cium id mlhi plac^bat, tum lino ore 6mnes 6mnid. 

70 bona dlcere et lauddre f6rtunds meds, 

71 qui gnatum hab^rem tdli ing^nio pra^ditiim. 

72 Quid verbis 6pus est? Hdc fama Impulsus Chrem^s 

73 ultro dd me venit, linicdm gnatdm sudm 

74 cum dote summa fllio lixorem lit dar^t. 

75 Placult : desp6ndi. Hie niiptils dietu'st di^s. 

76 So. Quid Igitur 6bstat ciir non flant? Si. Aiidi^s. 

77 Fere In di^bus paiicis quibus haec dcta sunt 

78 Chrysls viclna haec m6ritur. So. 6 f actiim ben6 ! 

79 Bedsti : hei, m^tui a Chr^side. Si. Ibi tum fllius x^v^ 

80 cum ilUs qui amdrant Chrysidem iina aderdt freqii^ns; 

81 curdbat lina funus; trlstis Interim, 

82 nonnumquam conlacrimdbat. Pldcuit tum Id mihl. 

83 Sic cogitdbam: "Hie pdrvae consuetiidinls 

84 causa hiiius m6rtem tdm fert fdmilidriter. 

85 Quid si Ipse amdsset? Quid hie mihl faci^t patrl?'' 

86 Haec ^go putdbam esse 6mnia humani Ingenl 

87 mansu^tique dnimi offlcia. Quid multls mor6r? 

88 Egom^t quoque ^ius causa in funus pr6de6i 

89 nil ^tiam siispiedns mali. So. H^m, quid is 6st? Si. Sci^s. 

90 Ecf^rtur; Imus. Interea Inter miilier^s, 

91 quae ibi dderant, f6rte unam dspicio ddulesc^ntuldm, 

150 National or Classical Roman Literature 

92 f ormE . . . So. . . . bon^ fortdsse. Si. . . . et viiltu, S6- 


93 ade6 modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil suprd. 

94 Quae ciim mihi ld,mentari pra^ter c^terds 

95 visd 'st, et quia erat forma praeter c^terds 

96 hoii^sta ac liberal!, accedo ad p^disequds; 

97 quae sit rpgo. Sor6rem esse diunt Chr^sidis. 

98 Perciissit ilico animum: "Attat, hoc illud ^st; 

99 hinc lllae Idcrimae; haec ilia 'st miseric6rdia/' 

100 So. Quam timeo qu6rsum evadas! Si. Fiinus Interfm 

101 proc^dit; sequimur; dd sepulcrum v^nimus; 

102 in ignem iinp6sita *st; fletur. Interea ha^c sor6r 

103 quam dixi ad fldmmam acc^ssit imprud^ntiils, 

104 satis cum periclo. Ibi tum ^xanimdtus Pdmphiliis 

105 bene dissimuldtum amorem et celatum indicdt: 

106 adciirrit; m^diam mulierem complectitiir; 

107 "mea Gl^cerium" inquit "quid agis? Ciir te is p^rditiim?" 

108 Tum ilia, lit consuetuni f decile am6rem c^rner^s, 

109 rei^cit se in eum, fl^ns quam f dmilidrit^r ! 

110 So. Quid ais? Si. Redeo inde ird,tus dtque aegr6 fer^ns — 

111 nee sdtis ad 6biurgd,ndum causae. Dicer^t: 

112 "Quid feci? Quid comm^rui aut p^ccavi, pat^r? 

113 Quae sese in ignem inicere voluit, prohibui, 

114 servavi/* Hon^sta oratio 'st. So. Rect^ putds; 

115 nam si ilium obiiirges, vitae qui aiixilium tulit, 

116 quid fdcias illi, dederit qui damnum aiit maliim? 

117 Si. Venit Chremes postridie M me cldmitdns, 

118 " indignum f acinus ' ' ; comperisse PamphiMm 

119 pro uxore habere banc peregrinam. Ego illud s^dul6 

120 negdre fdctum. lUe instat factum. D^niqu6 

121 ita tiim discedo ab illo, ut qui se filidm 

122 neg^t datiirum. So. N6n tu ibi gndtum . . . ? Si. Ne 

ha^c quid^m 

123 satis v^mens causa ad obiurgdndum. So. Qui? Ced6. 

124 Si. "Tute ipse his r^bus finem pra^scripsti, pat6r; 

125 prope ad^st cum ali^no m6re vivendiim 'st mihi; 

126 sine mine me6 me vivere intered modo." 

Second Period 151 

127 So. Qui igitur relfctus ^st obiiirgandl locus? 

128 Si. Si pr6pter amorem ux6rem n61et diicer^, 

129 ea prlmum ab lllo animddvert^nda iniurid 'st. 

130 Et nunc id operam do, lit per fdlsas niiptids 

131 vera 6biurgdndi caiisa sit, si d^neget; 

132 simul scelerdtus Dd-vus, si quid c6nsill 

133 habet, lit consumat niinc, cum nll-obsfnt doli — 

134 quern ego cr^do mdnibus p^dibusque 6bnixe 6mni£ 

135 factiirum, mdgis id ddeo, mlhi ut incommod^t, 

136 quam ut obsequdtur gndto. So. Quapropt^r? Si. Rogds? 

137 Mala mens malus dnimus. Qu^m quidem eg6 si s^n- 

ser6 . . . 

138 Sed quid opu^st verbis? Sin ev^niat quod vol6, 

139 in Pamphilo lit nil sit mora^, restdt Chrem^s 

140 qui mi ^xordndus ^st: et sp^ro conform. 

141 Nunc tuiim 'st offlcium, has b^ne ut adslmules niiptids, 

142 pert^rrefdcias Ddvum, observes flliiim, 

143 quid agdt, quid cum lllo consill capt^t. So. Sat ^st: 

144 curdbo. Si. Edmus niinciam Intro : i pra^, sequ6r. 


The remaining action of the play moves rapidly to its cHmax and 
revolves about a conflict of wits between Davus, the intriguing slave, 
and SiMO. Seeing through Simo's plans, Davus gives the former's 
son, Pamphilus, cunning advice — namely, to assent unconditionally 
to the mock wedding and thus embarrass his father — ^for Simo will 
have no one for him to marry. In the nick of time Simo then obtains 
Chremes' consent to the immediate marriage of his daughter Philu- 
MENA with Pamphilus, as originally planned. Thus the tables are 
turned on Davus; but he counters by producing the newborn child 
of Pamphilus and Glycerium. And so on, with other complica- 
tions, until ultimately it is discovered (of course) that Glycerium 
too is Chremes' daughter — his long-lost daughter, supposedly ship- 
wrecked in infancy but actually saved and brought up in Andros. 
Thus the much-disputed wedding takes place after all — but between 
Pamphilus and Glycerium I 

152 National or Classical Roman Literature v. 
Rhetorica Ad Herennium 

(Published in 86 B.C.; author unknown.) 

The so-called Rhetorica ad Herennium owes its preservation to 
the glamor of a great name, for at the beginning of the Dark 
Ages it was ascribed to Cicero, inasmuch as it resembles (and 
occasionally reproduces almost word for word) his genuine rhe- 
torical treatise, De Inventione} The author of £he Rhetorica ad 
Herennium, whoever he may have been (some claim that he was 
Cornificius), was a cultured man of affairs. His treatise, written 
about 86 B.C., is a protest against academic theory. It is sound 
and practical, with flashes of genius. The author's aims are 
admirably set forth in a concise and unostentatious preface, as 


1 Etsi, negotiis familiaribus impediti, vix satis otium studio 

2 suppeditare possumus, et id ipsum quod datur otii libentius 

3 in philosophia consumere consuevimus, tamen tua nos, C. 

4 Herenni, voluntas commovit, ut de ratione dicendi con- 

5 scriberemus, ne aut tua causa noluisse aut fugisse nos labo- 

6 rem putares. Et eo studiosius hoc negotium suscepimus, 

7 quod te non sine causa velle cognoscere rhetoricam intelle- 

8 gebamus. Non enim in se parum fructtis habet copia 

9 dicendi et commoditas orationis, si recta intellegentia et 

10 definita moderatione animi gubernetur. Quas ob res ilia, 

11 quae Graeci scriptores inanis arrogantiae causa sibi ad- 

12 sumpserunt, reliquimus: nam illi, ne parum multa scisse 

13 viderentur, ea conquisiverunt, quae nihil attinebant, ut ars 

14 difficilior cognitu putaretur. Nos ea, quae videbantur ad 

15 rationem dicendi pertinere, sumpsimus, non enim, spe 

16 quaestus aut gloria commoti, venimus ad scribendum, quem- 

17 admodum ceteri; sed ut industria nostra tuae morem 

18 geramus voluntati. Nunc ne nimium longa sumatur ora- 

19 tio, de re dicere incipiemus, si te unum illud monuerimus, 

20 artem sine assiduitate dicendi non multum iuvare, ut in- 

* See p. 182 for a discussion of this work. 

Second Period 153 

21 tellegas banc rationem praeceptionis ad exercitationem ac- 

22 comodari oportere. 


The treatise itself is in four books. Tbe first three books deal 
chiefly with "invention" (i.e., the planning of one's case); this is 
followed by brief chapters on "disposition" (i.e., the presentation 
of one's case), on voice and gesture, and on memory systems 
(identical with those in vogue today). The fourth book, which is 
the most interesting part of the work, treats of style. 


The Three Styles 
An interesting feature of the fourth book is the exposition of 
the three generic types of style (figurae) : the "formal" or "lofty" 
(gravis) J the "medium" {mediocris) y and the "informal" or 
"colloquial" (extenuata). The author has the temerity to illus- 
trate these three styles by sample compositions of his own — a 
procedure that horrified the timid pedants who wrote in Greek 
and drew their examples religiously from the classic masters, 
chiefly from Demosthenes: 

1 Sunt igitur tria genera, quae genera nos figuras appella- 

2 mus, in quibus omnis oratio non vitiosa consumitur: unam 

3 gravem, alteram mediocrem, tertiam extenuatam vocamus. 

4 Gravis est, quae constat ex verborum gravium et levi et 

5 ornata constructione. Mediocris est, quae constat ex 

6 humiliore neque tamen ex infima et pervulgatissima verb- 

7 orum dignitate. Attenuata est, quae demissa est usque ad 

8 usitatissimam puri consuetudinem sermonis. 

[a] Example of the formal, or lofty, style — appropriate to 
emotional appeals: 

The Traitor 

[The traitor is beyond the pale; he deserves no mercy.] 

1 " Nam quis est vestrum, indices, qui satis idoneam possit in 

2 eum poenam cogitare, qui prodere hostibus patriam cogi- 

154 National or Classical Roman Literature 

3 tarit? Quod maleficium cum hoc scelere comparari, quod 

4 huic maleficio dignum supplicium potest inveniri? In iis, 

5 qui violassent ingenuum, matrem familias constuprassent, 

6 maxima supplicia maiores consumpserunt : huic truculentis- 

7 simo ac nefario facinori singularem poenam non reliquerunt. 

8 Atque in aliis maleficiis ad singulos aut ad paucos ex alieno 

9 peccato iniuria pervenit : huius sceleris qui sunt adfines, uno 

10 consilio universis civibus atrocissimas calamitates machinan- 

11 tur. O f eros animos ! O crudeles cogitationes ! Oderelictos 

12 homines ab humanitate! qui id agere ausi sunt aut cogitare 

13 potuerunt, quo pacto hostes, revulsis maiorum sepulcris, 

1 4 deiectis moenibus, o vantes inruerent in ci vitatem ; quo modo, 

15 deum templis spoliatis, optimatibus trucidatis, aliis abreptis 

16 in servitutem, matribus familias et ingenuis sub hostilem 

17 libidinem subiectis, urbs acerbissimo concidat incendio con- 
is flagrata; qui se non putant id, quod voluerint, ad exitum 

19 perduxisse, nisi sanctissimae patriae miserandum scelerati 

20 viderint cinerem. Nequeo verbis consequi, indices, in- 

21 dignitatem rei, sed neglegentius id fero, quia vos mei non 

22 egetis. Vester enim vos animus amantissimus rei publicae 

23 facile edocet, ut eum, qui fortunas omnium voluerit prodere, 

24 praecipitem proturbetis ex ea civitate, quam iste hostium 

25 spurcissimorum dominatu nefario voluit obruere/' 

[b] Example of the medium style — appropriate to logical 

The Revolt of the Fregellani 

[Fregellaej a small allied towrij has risen in revolt against the vast 
territory of Rome, The speaker argues that this revolt must have 
been instigated by more powerful and unknown foes.] 

1 " Quibuscum bellum gerimus, indices, videtis: cum sociisi 

2 qui pro nobis pugnare et imperium nostrum nobiscum simul 

3 virtute et industria conservare soliti sunt. Hi cum se et 

4 suas opes et copiam necessario norunt; turn vero nihilo 

5 minus propter propinquitatem et omnium rerum societatem, 

Second Period 155 

6 quid omnibus rebus populus Romanus posset, scire et 

7 existimare poterant. Hi cum deliberassent nobiscum bel- 

8 lum gerere, quaeso, quae res erat, qua freti bellum suscipere 

9 conarentur, cum multo maximam partem sociorum in offi- 

10 cio manere inteilegerent, cum sibi non multitudinem mili- 

11 tum, non idoneos imperatores, non pecuniam publicam 

12 praesto esse viderent, non denique ullam rem, quae res 

13 pertineret ad bellum administrandum ? Si cum finitimis de 

14 finibus bellum gererent, si totum certamen in uno proelio 

15 positum putarent, tamen omnibus rebus instructiores et ap- 

16 paratiores venirent; nedum illi imperium or bis terrae — cui 

17 imperio omnes gentes reges nationes partim vi partim volun- 

18 tate concesserunt, cum aut armis aut liberalitate a populo 

19 Romano super at i essent — ad se transferre tantulis viribus 

20 conarentur. Quaeret aliquis: 'Quid? Fregellani non sua 

21 sponte conati sunt?' Eo quidem isti minus facile conaren- 

22 tur, quod, illi quemadmodum discessissent, videbant. Nam 

23 rerum imperiti, qui unius cuiusque rei de rebus ante gestis 

24 exempla petere non possunt, ii per imprudentiam facillime 

25 deducuntur in fraudem; at ii, qui sciunt quid aliis acciderit, 

26 facile ex aliorum eventis suis rationibus possunt providere. 

27 Nulla igitur re inducti, nulla spe freti arma sustulerunt? 

28 Quis hoc credet, tantam amentiam quemquam tenuisse, ut 

29 imperium populi Romani temptare auderet nullis copiis 

30 fretus? Ergo aliquid fuisse necessum est. Quid aliud, nisi 

31 id, quod dico, potest esse?'' 

[c] Example of the informal, or colloquial, style — appropriate 
to narrative of everyday events: 

The Bathhouse Brawler 

[The lawyer for the defense describes his clienVs encounter with a 
bathhoiLse brawler.] 

1 " Nam ut forte hie in balneas venit, coepit, postquam per- 

2 fusus est, defricari; deinde, ubi visum est ut in alveum 

3 descenderet, ecce tibi iste de transverso: 'Heus' inquit 

156 National or Classical Roman Literature 

4 ' adulescens, pueri tui modo me pulsarunt; satisfacias 

5 oportet/ Hie, qui id aetatis ab ignoto praeter consuetud- 

6 inem appellatus esset, erubuit. Iste clarius et eadem et alia 

7 dicere coepit. Hie vix 'tamen' inquit 'sine me consider- 

8 are/ Turn vero iste clamare voce ista, quae vel rabulae 

9 cuivis rubores elieere potest. . . . Conturbatus est adules- 

10 cens; nee mirum — cui etiam nune paedagogi lites ad 

11 aurieulas versarentur, imperito huiusmodi eonvieiorum. 

12 Ubi enim vidisset scurram exhausto rubore, qui se putaret 

13 nihil habere quod de exist imatione perderet, omnia sine 

14 famae detrimento facere posse? " 


What to Avoid in the Three Styles 
In conclusion, the author presents some brief examples of what 
the speaker should avoid — i.e., bombast, incoherence, and dullness. 

[a] Bombast: Est autem eavendum, ne, dum haee 

2 genera conseetemur, in finitima et propinqua vitia veniamus. 

3 Nam gravi figurae, quae laudanda est, propinqua est ea 

4 quae fugienda; quae recte videbitur appellari, si "sufflata" 

5 nominabitur : nam ita ut corporis bonam habitudinem tumor 

6 imitatur saepe, item gravis oratio saepe imperitis videtur ea 

7 quae turget et inflata est, cum aut novis aut priscis verbis 

8 aut duriter aliunde translatis aut gravioribus quam res 

9 postulat aliquid dieitur, hoc modo: 

(The Traitor) 

10 "Nam qui perduellionibus venditat patriam, non satis 

11 supplieii dederit, si praeceps in Neptunias depulsus erit 

12 lacunas : poenite igitur istum, qui montes belli fabrieatus est, 

13 campos sustulit pacis.'^ 

14 In hoc genus plerique cum declinantur, specie gravitatis 

15 falluntur nee perspicere possunt orationis tumorem. 

[b] Incoherence : Qui in mediocre genus orationis profecti 

2 sunt, si pervenire eo non potuerunt, errantes perveniunt ad 

3 confine genus eius generis, quod appellamus "dissolutum," 

Second Period 157 

4 eo quod fluctuat hue et illtlc nee potest confirmate neque 
6 viriliter sese expedire. Id est huiusmodi: 

(The Revolt of the Fregellani) 

6 "Socii nostri, eum belligerare nobiscum vellent, profecto 

7 ratiocinati essent etiam atque etiam, quid possent facere, si 

8 quidem sua sponte f acerent et non haberent hinc adiutores 

9 multos, malos homines et audaces: solent enim diu cogitare 

10 omnes, qui magna negotia volunt agere." 

11 Non potest huiusmodi sermo tenere attentum auditorem; 

12 diffluit enim totus neque quicquam comprehendens per- 

13 fectis verbis amplectitur. 

[c] Dullness: Qui non possunt in ilia facetissima verb- 

2 orum attenuatione commode versari, veniunt ad aridum et 

3 exsangue genus orationis, quod non alienum est "exile" 

4 nominari, euiusmodi est hoc : 

(The Bathhouse Brawler) 
6 "Nam istic in balineis accessit ad hunc; postea dicit 'hie 

6 tuus servus me pulsavit/ Postea dicit hie illi ^considera- 

7 bo/ Post ille convicium fecit et magis magisque praesente 

8 multis clamavit." 

9 Frivolus hie quidem iam et illiberaiis est sermo; non enim 

10 est adeptus id quod habet attenuata figura: puris et electis 

11 verbis compositam orationem. 

Definitions and Examples of Familiar Themes 
Most of these definitions are rather technical and the illustra- 
tive examples of the briefest, but in a few instances the author has 
developed his theme more fully and has produced a picture or a 
story quite capable of standing by itself — e.g. : 

[a] NotatiOy or depiction of a type of character: Here our 
author introduces a complete essay — patterned after the fascinat- 
ing and witty character sketches of Theophrastus : ^ 

1 The Greek philosopher Theophrastus, originator of this type of sketch, 
died about two hundred years before the Rheiorica ad Herennium was written. 
His work, entitled Characters, was very popular in the XVII century and was 
imitated by English and French writers — notably La Bruyere. Other ramifi- 
cations of the art of character-sketching lie in comedy and satire. 

158 National or Classical Roman Literature 

1 Notatio est cum alicuius natura certis describitur signis, 

2 quae, sicuti notae quaedam, naturae sunt attributa: ut si 

3 velis non divitem, sed ostentatorem pecuniosi, describere: 

The Simulator of Wealth, or The Sham Millionaire 

4 "Iste," inquias, "iudices, qui se dici divitem putat esse 

5 praeclarum, primum nunc videte, quo vultu nos intueatur. 

6 Nonne vobis videtur dicere, ^darem, si mihi molesti non 

7 essetis'? Cum vero sinistra mentum sublevavit, existimat 

8 se gemmae nitore et auri splendore aspectus omnium per- 

9 stringere. 

10 "Cum puerum respicit hunc unum, quem ego novi — ^vos 

1 1 non arbitror — , alio nomine appellat, deinde alio atque alio. 

12 'Tu' inquit Veni, Sannio, ne quid isti barbari turbent'; ut 

13 ignoti, qui audiunt, unum putent selegi de multis. Ei 

14 dicit in aurem, ut aut domi lectuli sternantur, aut ab 

15 avunculo rogetur Aethiops qui ad balneas veniat, aut 

16 asturconi locus ante ostium suum detur, aut aliquid falso 

17 gloriae comparetur. Deinde exclamat, ut omnes audiant: 

18 'videto, ut diligenter numerentur, si potest, ante noctem.' 

19 Puer, qui iam bene naturam novit, *tu plures mittas opor- 

20 tet,' inquit, 'si hodie vis transnumerari/ 'Age,' inquit, 

21 * due tecum Libanum et Sosiam/ 'Sane/ 

22 "Deinde casu veniunt hospites homini, quos iste, dum 

23 splendide peregrinatur, invitarat. Ex ea re homo hercule 

24 sane conturbatur, sed tamen a vitio naturae non recedit: 

25 'bene' inquit 'facitis, cum venitis, sed rectius fecissetis, si 

26 ad me domum recta abissetis/ ' Id f ecissemus/ inquiunt, ' si 

27 domum novissemus/ ' At istud quidem facile fuit undelibet 

28 in venire; verum ite mecum.' Sequuntur illi. Sermo in- 

29 terea huius consumitur omnis in ostentatione. Quaerit, in 

30 agris frumenta cuiusmodi sint; negat se, quia villae incensae 

31 sint, accedere posse nee aedificare etiamnunc audere; Ham- 

32 etsi in Tusculano quidem coepi insanire et in isdem funda- 

33 mentis aedificare.' Dum haec loquitur, venit in aedes 

34 quasdam, in quibus sodalitium erat eodem die futurum, 

35 quo iste, pro notitia domini aedium, ingreditur cum hospiti- 

36 bus. 'Hie' inquit 'habito.' Perspicit argentum, quod erat 

Second Period 159 

37 expositum ; visit triclinium stratum ; probat. Accedit servu- 

38 lus; dicit homini clare, dominum iam venturum, si velit exire. 

39 *Itane?' inquit. 'Eamus, hospites; frater venit ex Falerno; 

40 ego illi obviam pergam ; vos hue decima venitote.' Hospites 

41 discedunt. Isteseraptim domumsuam conicit;Llli decima, 

42 quo iussi erant, veniunt. Quaerunt hunc; reperiunt, domus 

43 cuia sit; in diversorium, derisi, conferunt sese. 

44 ^^Vident hominem postridie, narrant, expostulant, ac- 

45 cusant. Ait iste, eos, similitudine loci deceptos, angiporto 

46 deerrasse; contra valetudinem suam ad noctem multam ex- 

47 spectasse. Sannioni puero negotium dederat, ut vasa, 

48 vestimenta, pueros rogaret. Servulus non inurbanus satis 

49 strenue et concinne compararat. Iste hospites domum 

50 deducit; ait se aedes maximas cuidam amico ad nuptias 

51 commodasse. Nuntiat puer, argentum repeti: pertimuerat 

52 enim qui commodarat. * Apage/ inquit, * aedes commodavi, 

53 familiam dedi: argentum quoque vult? Tametsi hospites 

54 habeo, tamen utatur licet; nos Samiis delectabimur/ — 

55 Quid ego, quae deinde efficeret, narrem? Eiusmodi est 

56 hominis natura, ut, quae singulis diebus efficiat gloria atque 

57 ostentatione, ea vix annuo sermone enarrare possim/' 

58 Huiusmodi notationes, quae describunt, quid consentan- 

59 eum sit cuiusque naturae, vehementer habent magnam de- 

60 lectationem, totam enim naturam cuiuspiam ponunt ante 

61 oculos: aut gloriosi (ut nos exempli causa coeperamus) aut 

62 invidi aut timidi aut avari, ambitiosi, amatoris, luxuriosi, 

63 furis, quadruplatoris; denique cuiusvis studium protrahi 

64 potest in medium tali notatione. 

[b] SermocinatiOj or dramatic dialogue: Sermocinatio est, 

2 cum alicui personae sermo attribuitur, et is exponitur cum 

3 ratione dignitatis, hoc modo: 

The Pitiless Murderer 
[The murderer is a hard-boiled army officer; the victim, a saintly 
'philosopher. Knowing that escape is impossiblcj the latter is 
resigned to his fate and dies like a Christian martyr. We may im- 
agine that such a scene took place during the civil wars and proscrip- 

160 National or Classical Roman Literature 

tions of Marius and Sulla^ when private grvdges were avenged and 
the wealthy ruthlessly plundered. The orator or lawyer here appeals 
to the sympathy of the jury by his vivid dramatic description, in 
which he makes effective use of dialogue.] 

4 "Cum militibus urbs redundaret, et omnes, timore op- 

5 pressi, domi continerentur, venit iste cum sago, gladio suc- 

6 cinctus, tenens iaculum; tres adulescentes homines simili 

7 ornatu subsequuntur. Inrupit in aedes subito; deinde 

8 magna voce *ubi est iste beatus' inquit 'aedium dominus? 

9 Quin mihi praesto fuit? Quid tacetis?' Hie alii omnes, 

10 stupidi timore, obmutuerunt; uxor illius infelicissimi cum 

11 maximo fletu ad istius pedes abiecit sese; *parce' inquit 'et 

12 per quae tibi dulcissima sunt in vita, miserere nostri; 

13 noli exstinguere exstinctos; fer mansuete fortunam; nos 

14 quoque f uimus beati : nosce te esse hominem/ 'Quin ilium 

15 mihi datis, ac vos auribus meis opplorare desinitis? Non 

16 abibat/ lUi nuntiatur interea venisse istum et clamore 

17 maximo mortem minari. Quod simul ut audivit, 'heus' 

18 inquit 'Gorgia, absconde pueros; defende; fac ut incolumis 

19 sit adulescentia/ Vix haec dixerat, cum ecce iste praesto! 

20 'Sedes,' inquit 'audax? Non vox mea tibi vitam ademit? 

21 Exple meas inimicitias, et iracundiam satura tuo sanguine/ 

22 lUe cum magno spiritu 'verebar' inquit 'ne plane victus 

23 essem. Nunc video. Tu mecum contendere non vis, ubi 

24 superari turpissimum et superare pulcherrimum est: inter- 

25 ficere vis. Occidar equidem, sed victus non peribo.' *Tu 

26 in extremo vitae tempore es et sententias eloqueris, neque ei, 

27 quem videsdominari, vis supplicare?' Tum mulier: 'immo 

28 iste quidem rogat et supplicat; sed tu, quaeso, commovere; 

29 et tu per deos ' inquit ' hunc amplexare : dominus est. Vicit 

30 hie te: vince tu nunc animum.' 'Quid non desinis,' inquit, 

31 ' uxor, loqui quae me digna non sint ? Tace, et quae curanda 

32 sunt, cura. Tu cessas, mihi vitam, tibi omnem bene vivendi 

33 spem mea morte eripere?* Iste mulierem reppulit ab se 

34 lamentantem; illi nescioquid incipienti dicere, quod dignum 

35 videlicet illius virtute esset, gladium in latere defixit." 

36 Puto in hoc exemplo datos esse uni cuique sermones ad 

37 dignitatem accomodatos; id quod oportet in hoc genere 

38 conservare. 


(55-43 B.C.) 

The Ciceronian Era. Chief extant authors: 
Caesar, Cicero, Lucretius, and Catullus. 

The Third Period 

HAVING passed through childhood and youthful apprentice- 
ship, Roman literature had now reached maturity — a 
maturity whose vigor was to endure for some two hundred years, 
as long as the Latin race dominated the world. In their conscious- 
ness of power, the Romans gave full and untrammeled expression 
to national ideals and exploits. The study and imitation of Greek 
masterpieces did not cease — it was intensified, if anything; but 
the pupils had so nearly attained the stature of their masters, that 
the inspiration of the older literature bore fruit in genuine (if not 
very original) works of art. Thus the Romans created an im- 
mortal literature, far greater than their own unguided efforts 
could ever have achieved. 

The Ciceronian era comprised roughly the first half-century of 
this long period of mature achievement. These same years were 
also the last half-century of the so-called "Republic," when the 
Roman Commonwealth was endeavoring to administer a great 
over-sea empire through the medium of a superannuated system 
of local government. The hectic political and social life of this 
ill-adjusted period encouraged rather than repressed the rapid ex- 
tension of culture. Artistic taste became widespread among the 
aristocracy; and Greek philosophy replaced an outworn national 
religion among the educated. Freedom of thought and laxity of 
moral standards characterized society more than at any other time 
in Roman history. Poetry reached its zenith of spontaneity; 
prose Uterature, influenced by existing political conditions, bore 
the constant impress of the spoken word — of parliamentary de- 
bate, or of forensic and military harangue. For the most part, 
literatm-e was of and for the present — a cross section of con- 
temporary life. 


164 National or Classical Roman Literature 

(BOKN IN 100 B.C.; ACTIVE FBOM ^0-44.) 

ffis Works 

C. Julius Caesar was a man of extraordinary gifts in many- 
fields. His political prominence he owed primarily to his great- 
ness as an orator; unfortunately none of his speeches are preserved. 
He was noted for his purity of style, and a single illuminating 
sentence on this point has been preserved from his theoretical 
treatise on style (de Analogiay ad Mar cum Tullium Ciceronem, 
libri duo) — , which he found time to compose while crossing the 
Alps in the midst of his Gallic campaigns: Hahe semper in memoria 
atqu£ in pectorej ut tamquam scopulum sic fugias inauditum atque 
insolens verbum. 

The few extant letters of Caesar, incidentally preserved by 
Cicero, are well worth reading. There are six of them, all dealing 
with events that occurred in March and April of the year 49 B.C. 

Caesar^s fame as a writer now rests on his Commentaries: de 
Bello Gallico and de Bello Civili. These masterpieces belonged 
ostensibly to a type of Uterature often produced at Rome — 
namely, memoirs. Many men of affairs who played important 
parts in the last century of the Republic published autobiograph- 
ical memoirs, from which the historian might quarry — by correct- 
ing, supplementing, and discounting! But as Cicero says, Caesar's 
Commentaries were history itself, clarified in his own mind before 
it was recorded in matchless form and style. He alone combined 
the functions of doer and recorder. 




Written in March, 49 B.C.; an open letter to Oppius and Bal- 
bus, his agents in Rome. Caesar had captured Domitius and his 
army at Corfinium, and had treated them with clemency: 

1 Caesar Oppio Cornelio Sal. Gaudeo mehercule vos 

2 significare litteris, quam valde probetis ea, quae apud 

Third Period 165 

3 Corfinium sunt gesta. Consilio vestro utar libenter — et hoc 

4 libentius, quod mea sponte facere constitueram ut quam 

5 lenissimum me praeberem, et Pompeium darem operam ut 

6 reconciliarem. Temptemus, hoc modo si possumus omnium 

7 voluntates recuperare et diuturna victoria uti, quoniam 

8 rehqui crudelitate odium effugere non potuerunt neque 

9 victoriam diutius tenere, praeter unum L. Sullam — quem 

10 imitaturus non sum. Haec nova sit ratio vincendi, ut 

11 misericordia et liberalitate nos muniamus. Id quemad- 

12 modum fieri possit, nonnulla mihi in mentem veniunt et 

13 multa reperiri possunt. De his rebus rogo vos ut cogita- 

14 tionem suscipiatis. N. Magium, Pompeii praefectum, de- 
ls prehendi. Scilicet meo instituto usus sum et eum statim 

16 missum feci. lam duo praefecti fabrum Pompeii in meam 

1 7 potestatem venerunt et a me mi ssi sunt . Si volent gr ati esse, 

18 debebunt Pompeium hortari, ut maht mihi esse amicus 

19 quam lis, qui et iUi et mihi semper fuerunt inimicissimi, 

20 quorum artificiis effectum est ut res publica in hunc statum 

21 perveniret. 


Written early in March, 49 B.C., to Cicero: 

1 Caesar Imp. S. D. Ciceroni Imp. Cum Furnium nos- 

2 trum tantum vidissem neque loqui neque audire meo com- 

3 modo potuissem, properarem atque essem in itinere prae- 

4 missis iam legionibus, praeterire tamen non potui, quin et 

5 scriberem ad te et ilium mitterem gratiasque agerem, etsi 

6 hoc et feci saepe et saepius mihi f acturus videor. Ita de me 

7 mereris. Imprimis a te peto, quoniam confido me celeriter 

8 ad Urbem venturum, ut te ibi videam, ut tuo consilio, gratia, 

9 dignitate, ope omnium rerum uti possim. Ad propositum 

10 revertar; festinationi meae brevitatique litterarum ignosces. 

11 Reliqua ex Furnio cognosces. 

Written in March, 49 B.C., and sent by Cicero to Atticus: 

1 Cicero Attico Sal. Cum quod scriberem ad te, nihil 

2 haberem, tamen, ne quem diem intermitterem, has dedi 

166 National or Classical Roman Literature 

3 litteras. A. d. VI K. Caesarem Sinuessae mansurum nun- 

4 tiabant. Ab eo mihi litterae redditae sunt a. d. VII K., 

5 quibus iam * ' opes ' ' meas, non ut superioribus litteris ' *opem' ' 

6 exspectat. Cum eius clementiam Corfiniensem illam per 

7 litteras coUaudavissem, rescripsit, hoc exemplo: 

8 "Caesar Imp. Ciceroni Imp. Sal. Dig. Recte auguraris 

9 de me — bene enim tibi cognitus sum — nihil a me abesse 

10 longius crudelitate. At que ego cum ex ipsa re magnam 

1 1 capio voluptatem, turn meum factum probari abs te trium- 

12 pho gaudio. Neque illud me mo vet, quod ii, qui a me 

13 dimissi sunt, discessisse dicuntur, ut mihi rursus bellum in- 

14 ferrent. Nihil enim malo quam et me mei similem esse et 

15 illos sui. Tu velim mihi ad Urbem praesto sis, ut tuis con- 

16 siliis atque opibus, ut consuevi, in omnibus rebus utar. 

17 Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse iucundius. Hanc adeo 

18 habebo gratiam illi ; neque enim aliter facere poterit. Tanta 

19 eius humanitas; is sensus, ea in me est benevolentia/' 


Written on April 16, 49 B.C., on his way to Spain; a plea to 
Cicero to remain neutral: 

1 Caesar Imp. Sal. D. Ciceroni Imp. Etsi te nihil temere, 

2 nihil imprudenter facturum iudicaram, tamen permotus 

3 hominum fama scribendum ad te existimavi et pro nostra 

4 benevolentia petendum, ne quo progredereris proclinata iam 

5 re, quo Integra etiam progrediendum tibi non existimares. 

6 Namque et amicitiae graviorem iniuriam feceris et tibi 

7 minus commode consulueris, si non fortunae obsecutus 

8 videbere (omnia enim secundissima nobis, adversissima illis 

9 accidisse videntur), nee causam secutus (eadem enim turn 

10 fuit, cum ab eorum consiliis abesse iudicasti), sed meum 

11 aliquod factum condemnavisse; quo mihi gravius abs te nil 

12 accidere potest. Quod ne facias, pro iure nostrae amicitiae 

13 a te peto. Postremo quid viro bono et quieto et bono civi 

14 magis convenit quam abesse a civilibus controversiis? 

15 Quod nonnulli cum probarent, periculi causa sequi non 

Third Period 167 

16 potuerunt; tu explorato et vitae meae testimonio et ami- 

17 citiae iudicio neque tutius neque honestius reperies quic- 

18 quam quam ab omni contentione abesse. XV Kal. 

19 Maias ex itinere. 


De Bello Gallico 

Caesar's Conference with Ariovistus 
[Invited across the Rhine hy the Sequanian faction of the GaulSy 
the Germans, under Ariovistus, had enslaved the Sequanians and 
were threatening to overrun the country, Caesar espoused the cause 
of the Aeduan faction, over which the Romans had already exercised 
a protectorate for three years, and posed as the deliverer of all the 

1 Planities erat magna et in ea tumulus terrenus satis 

2 grandis. Hie locus aequo fere spatio a castris utriusque 

3 aberat. E6, ut erat dictum, ad conloquium venerunt. 

4 Legionem Caesar, quam equis devexerat, passibus CC ab eo 

5 tumulo constituit; item equites Ariovisti pari intervallo 

6 constiterunt. Ariovistus, ex equis ut conloquerentur et 

7 praeter se denos ut ad conloquium adducerent, postulavit. 

8 Ubi eo ventum est, Caesar initio orationis sua senatusque in 

9 eum beneficia commemoravit, quod rex appellatus esset ab 

10 senatu, quod amicus, quod munera amplissima missa; quam 

11 rem et paucis contigisse et ab Romanis pro maximis 

12 hominum officiis consuesse tribui docebat; ilium, cum 

13 neque aditum neque causam postulandi iustam haberet, 

14 beneficio ac liberalitate sua ac senatus ea praemia consecu- 

15 tum. Docebat etiam, quam veteres quamque iustae 

16 causae necessitudinis ipsis cum Aeduis inter cederent, quae 

17 senatus consulta quotiens quamque honorifica in eos facta 

18 essent, ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Aedui 

19 tenuissent, prius etiam quam nostram amicitiam adpetis- 

20 sent. Populi Romani banc esse consuetudinem, ut socios 

21 atque amicos non modo sui nihil deperdere, sed gratia, 

168 National or Classical Roman Literature 

22 dignitate, honore auctiores velit esse; quod vero ad amici- 

23 tiam populi Romani attulissent, id iis eripi quis pati posset? 

24 Postulavit deinde eadem, quae legatis in mandatis dederat : 

25 ne aut Aeduis aut eorum sociis bellum inferret; obsides red- 

26 deret; si nuUam partem Germanorum domum remittere 

27 posset, at ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur. 

28 Ariovistus ad postulata Caesaris pauca respondit, de 

29 suis virtutibus multa praedicavit: Transisse Rhenum sese 

30 non sua sponte, sed rogatum et arcessitum a Gallis; non 

31 sine magna spe magnisque praemiis domum propinquosque 

32 reliquisse; sedes habere in Gallia ab ipsis concessas, obsides 

33 ipsorum voluntate datos; stipendium capere iure belli, 

34 quod victores victis imponere consuerint. Non sese Gallis, 

35 sed Gallos sibi bellum intulisse: omnes Galliae civitates 

36 ad se oppugnandum venisse ac contra se castra habuisse; 

37 eas omnes copias a se uno proelio pulsas ac superatas esse. 

38 Si iterum experiri velint, se iterum paratum esse decertare; 

39 si pace uti velint, iniquum esse de stipendio recusare, 

40 quod sua voluntate ad id tempus dependerint. Amicitiam 

41 populi Romani sibi ornamento et praesidio, non detrimento 

42 esse oportere, atque se hac spe petisse. Si per populum 

43 Romanum stipendium remittatur et dediticii subtrahantur, 

44 non minus libenter sese recusaturum populi Romani amici- 

45 tiam, quam adpetierit. Quod multitudinem Germanorum 

46 in Galliam traducat, id se sui muniendi, non Galliae im- 

47 pugnandae causa facere: eius rei testimonio esse, quod 

48 nisi rogatus non venerit et quod bellum non intulerit, sed 

49 defenderit. Se prius in Galliam venisse quam populum 

50 Romanum. Numquam ante hoc tempus exercitum populi 

51 Romani Galliae provinciae finibus egressum. Quid sibi 

52 vellet? Cur in suas possessiones venerit? Provinciam 

53 suam hanc esse Galliam, sicut illam nostram. Ut ipsi 

54 concedi non oporteret, si in nostros fines impetum faceret, 

55 sic item nos esse iniquos, quod in suo iure se interpel- 

56 laremus. Quod fratres Aeduos appellatos diceret, non se 

57 tam barbarum neque tam imperitum esse rerum, ut non 

58 sciret neque bello Allobrogum proximo Aeduos Romanis 

Third Period 169 

59 auxilium tulisse neque ipsos in his contentionibus, quas 

60 Aedui secum et cum Sequanis habuissent, auxilio populi 

61 Romani usos esse. Debere se suspicari, simulata Caesarem 

62 amicitia, quod exercitum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimendi 

63 causa habere. Qui nisi decedat atque exercitum deducat ex 

64 his regionibus, sese ilium non pro amico, sed pro hoste 

65 habiturum. Quod si eum interfecerit, multis sese nobilibus 

66 principibusque populi Romani gratum esse facturum: id se 

67 ab ipsis per eorum nuntios compertum habere, quorum 

68 omnium gratiam atque amicitiam eius morte redimere 

69 posset. Quod si discessisset et liberam possessionem Galliae 

70 sibi tradidisset, magno se ilium praemio remuneraturum et, 

71 quaecumque bella geri vellet, sine ullo eius labore et 

72 periculo confecturum. 

73 Multa a Caesare in earn sententiam dicta sunt, quare 

74 negotio desistere non posset: neque suam neque populi 

75 Romani consuetudinem pati, uti optime merentes socios 

76 desereret, neque se iudicare Galliam potius esse Ariovisti 

77 quam populi Romani. Bello super atos esse Arvernos et 

78 Rutenos a Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus populus Romanus 

79 ignovisset neque in provinciam redegisset neque stipendium 

80 imposuisset. Quod si antiquissimum quodque tempus 

81 spectari oporteret, populi Romani iustissimum esse in Gallia 

82 imperium; si indicium senatus observari oporteret, liberam 

83 debere esse Galliam, quam bello victam suis legibus uti 

84 voluisset. 

85 Dum haec in conloquio geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est 

86 equites Ariovisti propius tumulum accedere et ad nostros 

87 adequitare, lapides telaque in nostros conicere. Caesar 

88 loquendi finem fecit seque ad suos recepit suisque imperavit, 

89 ne quod omnino telum in hostes reicerent. Nam etsi sine 

90 ullo periculo legionis delectae cum equitatu proelium fore 

91 videbat, tamen committendum non putabat, ut pulsis 

92 hostibus dici posset eos a se per fidem in conloquio circum- 

93 ventos. Posteaquam in vulgus militum elatum est, qua 

94 arrogantia in conloquio Ariovistus usus omni Gallia Romanis 

95 interdixisset impetumque in nostros eius equites fecissent, 

170 National or Classical Roman Literature 

96 eaque res conloquium ut diremisset, multo maior alacritas 

97 studiumque pugnandi maius exercitui iniectum est. 

98 Biduo post Ariovistus ad Caesarem legates misit: Velle 

99 se de his rebus, quae inter eos agi coeptae neque perfectae 

100 essent, agere cum eo: uti aut iterum conloquio diem consti- 

101 tueret aut, si id minus vellet, ex suis legatis aliquem ad se 

102 mitteret. Conloquendi Caesari causa visa non est, et eo 

103 magis, quod pridie eius diei Germani retineri non potuerant, 

104 quin in nostros tela conicerent. Legatum ex suis sese magno 

105 cum periculo ad eum missurum et hominibus feris obiectu- 

106 rum existimabat. Commodissimum visum est C. Valerium 

107 Procillum, C. Valeri Caburi filium, summa virtute et 

108 humanitate adulescentem, cuius pater a C. Valerio Flacco 

109 civitate donatus erat, et propter fidem et propter linguae 

110 Gallicae scientiam, qua multa iam Ariovistus longinqua 

111 consuetudine utebatur, et quod in eo peccandi Germanis 

112 causa non esset, ad eum mittere et una M. Metium, qui 

113 hospitio Ariovisti utebatur. His mandavit, ut, quae 

114 diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent et ad se referrent. Quos 

115 cum apud se in castris Ariovistus conspexisset, exercitu suo 

116 praesente conclamavit: Quid ad se venirent? an speculandi 

117 causa? Conantes dicere prohibuit et in catenas coniecit. 

(Born in 106 B.C.; active from 55-43.) 
His Character and Achievements 
M. Tullius Cicero was a fully Hellenized Roman, endowed 
with a brilHant mind, a retentive memory, and a fluent command 
of language. As a youth he was devoted to enthusiastic and 
ardent study — even to the detriment of his health — in all fields 
of Greek and Roman learning. By his absorption of Greek cul- 
ture and the abiUty to express his thoughts in eloquent prose, 
Cicero became a founder of intellectual life in the western world. 
No less deeply imbued with the philosophical and pohtical ideal- 
ism of the Greeks, he became the querulous leader of the lost 
cause of Roman democracy. The weak point in his nature 

Third Period 171 

(fostered by a quick rise to political power) was his personal 
vanity — a trait that may be abundantly paralleled in Greek history. 
As an orator Cicero was supreme ; as a letter writer he was fluent 
and indefatigable, bequeathing to posterity a mirror of his times; 
as a poet he was uninspired; as an essayist he commanded a prose 
style that has become a landmark of the world's literature — a 
model of fluency, clarity, and volubility. Words issue from him 
in a torrent that is never beyond control, representing the ulti- 
mate development of this type of prose style. A century after his 
death, when prose style had developed along entirely different 
lines, Cicero was criticised for his fulsomeness. His style was 
found to be lacking in delicate chiseling, in epigrammatic finesse — 
one could not cull exquisite gems of thought from every para- 
graph! But on the whole, posterity has deemed Cicero's rich 
and fluent prose a more sane and helpful model than that of the 
Empire, with its ''pointed" style, its preciosity, its rhetorical 
and romantic coloring. 



Cicero is the only great figure of the ancient world — Greek or 
Roman — whose private correspondence was published in extenso. 
About half survives, thanks to the enthusiasm of fifteenth- 
century Italian humanists. Most of the groups or collections of 
Cicero's letters were edited by his faithful secretary. Tiro. 
Indiscreet hero worship obviously prompted this, for Cicero's 
revelation of his own character is not always flattering; posterity 
has learned from his letters more of Cicero's weakness than of his 
strength. They are an amazing record and belong on the whole 
rather to political history than to literature, although naturally 
of infinite variety. Reading them, we wonder increasingly at Cic- 
ero's perfect command of the written, as well as the spoken, 
word. The following letters are selected from the Epistolae ad 
Atticum ^ and from the Epistolae ad Familiares, or Letters to 
Various Friends.'^ 

^ T. Pomponius Atticus, publisher and litterateur, was Cicero's lifelong 
friend. He himself published this group of letters. 
2 These were edited by Tiro. 

172 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Letters Written From 65-50 B.C. 

[a] Written in the summer or autumn of 65 B.C., when Cicero 
was already planning his campaign for the consulship of 63 : 

1 Cicero Attico Sal. L. Julio Caesare C. Marcio Figulo 

2 consulibus filiolo me auctum scito salva Terentia. Abs te 

3 tam diu nihil litterarum! Ego de meis ad te rationibus 

4 scripsi antea diligenter. Hoc tempore Catilinam, competi- 

5 torem nostrum, defendere cogitamus. Indices habemus, 

6 quos voluimus, summa accusatoris voluntate. Spero, si 

7 absolutus erit, coniunctiorem ilium nobis fore in ratione 

8 petitionis; sin aliter accident, humaniter feremus. Tuo ad- 

9 ventu nobis opus est maturo ; nam prorsus summa hominum 

10 est opinio tuos familiares, nobiles homines, adversarios 

11 honori nostro fore. Ad eorum voluntatem mihi concilian- 

12 dam maximo te mihi usui fore video. Qua re lanuario 

13 mense, ut constituisti, cura ut Romae sis. 

[b] Written on April 29, 58 B.C., from Brundisium, his port of 
departure for Greece, on his way into exile : 

1 TuLLius S. D. Terentiae et Tulliolae et Ciceroni 

2 Suis. Ego minus saepe do ad vos litteras quam possum, 

3 propterea quod cum omnia mihi tempora sunt misera, turn 

4 vero, cum aut scribo ad vos aut vestras lego, conficior lacri- 

5 mis sic, ut ferre non possim. Quod utinam minus vitae 

6 cupidi f uissemus ! Certe nihil aut non multum in vita mali 

7 vidissemus. Quod si nos ad aliquam alicuius commodi 

8 aliquando reciperandi spem fortuna reservavit, minus est er- 

9 ratum a nobis: si haec mala fixa sunt, ego vero te quam 

10 primum, mea vita, cupio videre et in tuo complexu emori, 

1 1 quando neque di, quos tu castissime coluisti, neque homines, 

12 quibus ego semper servivi, nobis gratiam rettulerunt. 

13 Nos Brundisi apud M. Laenium Flaccum dies XIII 

14 fuimus, virum optimum, qui periculum fortunarum et 

15 capitis sui prae mea salute neglexit neque legis improbissi- 

16 mae poena deductus est quominus hospitii et amicitiae ius 

Third Period 173 

17 officiumque praestaret. Huic utinam aliquando gratiam 

18 referre possimus! Habebimus quidem semper. Brundisio 

19 profecti sumus a. d. II. Kalendas Maias: per Macedoniam 

20 Cyzicum petebamus. O me perditum ! O adflictum ! Quid 

21 enim? Rogem te ut venias? Mulierem aegram et corpore 

22 et animo confectam? Non rogem? Sine te igitur sim? 

23 Opinor, sic agam: si est spes nostri reditus, earn confirmes et 

24 rem adiuves; sin, ut ego metuo, transactum est, quoquo 

25 modo potes, ad me fac venias. Unum hoc scito: si te habe- 

26 bo, non mihi videbor plane perisse. Sed quid Tulliola mea 

27 fiet? lam id vos videte: mihi deest consiHum. Sed certe, 

28 quoquo modo se res habebit, illius misellae et matrimonio et 

29 famae serviendum est. Quid? Cicero meus quid aget? 

30 Iste vero sit in sinu semper et complexu meo. Non queo 

31 plura iam scribere : impedit maeror. Tu quid egeris nescio : 

32 utrum aUquid teneas an (quod metuo) plane sis spoliata. 

33 Pisonem, ut scribis, spero fore semper nostrum. 

34 De familia liberata nihil est quod te moveat. Primum 

35 tuis it a promissum est: te facturam esse, ut quisque esset 

36 meritus. Est autem in officio adhuc Orpheus: praeterea 

37 magnopere nemo. Ceterorum servorum ea causa est, ut, si 

38 res a nobis abisset, liberti nostri essent, si obtinere potuis- 

39 sent: sin ad nos pertineret, servirent, praeterquam oppido 

40 pauci. Sed haec minora sunt. 

41 Tu quod me hortaris, ut animo sim magno et spem habeam 

42 reciperandae salutis, id velim sit eiusmodi, ut recte sperare 

43 possimus. Nunc miser quando tuas iam litteras accipiam? 

44 Quis ad me perferet? Quas ego exspectassem Brundisi, si 

45 esset licitum per nautas, qui tempestatem praetermittere 

46 noluerunt. Quod reliquum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, 

47 ut potes, honestissime. Viximus; floruimus; non vitium 

48 nostrum^ sed virtus nostra nos adflixit. Peccatum est nul- 

49 lum, nisi quod non una animam cum ornamentis amisimus. 

50 Sed si hoc fuit liberis nostris gratius, nos vivere, cetera, 

51 quamquam ferenda non sunt, feramus. Atqui ego, qui te 

52 confirmo, ipse me non possum. 

53 Clodium Philhetaerum, quod valetudine oculorum im- 

174 National or Classical Roman Literature 

64 pediebatur, hominem fidelem, remisi. Sallustius oflScio 

55 vincet omnes. Pescennius est perbenevolus nobis, quem 

56 semper spero tui fore observantem. Sica dixerat se mecum 

57 fore, sed Brundisio discessit. 

58 Cura, quod potes, ut valeas; et sic existimes, me vehe- 

59 mentius tua miseria quam mea commoveri. Mea Terentia, 

60 fidissima atque optima uxor, et mea carissima filiola et spes 

61 reliqua nostra, Cicero, valete. Pridie Kalendas Maias 

62 Brundisio. 

[c] Written during the first week in May, 51 B.C., from Min- 
turnae, a town on the Appian Way, about seventy-five miles south 
of Rome. Cicero had left Rome and parted from his old friend 
Atticus about May 1, and was now on his way to assume the 
governorship of his oriental province: 

1 CiCEKO Attico Sal. Ego vero et tuum in discessu vidi 

2 animum et meo sum ipse testis. Quo magis erit tibi viden- 

3 dum, ne quid novi decernatur, ut hoc nostrum desiderium 

4 ne plus sit annuum. . . . 

5 Nunc venio ad transversum ilium extremae epistulae tuae 

6 versiculum, in quo me admones de sorore. Quae res se sic 

7 habet. Ut veni in Arpinas, cum ad me frater venisset, im- 

8 primis nobis sermo — isque multus — de te fuit. Ex quo ego 

9 veni ad ea, quae fueramus ego et tu inter nos de sorore in 

10 Tusculano locuti. Nihil tam vidi mite, nihil tam placatum, 

11 quam tum mens frater erat in sororem tuam, ut, etiam si qua 

12 fuerat ex ratione sumptus offensio, non appareret. lUe sic 

13 dies. Postridie ex Arpinati profecti sumus. Ut in Arcano 

14 Quintus maneret, dies fecit; ego Aquini; sed prandimus in 

15 Arcano. Nosti hunc fundum. Quo ut venimus, humanis- 

16 sime Quintus "Pomponia'' inquit "tu in vita mulieres, ego 

17 accivero viros.*' Nihil potuit (mihi quidem ut visum est) 

18 dulcius — idque cum verbis tum etiam animo ac vultu. At 

19 ilia ftudientibus nobis "Ego ipsa sum " inquit "hie hospita,'' 

20 id autem ex eo (ut opinor) quod antecesserat Statius, ut 

21 prandium nobis videret. Tum Quintus "En" inquit mihi 

Third Period 175 

22 "haec ego patior cotidie.'' Dices: "quid, quaeso, istuc 

23 erat?'' Magnum! Itaque me ipsum commoverat: sic 

24 absurde et aspere verbis vultuque responderat. Dissimu- 

25 lavi dolens. Discubuimus omnes praeter illam, cui tamen 

26 Quintus de mensa misit. Ilia reiecit. Quid multa? Nihil 

27 meo fratre lenius, nihil asperius tua sorore mihi visum est. 

28 Et multa praetereo, quae tum mihi maiori stomacho quam 

29 ipsi Quinto fuerunt. Ego inde Aquinum. Quintus in 

30 Arcano remansit, et Aquinum ad me postridie mane venit 

31 mihique narravit, nee secum illam dormire voluisse, et cum 

32 discessura esset fuisse eiusmodi, qualem ego vidissem. Quid 

33 quaeris? Vel ipsi hoc dicas licet, humanitatem ei meo 

34 iudicio illo die defuisse. 

35 Haec ad te scripsi fortasse pluribus, quam necesse fuit, ut 

36 videres tuas quoque esse partes instituendi et monendi. 

37 Reliquum est, ut, antequam proficiscare, mandata nostra 

38 exhaurias, scribas ad me omnia. . . . Cum profectus eris, 

39 cures ut sciam. Sic habeas: nihil mehercule te mihi nee 

40 carius esse nee suavius. A. Torquatum amantissime dimisi 

41 Minturnis, optimum virum — cui me ad te scripsisse aliquid, 

42 in sermone significes velim. 

[d] Written on April 4, 50 B.C., from Laodicea, capital of 
Cicero's province: 

1 M. Cicero Imp. S. D. M. Caelio Aed. Cur. Putaresne 

2 umquam accidere posse ut mihi verba deessent, neque solum 

3 ista vestra oratoria, sed haec etiam levia nostratia? Desunt 

4 autem propter hanc causam, quod mirifice sum soUicitus 

5 quidnam de provinciis decernatur. Mirum me desiderium 

6 tenet Urbis, incredibile meorum at que imprimis tui, satietas 

7 autem provinciae, vel quia videmur eam famam consecuti, 

8 ut non tam accessio quaerenda quam fortuna metuenda sit, 

9 vel quia totum negotium non est dignum viribus nostris, qui 

10 maiora oner a in re publica sustinere et possimus et soleamus, 

11 vel quia belli magni timor impendet, quod videmur effugere, 

12 si ad constitutam diem decedemus. 

176 National or Classical Roman Literature 

13 De pantheris per eos, qui venari solent, agitur mandatu 

14 meo diligenter, sed mira paucitas est, et eas, quae sunt, 

15 valde aiunt queri, quod nihil cuiquam insidiarum in mea 

16 provincia nisi sibi fiat, itaque constituisse dicuntur in Ca- 

17 riam ex nostra provincia decedere. Sed tamen sedulo fit et 

18 imprimis a Patisco. Quidquid erit, tibi erit, sed quid esset, 

19 plane nesciebamus. Mihi mehercule magnae curae est 

20 aedilitas tua — ipse dies me admonebat: scripsi enim haec 

21 ipsis Megalensibus. Tu velim ad me de omni rei publicae 

22 statu quam diligentissime perscribas: ea enim certissima 

23 putabo, quae ex te cognoro. 

Letters Written Early in 49 B.C. 
[a] Written on January 12, from some place near Rome, to his 
faithful secretary, Tiro. Because of illness, the latter had been 
left behind in Greece when Cicero returned from his province. 
Cicero reached Rome on January 4; but he has now been waiting 
for eight days outside the city walls, in the hope that the senate 
may grant him a triumph and not require him to relinquish the 
military power he had exercised in his province. Meanwhile 
Caesar had crossed the Rubicon on January 10, and was now 
marching on Rome: 

1 TuLLius ET Cicero, Terentia, Tullia, Q. Q. Tironi S. 

2 Plur. Dig. Etsi opportunitatem operae tuae omnibus 

3 locis desidero, tamen non tam mea quam tua causa doleo te 

4 non valere; sed quoniam in quartanam con versa vis est 

5 morbi — sic enim scribit Curius — spero te diligentia adhibita 

6 iam firmiorem fore; modo fac (id quod est humanitatis tuae) 

7 ne quid aliud cures hoc tempore, nisi ut quam commodis- 

8 sime convalescas. Non ignoro, quantum ex desiderio 

9 labores; sed erunt omnia facilia, si valebis. Festinare te 

10 nolo, ne nauseae molestiam suscipias aeger et periculose 

11 hieme naviges. 

12 Ego ad Urbem accessi pr. Non. Ian. Obviam mihi 

13 sic est proditum, ut nihil possit fieri ornatius; sed incidi 

Third Period 177 

14 in ipsam flammam civilis discordiae vel potius belli. Cui 

15 cum cuperem mederi et, ut arbitror, possem, cupiditates 

16 certorum hominum — nam ex utraque parte sunt qui 

17 pugnare cupiant — impediment© mihi fuerunt. Omnino et 

18 ipse Caesar, amicus noster, minacis ad senatum et acer- 

19 bas litteras miserat et erat adhuc impudens, qui exercitum 

20 et provinciam invito senatu teneret, et Curio mens ilium 

21 incitabat; Antonius quidem noster et Q. Cassius, nulla vi 

22 expulsi, ad Caesarem cum Curione profecti erant, postea- 

23 quam senatus consulibus, pr., tr. pi. et nobis, qui pro cos. 

24 sumus, negotium dederat, ut curaremus, ne quid res p. 

25 detrimenti caperet. Numquam maiore in periculo civitas 

26 fuit, numquam improbi cives habuerunt paratiorem ducem. 

27 Omnino ex hac quoque parte diligentissime comparatur. 

28 Id fit auctoritate et studio Pompei nostri, qui Caesarem sero 

29 coepit timere. 

30 Nobis inter has turbas senatus tamen frequens flagitavit 

31 triumphum; sed Lentulus consul, quo mains suum benefi- 

32 cium faceret, simul atque expedisset, quae essent necessaria 

33 de re p., dixit se relaturum. Nos agimus nihil cupide, 

34 eoque est nostra pluris auctoritas. Italiae regiones di- 

35 scriptae sunt, quam quisque partem tueretur. NosCapuam 

36 sumpsimus. 

37 Haec te scire volui. Tu etiam atque etiam cura, ut 

38 valeas litterasque ad me mittas, quotienscumque habebis, 

39 cui des. Etiam atque etiam vale. D. pr. Idus Ian. 

[b] Written on January 18, six days after the previous letter 
and presumably from the same place. After waiting two weeks 
outside of Rome, Cicero has given up hope; his proposed triumph 
has been completely lost sight of in the general panic caused by 
Caesar and his approaching armies. Pompey and his supporters, 
including practically all the magistrates, have left Rome and 
withdrawn to Southern Italy. Cicero now follows suit — a luke- 
warm member of the Pompeian party: 

1 Cicero Attico Sal. Subito consilium cepi, ut, antequam 

2 luceret exirem, ne qui conspectus fieret aut sermo, lictoribus 

178 National or Classical Roman Literature 

3 praesertim laureatis. De reliquo neque hercule quid agam 

4 nee quid acturus sim scio: ita sum perturbatus temeritate 

5 nostri amentissimi consilii. Tibi vero quid suadeam, cuius 

6 ipse consilium exspecto? Gnaeus noster quid consilii 

7 ceperit capiatve, nescio, adhuc in oppidis coartatus et 

8 stupens. Omnes, si in Italia consistet, erimus un^; sin 

9 cedet, consilii res est. Adhuc certe (nisi ego insanio) stulte 

10 omnia et incaute. Tu, quaeso, crebro ad me scribe vel quod 

11 in buccam venerit. 

[c] Written on January 24, from Formiae/ to his wife and 
daughter. The latter were still in Rome, and Cicero was anxious 
for their safety: 

1 TuLLius Terentiae Suae et Pater Suavissimae Filiae, 

2 Cicero Matri et Sorori S. D. P. Considerandum vobis 

3 etiam atque etiam, animae meae, diligenter puto, quid 

4 faciatis, Romaene sitis an mecum an aliquo tuto loco; id non 

5 solum meum consilium est, sed etiam vestrum. Mihi ve- 

6 niunt in mentem haec : Romae vos esse tuto posse per Dolar 

7 bellam, eamque rem posse nobis adiumento esse, si quae vis 

8 aut si quae rapinae fieri coeperint. Sed rursus illud me 

9 movet, quod video omnis bonos abesse Roma et eos mulieres 

10 suas secum habere. Haec autem regio, in qua ego sum, 

11 nostrorum est cum oppidorum tum etiam praediorum, ut et 

12 multum esse mecum, et cum abieritis, commode et in nostris 

13 esse possitis. Mihi plane non satis constat adhuc, utrum 

14 sit melius. Vos videte, quid aliae faciant isto loco feminae, 

15 et ne, cum velitis, exire non liceat. Id velim diligenter 

16 etiam atque etiam vobiscum et cum amicis consideretis. 

17 Domus ut propugnacula et praesidium habeat, Philotimo 

18 dicetis; et velim tabellarios instituatis certos, ut cotidie 

19 aliquas a vobis litteras accipiam; maxime autem date 

20 operam, ut valeatis, si nos vultis valere. Villi. K. Formiis. 

* Formiae is situated on the coast of Italy near Capua, south of Rome. 

Third Period 179 

[d] Written on February 23 or 24, from Formiae: 

1 Cicero Attico Sal. Unum etiam restat amico nostro 

2 ad omne dedecus, ut Domitio non subveniat. "At nemo 

3 dubitat quin subsidio venturus sit." Ego non puto. 

4 "Deseret igitur taiem civem et eos, quos una scis esse, cum 

5 habeat praesertim et ipse cohortes XXX? " Nisi me omnia 

6 fallunt, deseret. Incredibiliter pertimuit. Nihil spectat 

7 nisi fugam, cui tu — video enim quid sentias — me comitem 

8 putas debere esse. Ego vero quem f ugiam habeo ; quem se- 

9 quar non habeo. Quod enim tu meum laudas et memo- 

1 randum dicis, * ' malle " quod dixerim ' ' me cum Pompeio vinci 

11 quam cum istis vincere," ego vero malo, sed cum illo Pom- 

12 peio, qui tum erat aut qui mihi esse videbatur; cum hoc 

13 vero, qui ante fugit quam scit aut quem fugiat aut quo, qui 

14 nostra tradidit, qui patriam reliquit, Italiam relinquit — si 

15 malui, contigit: victus sum. Quod superest, nee ista videre 

16 possum, quae numquam timui ne viderem, nee mehercule 

17 istum, propter quem mihi non modo meis, sed memet ipso 

18 carendumest. . . . 

[e] Written on March 1, from Formiae: 

1 Cicero Attico Sal. Lippitudinis meae signum tibi sit 

2 librarii manus et eadem causa brevitatis; etsi nunc quidem, 

3 quod scriberem, nihil erat. Omnis exspectatio nostra erat 

4 in nuntiis Brundisinis. Si nactus hie esset Gnaeum 

5 nostrum, spes dubia pacis; sin ille ante tramisisset, exitiosi 

6 belli metus. Sed videsne, in quem hominem incident res 

7 publica, quam acutum, quam vigilantem, quam paratum? 

8 Si mehercule neminem occiderit, nee cuiquam quicquam 

9 ademerit, ab iis, qui eum maxime timuerant, maxime 

10 diligetur. Multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur, 

11 multum rusticani; nihil prorsus aliud curant nisi agros, nisi 

12 villulas, nisi nummulos sues. Et vide, quam con versa res 

13 sit; ilium, quo antea confidebant, metuunt; hunc am ant, 

14 quem timebant. Id quantis nostris peccatis vitiisque 

15 evenerit, non possum sine molestia cogitare. Quae autem 

180 National or Classical Roman Literature 

16 impendere putarem, scripseram ad te et iam tuas litteras 

17 exspectabam. 

Letter Written After Caesar's Assassination 
Written in May, 43 B.C., from Rome, to Decimus Brutus, 
commander of the army at Mutina, in Nortiiern Italy: 

1 M. Cicero S. D. D. Bruto Imp. Cos. Des. Tres uno 

2 die a te accepi epistulas: unam brevem, quam Flacco 

3 Volumnio dederas; duas pleoiores, quarum alteram tabel- 

4 larius T. Vibii attulit, alteram ad me misit Lupus. Ex tuis 
6 litteris et ex Graeceii oratione non modo non restinctum 

6 bellum, sed etiam inflammatum videtur. Non dubito autem 

7 pro tua singulari prudentia quin perspicias, si aliquid firmi- 

8 tatis nactus sit Antonius, omnia tua ilia praeclara in rem 

9 publicam merita ad nihilum esse ventura; ita enim Romam 

10 erat nuntiatum, ita persuasum omnibus : cum paucis inermis, 

11 perterritis metu, fracto animo fugisse Antonium. Qui si ita 

12 se habet, ut (quemadmodum audiebam de Graeceio) confligi 

13 cum eo sine periculo non possit, non ille mihi fugisse a 

14 Mutina videtur, sed locum belli gerendi mutasse. Itaque 

15 homines alii facti sunt. NonnuUi etiam queruntur, quod 

16 persecuti non sitis: opprimi potuisse, si celeritas adhibita 

17 esset, existimant. Omnino est hoc populi maximeque nostri, 

18 in eo potissimum abuti libertate, per quem eam consecutus 

19 sit. Sed tamen providendum est, ne quae iusta querela 

20 esse possit. Res se sic habet: is bellum confecerit, qui An- 

21 tonium oppresserit. Hoc quam vim habeat te existimare 

22 malo quam me apertius scribere. 



With one slight exception — which we shall consider presently — 
Cicero's score or more of essays were the product of the last twelve 

Third Period 181 

years of his life. Since his first love had always been oratory, 
writing books was at best only a substitute for making speeches. 
Nevertheless, embittered by his enforced retirement from political 
life, Cicero found consolation for a wounded spirit and occupation 
for a restless mind by resuming the scholarly pursuits of his youth. 
After several essays on oratory and government, combining practical 
experience with theoretical speculation, he conceived the bolder 
idea of interpreting Greek philosophy in a series of popular essays. 
He was thus the first of a group of transmitters (ancient, medieval, 
and modern) who have brought the message of Greek speculative 
thinking to the western world. His "library of Greek philos- 
ophy" began with the essay entitled Hortensius (now lost), on the 
value of Greek philosophy in general; then came the Academicaf 
advocating his own chosen school of thought, the "New Acad- 
emy"; third, de Finihus Bonorum et Malorum, outlining the tenets 
of the chief schools with respect to the pivotal problem of what 
constitutes ultimate good and evil; fourth, the Tusculan Disputor 
lions J discussing popular problems of moral philosophy; fifth, de 
Natura Deorurrij on the basic concepts of religion; sixth, de Divinor 
tione {On Prophecy) ; seventh, de Fato; eighth, de Offidis (On Duty) ; 
and finally, de Gloria and de Virtutihus (both now lost). There 
were also four popular essays that did not enter into this exposit- 
ory scheme, but may be regarded as by-products of his philosoph- 
ical studies: de Consolatione (now. lost), written after the death of 
his daughter, Tullia; Cato Maior, or de Senectute; LaeliuSj or de 
Amicitia; and Cato Minor, or Eulogy of Cato the Younger (now 
lost). As his life drew to a close and the number and importance 
of his essays increased, Cicero professed to see in them all — • 
rhetorical, political, and theoretical aUke — a single unifying ele- 
ment: Greek philosophy! Like Plato and Aristotle, he — M. 
Tullius Cicero — had subjected all human faith and knowledge to 
the test of a philosophic mind and had selected that which he 
deemed worthy of bequeathing to posterity. Thus Cicero ulti- 
mately fulfilled his mission as apostle of Greek culture to his 
countrymen. But let us now return to the very beginning of his 

182 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Essays on Oratory^ „^^ ^ 

[a] De Inventione 

The first work ever published by Cicero — antedating by many 
years his important orations and essays — was a treatise, or text- 
book, on the art of oratory. It was produced when Cicero was 
adulescentulus — ^i.e., probably less than twenty years old. Only 
that portion of the work has been preserved to us which deals 
with the first department of the art of oratory — namely "inven- 
tion," or the planning of a speech. The exposition of the subject 
is clear, though wholly technical; oddly enough, it closely re- 
sembles the anonymous Rhetorica ad Herennium — some pas- 
sages are even identical. Which author was the plagiarist? 
Perhaps neither — ^f or both may simply have edited an older hand- 
book, whose author had been forgotten or ignored because of the 
pedagogical and non-literary character of his work. Although 
it is impossible to say which came first — the Rhetorica ad Heren- 
nium or the de Inventione — , a conscious rivalry is evident be- 
tween them. Cicero's exposition of the subject is somewhat more 
logical than that of his older contemporary, whose occasional 
discursiveness is quaint, but less scholarly. 

However that may be, it is not the treatise itself which interests 
us, but its brief preface. This is Cicero's first essay — an extra- 
ordinary prelude to his later and maturer work. Awkward 
though some of its paragraphs are, it indicates that the precocious 
young student was already preoccupied with the philosophical 
speculation which ripened thirty years later, and that beliefs and 
theories for which he argued with consummate skill in maturity, 
were already firm convictions in his youth. 

This brief essay deals with the "idealistic," as contrasted with 
the "practical," conception of the art of oratory. Cicero always 
held to Cato's famous definition of the orator — vir bonus, 
dicendi peritus — , which places ideals of character above mere 
technical skill: 

1 These are often called by their technical name, " rhetorical " essays. 

Third Period 183 

The Faculty of Eloquence — A Blessing or a Curse to Mankind? 

1 Saepe et multum hoc mecum cogitavi : bonine an mall plus 

2 attulerit hominibus et civitatibus copia dicendi ac summum 

3 eloquentiae studium. Nam cum et nostrae rei publicae 

4 detrimenta considero, et maximarum civitatum veteres 

5 animo calamitates colligo, non ihinimam video per disertis- 

6 simos homines invectam partem incommodorum; cum 

7 autem res ab nostra memoria propter vetustatem remotas ex 

8 litterarum monumentis repetere instituo, multas urbes con- 

9 stitutas, plurima bella restincta, firmissimas societates, 
^-10 sanctissimas amicitias intellego cum animi ratione tum 
_ 11 facilius eloquentia comparatas. Ac me quidem diu cogi- 

12 tantem ratio ipsa in hanc potissimum sententiam ducit, ut 

13 existimem sapientiam sine eloquentia parum prodesse civita- 

14 tibus, eloquentiam vero sine sapientia nimium obesse ple- 

15 rumque, prodesse numquam. Quare, si quis, omissis rectis- 

16 simis atque honestissimis studiis rationis et officii, consuniit 

17 omnem operam in exercitatione dicendi, is inutilis sibi, 

18 perniciosus patriae civis alitur; qui vero ita sese armat elo- 

19 quentia, ut non oppugnare commoda patriae, sed pro his^ 

20 propugnare possit, is mihi vir et suis et publicis rationibiis 

21 utilissimus atque amicissimus civis fore videtur. » 

Oratory — The Chief Civilizer of the Human Race 

1 Ac si volumus huius rei quae vocatur eloquentia — sive 

2 artis, sive studii, sive exercitationis cuiusdam, sive f acultatis 

3 ab natura profectae — considerare principium, reperiemus id 

4 ex honestissimis causis natum atque ab optimis rationibus 

5 profectum. Nam fuit quoddam tempus, cum in agris > 4 J-^ 

6 homines passim bestiarum modo vagabantur, et sibi victu 

7 fero vitam propagabant, nee ratione animi quicquam, sed 

8 pleraque viribus corporis administrabant; nondum divinae 

9 religionis, non humani officii ratio colebatur; nemo nuptias 

10 viderat legitimas, non certos quisquam aspexerat liberos; 

11 non, ius aequabile quid utilitatis haberet, acceperat. Ita ^v^».s 

12 propter errorem atque inscientiam, caeca ac temeraria^ 

13 dominatrix animi — cupiditas — ad se explendam viribus 







■ .v,o 







184 National or Classical Roman Literature 

14 corporis abutebatur, perniciosissimis satellitibus. Quo 

15 tempore quidam magnus videlicet vir et sapiens cognovit, 

16 quae materia et quanta ad maximas res opportunitas in ani- ^ 

17 mis inesset hominum, si quis eam posset elicere et praeci- ^ 

18 piendo meliorem reddere; qui dispersos homines in agros, et 

19 in tectis silvestribus abditos, ratione quadam compulit 

20 unum in locum et congregavit; et eos in unam quamque rem 
inducens utilem atque honestam, primo propter insol^ntiam 
reclamantes, deinde propter rationem atque orationem'"" 
studiosius audientes, ex feris et immanibus mites reddidit et 
mansuetos. Ac mihi quidem videtur hoc nee tacita nee 
inops dicendi sapientia perficere potuisse, ut homines a con- 
suetudine subito converteret et ad diversaS rationes vitae 
traduceret. Age vero, urbibus constitutis, ut fidem colere" ^ 
et iustitiam retinere discerent, et aliis parere sua voluntate"^ 

29 consuescerent, ac non modo labores excipiendos communis 

30 commodi causa, sed etiam vitam amittendam existimarent, 

31 qui tandem fieri potuit, nisi homines ea, quae ratione in- 

32 venissent, eloquentia persuadere potuissent? Profecto 

33 nemo, nisi gravi ac suavi commotu^ oratione, cum viribus, , 

34 plurimum posset, ad ius voluisset sine vi descendere; ut inter 

35 quos posset excellere, cum iis se pateretur aequari, et sua 

36 voluntate a iucundissima consuetudine recederet, quae 

37 praesertim iam naturae vim obtineret propter vetustatem. 

38 Ac primo quidem sic et nata et progressa longius eloquentia' 

39 videtur, et item postea maximis in rebus pacis et belli cum 

40 summis hominum utilitatibus esse versata; postquam vero 

41 commoditas quaedam, prava virtutis imitatrix, sine ratione 

42 officii, dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta 

43 malitia pervertere urbes et vitas hominum labefactare ad- 

44 suevit. Atque huius quoque exordium mali, quoniam 
J') \ 45 principium boni diximus, explicemus. 

^ \^ The Decline of Oratory — Causes 

' '"^ y'T^lIn the beginning the nobler type of oratory — the parliamentary — 
^, . > ""^ ^ was distinct from the baser — the forensic; then, compelled by circum- 
stances to defend their friends from unjust attacksj statesmen were 



Third Period 185 

drawn into controversy with pettifoggers. In these controversies men 
of high ideals were often defeated by clever and unprincipled casuists, 
who won first the applause and then the suffrage of the superficial 
masses. Becoming demagogues, these wrecked the state; whereupon 
the people, with hasty judgment, damned statesmen and demagogues 
alike; and the art of oratory, having thus fallen into disrepute, was 
abandoned by men of ability for other and less opprobrious or 
hazardous pursuits.] 

1 Verisimillimum mihi videtur, quodam tempore neque in 

2 publicis rebus infantes et insipientes homines solitos esse 

3 versari, nee vero ad privatas causas magnos ac disertos 

4 homines accedei-e; sed cum a summis viris maximae t^s 

5 administrarentur, arbitror alios fuisse non incallidos' 
y 6 homines, qui ad parvas controversias privatorum acceder- 

7 ent. Quibus in controversiis cum saepe a mendacio contra 

V 8 verum stare homines consuescerent, dicendi assiduitas in- 

^ 9 duit audaciam, ut necessario superiores illi propter iniurias 

10 civiimi resistere audacibus, et opitulari suis quisque neces- 

11 sariis cogeretur. Itaque cum in dicendo saepe par^ non- 
12 numquam etiam superior, visus esset is qui, omisso studio 

13 sapientiae, nihil sibi praeter eloquentiam comparasset, 

14 fiebat, ut et multitudinis et suo iudicio dignus, qui rem 

15 publicam gereret, videretur. Hinc nimirum, cum ad 

16 gubernacula rei pubUcae temerarii at que audaces homines 

17 accesserant, maxima ac miserrima naufragia fiebant. 

18 Quibus rebus tantum odii atque invidiae suscepit eloquen- 

19 tia, ut homines ingeniosissimi, quasi ex ah qua turbida x 

20 tempestate in portum, sic ex seditiosa ac tumultuosa vita se ..^ ** 

21 in studium aUquod traderent quietum. Quare mihi viden- ^ 

22 tur postea cetera studia recta atque honesta, per otium 

23 concelebrata ab optimis, enituisse; hoc vero, a plerisque 

24 eorum desertum, obsolevisse tempore quo multo vehemen- 

25 tins erat retinendum et studiosius adaugendum. 

Nobler Ideals of Oratory — The Need for Fostering Them 

1 Nam quo indignius rem honestissimam et rectissimam 

2 violabat^stultorum et improborum temeritas et audacia — 




5-^ civ^^ '^^'T >^^ 


186 National or Classical Roman Literature 

r 3 summo cum rei publicae detrimento — , eo studiosius et illis 

4 resistendum fuit et rei publicae consuleiiduni. Quod nos- 

5 trum ilium non fugit Catbnem neque Laelium neque eorum 

6 (ut vere dicam) discipulum Africanum neque Gracchos 
<v 7 (Africani nepotes) : quibus in hominibus erat summa virtus 

-^^'' 8 et summa, virtute amplificata auctoritas et (quae^ et nis 

c-^ —^^^ rebus ornamento et rei publicae praesidio esset) eloquential 

10 Quare, meo quidem animo, nihilo minus eloquentiae studen- 

11 dum est, etsi ea quidam et privatim et publice abutuntur, 

12 sed eo quidem vehementius, ne mali, magno cum detrimento 

13 bonorum et communi omnium pernicie, plurimum possint; 

14 cum praesertim hoc sit unum, quod ad omnes res et privatas 

15 et publicas maxime pertineat; hoc tut a, hoc honesta, hoc il- 

16 lustris, hoc eodem vita iucunda fiat. Nam hinc ad rem 

17 publicam plurima commoda veniunt, si moderatrix omnium 

18 rerum praesto est — sapientia; hinq ad ipsos, qui eam adepti 

19 sunt, laus, honos, dignitas confluit; hinc amicis quoque eo- 

20 rum certissimum et tutissimum praesidium comparator. 

21 Ac mihi quidem videntur homines, cum multis rebus humili- , 
r- ^ 22 ores et infirmiores sint, hac re maxime bestiis praestare, quod 

23 loqui possunt.; Quare praeclarum mihi quiddam videtur 

24 adeptus is qui, qua re homines bestiis praestent, ea in re 

25 hominibus ipsis antecellat. 


[b] De Oratore 

In 55 B.C., some thirty years after the publication of his de 
Inventionej Cicero wrote his first great dialogue in the grand 
Platonic manner. This dialogue, the de Oratore, was an essay on 
training the orator or statesman. Cicero now scorned conven- 
tional textbooks on the art of oratory (including his own youthful 
"indiscretion"), with their narrow pedagogical limitations and 
their emphasis on mechanical features. His mind now dwelt on 
ideas expressed in the preface of his boyish work, treating the 
philosophy of oratory — a subject even broader than its name would 
seem to imply, for the Latin meaning of ''eloquence'' included all 
literary style — the power of the written as well as the spoken word. 

Though purely a fiction of Cicero's imagination, this dialogue — 

Third Period 187 

like Plato's Symposium and other famous treatises — is given a 
realistic setting. It purports to record a discussion or friendly- 
debate on the art of oratory between two giants of the previous 
generation, L. Crassus and M. Antonius (grandfather of the 
famous -Marc Antony). The discussion takes place amid pleas- 
ant sm-roundings and in the presence of congenial friends, at the 
Tusculan villa of Crassus. 

Selection From Book II 
After some introductory paragraphs, Book II opens with an 
interesting and characteristic passage: 

1 Postero igitur die, . . . hora fere secunda, cum etiam turn 

2 in lecto Crassus esset et apud eum Sulpicius sederet, An- 

3 tonius autem inambularet cum Cotta in porticu, repente e6 

4 Q. Catulus senex cum C. lulio fratre venit. Quod ubi 

5 audivit, commotus Crassus surrexit, omnesque (admirati) 

6 maiorem aliquam esse causam eorum adventus suspicati 

7 sunt. 

s Qui cum inter se, ut ipsorum usus ferebat, amicissime 
9 consalutassent, "quid vos tandem?" Crassus ''numquid- 

10 nam" inquit "novi?" 

11 "Nihil sane" inquit Catulus; "etenim vides esse ludos. 

12 Sed (vel tu nos iheptos licet" inquit "vel molestos putes) 

13 cum ad me in Tusculanum" inquit "heri vesperi venisset 

14 Caesar de Tusculano suo, dixit mihi, a se Scaevolam hinc 

15 euntem esse conventum; ex quo mira quaedam se audisse 

16 dicebat — te, quern ego totiens omni ratione temptans ad dis- 

17 putandum elicere non potuissem, permulta de eloquentia 

18 cum Antonio disseruisse, et tamquam in schola prope ad 

19 Gmecorum consuetudinem disputasse. Ita me f rater 

20 exor^vit (ne ipsum quidem a studio audiendi nimis abhor- 

21 rentem, sed mehercule verentem ne molesti vobis interven- 

22 iremus), ut hue secum venirem. Etenim Scaevolam ita 

23 dicere aiebat: bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse 

24 dilatam. Hoc tu, si cupidius factum existimas, Caesari at- 

25 tribues; si familiarius, utrique nostrum. Nos quidem, nisi 

26 forte molesti intervenimus, venisse delectat." 

^. ^.^^'^Jl \^] ^^ 


188 National or Classical Roman Literature 

27 Turn Crassus: "Equidem, quaecumque vos causa hue at- 

28 tulisset, laetarer, cum apud me viderem homines mihi 

29 carissimos et amicissimos; sed tamen (vere dicam) quaevis 

30 causa mallem fuisset quam ista, quam dicis. Ego enim — ut 

31 quemadmodum sentio loquar — numquam mihi minus quam 

32 hesterno die placui (magis adeo id facilitate quam alia uUa 

33 culpa mea contigit), qui, dum obsequor adulescentibus, 

34 me senem esse sum oblitus; fecique id quod ne adulescens 

35 quidem feceram, ut lis de rebus, quae doctrina aliqua con- 

36 tinerentur, disputarem. Sed hoc tamen cecidit mihi perop- 

37 portune, quod, transactis iam meis partibus, ad Antonium 

38 audiendum venistis/' 

39 Turn Caesar "equidem" inquit "Crasse, et ita sum cupi- ^ 

40 dus in ilia longiore te ac perpetua disputatione audiendi, ut, 

41 si id mihi minus contingat, vel hoc sim cotidiano tuo 

42 sermone contentus. Itaque experiar equidem (ut ne Sul- 

43 picius familiaris meus aut Cotta plus quam ego apud te 

44 valere videatur) et te exorabo profecto, ut mihi quoque et 

45 Catulo tuae suavitatis aliquid impertias. Sin tibi id minus 

46 licebit, non te urgebo, neque committam, ut, dum vereare 

47 tu ne sis ineptus, me esse indices." 

48 Tum ille "ego mehercle," inquit "Caesar, ex omnibus 

49 Latinis verbis huius verbi vim vel maximam semper putavi. 

50 Quem enim nos 'ineptum' vocamus, is mihi videtur ab hoc 

51 nomen habere ductum, quod non sit aptus, idque in ser- 

52 monis nostri consiietudine perlate patet. Nam qui aut 

53 tempus quid postulet non videt aut plura loquitiir aut se 
64 ostentat aut eorum, quibuscum est, vel dignitatis vel com- 
55 modi rationem non habet aut denique in aliquo genere aut 

W:^ 56 inconcinnus aut multiis est, is ineptus esse dicitur. Hoc 

^ 57 vitio cumulata est eruditissima ilia Graecorum natio. 

58 Itaque quod vim huius mali Graeci non vident, ne nomen 

59 quidem ei vitio imposuerunt. Ut enim quaeras omnia, 

60 quomodo Graeci 'ineptum' appellent non reperies. Om- 

61 nium autem ineptiarum, quae sunt innumerabiles, baud 

62 sciam an nulla sit maior, quam (ut illi solent), quocumque in 

63 loco, quoscumque inter homines visum est, de rebus aut 

Third Period 189 

64 difficillimis aut non necessariis argutissime disputare. Hoc 

65 nos ab istis adulescentibus facere, inviti et recusantes, heri 

66 coacti sumus.'^ 

67 Turn Catulus "ne Graeci quidem," inquit "Crasse, qui in 

68 civitatibus suis clari et magni fuerunt sicuti tu es nosque 

69 omnes in nostra re publica volumus esse, horum Graecorum, 

70 qui se inculcant auribus nostris, similes fuerunt; nee in 

71 otio sermones huiusmodi disputationesque fugiebant. Ac 

72 si tibi videntur qui temporis, qui loci, qui hominum ra- 

73 tionem non habent ^inepti' (sicut debent videri), num tan- 

74 dem aut locus hie non idoneus videtur? — in quo porticus 

75 haec ipsa, ubi nunc ambulamus, et palaestra et tot locis 

76 sessiones gymnasiorum et Graecorum disputationum me- 

77 moriam quodam modo commovent; aut num importunum 

78 tempus in tanto otio? — quod et raro datur et nunc perop- 

79 tato nobis datum est; aut homines ab hoc genere disputa- 

80 tionis alieni? — qui omnes ii sumus, ut sine iis studiis vitam 

81 nullam esse ducamus." 

82 "Omnia ista" inquit Crassus "ego alio modo interpretor, 

83 qui primum palaestram et sedis et porticus etiam ipsos, 

84 Catule, Graecos exercitationis causa invenisse arbitror; nam 

85 et saeculis multis ante gymnasia inventa sunt, quam in iis 

86 philosophi garrire coeperunt, et hoc ipso tempore, cum omnia 

87 gymnasia philosophi teneant, tamen eorum auditores discum 

88 audire quam philosophum malunt; qui simul ut increpuit, 

89 in media oratione de maximis rebus et gravissimis disputan- 

90 tem philosophum omnes unctionis causa relinquunt: ita 

91 levissimam delectationem gravissimae (ut ipsi ferunt) utili- 

92 tati anteponunt. Otium autem quod dicis esse, assentior. 

93 Verum otii fructus est animi non contentio sed relaxatio — • 

94 saepe ex socero meo audivi, cum is diceret socerum suum 

95 Laelium semper fere cum Scipione solitum rusticari, eosque 

96 incredibiliter repuerescere esse solitos, cum rus ex urbe 

97 tamquam e vinclis evolavissent : non audeo dicere de talibus 

98 viris, sed tamen ita solet narrare Scaevola, conchas eos et 

99 umbilicos ad Caietam et ad Laurentum legere consuesse et 
100 ad omnem animi remissionem ludumque descendere. Sic 


190 National or Classical Roman Literature 

101 enim res sese habet, ut, quemadmodum volucris videmus 

102 procreationis atque utilitatis suae causa effingere et con- 

103 struere nidos, easdem autem, cum aliquid effecerint, levandi 

104 laboris sui causa passim ac libere, solutas opere, volitare, sic 

105 nostri animi, negotiis forensibus atque urbano opere defessi, 

106 gestiant ac volitare cupiant vacui cura ac labore. Itaque 

107 illud ego, quod in causa Curiana Scaevolae dixi, non dixi 

108 secus ac sentiebam: 

109 *Nam si/ inquam 'Scaevola, nullum erit testamen- 

110 turn recte factum, nisi quod tu scripseris, omnes ad 

111 te cives cum tabulis veniemus ; omnium testamenta 

112 tu scribes unus. Quidigitur?Mnquam. 'Quando 

113 ages negotium publicum ? quando amicorum ? quan- 

114 do tuum? Quando denique nihil ages?' Tum 

115 illud addidi: *mihi enim liber esse non videtur qui 

116 non aliquando nihil agit/ 

117 In qua permaneo, Catule, sententia, meque, cum hue veni, 

118 hoc ipsum nihil agere et plane cessare delectat. Nam, quod 

119 addidisti tertium (vos esse eos qui vitam insuavem sine his 

120 studiis putaretis), id me non modo non hortatur ad dispu- 

121 tandum, sed etiam deterret. Nam ut C. Lucilius, homo et 

122 doctus et perurbanus, dicere solebat, neque se ab indoctissi- 

123 mis neque a doctissimis legi velle, quod alteri nihil intelle- 

124 gerent, alteri plus fortasse quam ipse — de quo etiam scripsit 

125 ' P^rsiiim non euro legere,' (hie fuit enim, ut noramus, omnium 

126 fere nostrorum hominum doctissimus) 'Laeliiim Decimiim 

127 volo' (quem cognovimus virum bonum et non illitteratum, 

128 sed nihil ad Persium) — ; sic ego, si iam mihi disputandum 

129 sit de his nostris studiis, nolim equidem apud rusticos, sed 

130 multo minus apud vos. Malo enim non intellegi orationem 

131 meam quam reprehendi.'^ 

132 Tum Caesar ''equidem,'' inquit "Catule, iam mihi videor 

133 navasse operam, quod hue venerim. Nam haec ipsa recusa- 

134 tio disputationis disputatio quaedam fuit mihi quidem 

135 periucunda. Sed cur impedimus Antonium? — cuius audio 

136 esse partis, ut de tota eloquentia disserat; quemque iam 

137 dudum et Cotta et Sulpicius expectat." 

138 "Ego vero" inquit Crassus "neque Antonium verbum 

Third Period 191 

139 facere patiar et ipse obmutescam, nisi prius a vobis im- 

140 petraro. ..." 

141 "Quidnam?" inquit Catulus. 

142 ". . . ut hic sitis hodie.' 

143 Turn, cum ille dubitaret, quod ad fratrem promiserat, 

144 "ego" inquit lulius "pro utroque respondeo: sic faciemus. 

145 Atque ista quidem condicione, vel ut verbum nullum faceres, 

146 me teneres." ^^ ^ 

147 Hic Catulus adrisit, et simul "praecisa" inquit "mihi 

148 quidem est dubitatio, quoniam neque domi imperaram, et 

149 hic, apud quem eram futurus, sine mea sententia tarn facile 

150 promisit." 

151 Tum omnes oculos in Antonium coniecerunt. Et ille 

152 "audite vero, audite" inquit; "hominem enim audietis de 

153 schola atque a magistro et Graecis litteris eruditum. Et eo 

154 quidem loquar confidentius, quod Catulus auditor accessit, 

155 cui non solum nos Latini sermonis, sed etiam Graeci ipsi 

156 Solent suae linguae subtilitatem elegantiamque concedere. 

157 Sed quia tamen hoc totum (quicquid est — sive artificium sive 

158 studium dicendi), nisi accessit os, nullum potest esse, docebo 

159 vos, discipuli, id quod ipse non didici, quid de omni genere 

160 sentiam." Hic posteaquam adriserunt, "res mihi videtur 

161 esse" inquit "facultate praeclar^, arte mediocris. Ars 

162 enim earum rerum est quae sciuntur, oratoris autem omnis 

163 actio opinionibus, non scientia, continetur. Nam et apud 

164 eos dicimus qui nesciunt, et ea dicimus quae nescimus ipsi. 

165 Itaque et illi alias aliud isdem de rebus et sentiunt et iudi- 

166 cant, et nos contrarias saepe causas dicimus, non modo ut 

167 Crassus contra me dicat aliquando aut ego contra Crassum, 

168 cum alterutri necesse sit falsum dicere, sed etiam ut uterque 

169 nostrum eadem de re alias aliud defendat, cum plus uno ve- 

170 rum esse non possit. Ut igitur in eiusmodi re, quae menda- 

171 cio nixa sit, quae ad scientiam non saepe perveniat, quae 

172 opiniones hominum et saepe errores aucupetur, ita dicam — 

173 si causam putatis esse, cur audiatis." 

174 "Nos vero et valde quidem" Catulus inquit "putamus, 

175 atque eo magis, quod nulla mihi ostentatione videris esse 


'^ 178 








192 National or Classical Roman Literature 

usurus. Exorsus es enim non gloriose — magis a veritate, ut 
tu putas, quam nescioqua dignitate/' 

"Ut igitur de ipso genere sum confessus/V inquit An- 
tonius, "artem esse non maximam, sip illud^ adfirmo," 
praecepta posse quaedam dari peracuta ad pertractandos 
animos hominum et ad excipiendas eorum voluntates. 
Huius rei scientiam si quis volet magnam quandam artem 
esse dicere, non repugnabo." 

' [2] 
Philosophical Essays 

We have already noted (see p. 180) the larger scheme and 
general purpose that lay behind Cicero's numerous essays. 
Let us turn now to a brief consideration of the nature and appeal 
of Greek philosophy, whose adoption by the Romans was a factor 
in occidental civiHzation no less far-reaching than the subsequent 
adoption of Christianity. 

"Philosophy" and "philosopher" are words that cover a wide 
range of meaning, or rather of application. For if philosophy 
means "love of wisdom," what then is wisdom? To the ancient 
Orientals, wisdom meant either patriarchal sagacity or mystical 
reverie — ^the fruit of experience; to the Greeks, it meant scientific 
speculation (beyond the realm of human experience) — enlarging 
the scope and systematizing the details of human knowledge. 
The earliest Greek thinkers (who did not call themselves philos- 
ophers, but were later so named) were pure scientists, whose 
speculations took them into realms now identified as astronomy, 
chemistry, and physics. The range of their interests grew, but 
continued predominantly scientific until Socrates revolted from 
abstract science and turned to the study of man's mind and soul. 

After Socrates the old and the new realms of knowledge were 
cultivated side by side, and complete "philosophies of life" 
evolved, embracing theories of God, of the physical universe, and 
of the whole duty of man. Ultimately there were two such 
philosophies, the Epicurean and the Stoic; and what were these 
but religions? Their founders and followers gave faith and ad- 
herence to a complete system of belief. In the growing com- 

Third Period 193 

plexity of civilized life during the century before the Christian 
era, such systems of belief met the needs of an ever-increasing 
number of people. 

The Tusculan Disputations — Book V 

It is not surprising to find the ideal philosopher akin to the 
saint: each despises and rejects both the pleasures and the tribula- 
tions of this transitory worid. In Book V of the Tttsculan 
Disputations Cicero presents, in attractive popular form, the ideal 
of the philosopher-saint. 

[a] On the fifth day of this discussion (or schola) at Cicero's 
Tusculan villa, the dialogue begins in the conventional maimer 
between the master (magister) and his disciple (auditor) : 

1 Quinto die, cum eodem in loco consedissemus, sic est 

2 propositum de quo disputaremus : 

3 Au. Non mihi videtur ad beate vivendum satis posse 

4 virtutem. 

5 Ma. At hercule Bruto meo videtur, cuius ego iudicium 

6 (pace tua dixerim) longe antepono tuo! 

7 Au. Non dubito; nee id nunc agitur, tu ilium quantum 

8 ames, sed hoc, quod mihi dixi videri quale sit — de quo a te 

9 disputari volo. 

10 Ma. Nempe negas ad beate vivendum satis posse vir- 

11 tutem? 

12 Au. Prorsus nego. 

13 Ma. Quid? Ad recte, honeste, laudabiliter, postremo ad 

14 bene vivendum satisne est praesidii in virtute? 

15 Au. Certe satis. 

16 Ma. Botes igitur aut, qui male vivat, non eum miserum 

17 dicere, aut, quern bene fateare, eum negare beate vivere? 

18 Au. Quidni possim? Nam etiam in tormentis recte, 

19 honeste, laudabiliter — et ob eam rem, bene — vivi potest, 

20 dummodo intellegas, quid nunc dicam ''bene." Dico enim 

21 constanter, graviter, sapienter, fortiter. Haec etiam in 

22 eculeum coniciuntur, quo vita non adspirat beata. 

23 Ma. Quid igitur? Solane beata vita, quaeso, relinquitur 

24 extra ostium Hmenque carceris, cum constantia, gravitas, 

194 National or Classical Roman Literature 

25 fortitude, sapientia, reliquaeque virtutes rapiantur ad tor- 

26 torem nuUumque recusent nee supplicium nee dolorem? 

27 Au. Tu, si quid es facturus, nova aliqua eonquiras opor- 

28 tet; ista me minime movent, non solum quia pervulgata 

29 sunt, sed multo magis quia, tamquam levia quaedam vina 

30 nihil valent in aqua, sie Stoieorum ista magis gustata quam 

31 potata delectant. . . . Cum autem animum ab ista pietura 

32 imaginibusque virtu tum ad rem veritatemque traduxeris, 

33 hoe nudum rehnquitur, possitne quis beatus esse, quamdiu 

34 torqueatur. Quam ob rem hoe nune quaeramus. . . . 

35 Ma. Faeile patior te isto modo agere, etsi iniquum est 

36 praescribere mihi te, quemadmodum a me disputari velis. 

37 Sed quaero utrum aliquid actum superioribus diebus an 

38 nihil arbitremur. 

39 Au. Actum vero, et aliquantum quidem. 

40 Ma. Atqui, si ita est, profligata iam haee et paene ad 

41 exitum addueta quaestio est. 

42 Au. Quo tandem modo? 

43 Ma. Quia motus turbulenti iactationesque animorum inei- 

44 tatae et impetu inconsiderato elatae, rationem omnem 

45 repellentes, vitae beatae nuUam partem relinquunt. Quis 

46 enim potest, mortem aut dolorem metuens (quorum alterum 

47 saepe adest, alterum semper impendet), esse non miser? 

48 Quid si idem (quod plerumque fit) paupertatem, igno- 

49 miniam, infamiam timet — si debilitatem, caecitatem — si 

50 denique (quod non singulis hominibus, sed potentibus 

51 populis saepe contigit) servitutem? Potest, ea timens, esse 

52 quisquam beatus? Quid qui non modo ea f utura timet, verum 

53 etiam fert sustinetque praesentia? Adde eodem exsilia, 

54 luctus, orbitates: qui (rebus his fractus) aegritudine eliditur, 

55 potest tandem esse non miserrimus? Quid vero? Ilium, 

56 quem libidinibus inflammatum et furentem videmus (omnia 

57 rabide appetentem cum inexplebili cupiditate; quoque af- 

58 fluentius voluptates undique hauriat, eo gravius ardentius- 

59 que sitientem), nonne recte miserrimum dixeris? Quid? 

60 Elatus ille levitate inanique laetitia exultans et temere 

61 gestiens nonne tanto miserior, quant o sibi videtur beatior? 

Third Period 195 

62 Ergo, ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati, quos nulli metus 

63 terrent, nullae aegritudines exedunt, nullae libidines inci- 

64 tant, nullae futtiles laetitiae exultantes languidis lique- 

65 faciunt voluptatibus. Ut maris igitur tranquillitas intellegi- 

66 tur nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus commovente, sic 

67 animi quietus et placatus status cernitur, cum perturbatio 

68 nulla est, qua moveri queat. Quodsi est, qui vim fortunae, 

69 qui omnia humana quae cuique accidere possunt tolerabilia 

70 ducat (ex quo nee timor eum nee angor attingat), idemque si 

71 nihil concupiscat, nulla ecferatur animi inani voluptate, 

72 quid est cur is non beatus sit ? Et si haec virtute efficiuntur, 

73 quid est cur virtus ipsa per se non efficiat beatos? 

[b] When the debate proves rather one-sided, the master de- 
livers a lengthy sermon, full of popular anecdotes and examples, 
on characteristics of the true philosopher — a fitting conclusion to 
five whole days of discussion. The following excerpts are from 
the master's sermon: 

[i] Which Was the Happier — The Despot Dionysius 
or the Mathematician Archimedes? ^ 

1 Duodequadraginta annos tyrannus Syracusanorum fuit 

2 Dionysius, cum quinque et viginti natus annos dominatum 

3 occupavisset. Qua pulchritudine urbem, quibus autem 

4 opibus praeditam servitute oppressam tenuit civitatem! 

5 Atqui de hoc homine a bonis auctoribus sic scriptum accepi- 

6 mus : summam fuisse eius in victu temperantiam, in rebusque 

7 gerendis virum acrem et industrium — eundem tamen malefi- 

8 cum natura et iniustum. Ex quo omnibus bene veritatem 
% intuentibus videri necesse est miserrimum. Ea enim ipsa 

10 quae concupierat, ne tum quidem, cum omnia se posse 

11 censebat, consequebatur. Qui cum esset bonis parentibus 

12 atque honesto loco natus (etsi id quidem alius alio modo 

13 tradidit) abundaretque et aequalium familiaritatibus et con- 

14 suetudine propinquorum, . . . credebat eorum nemini, sed 

15 iis, quos ex familiis locupletium servos delegerat (quibus 

16 nomen servitutis ipse detraxerat) et quibusdam convenis et 
1 Both men were famous Syracusans. 

196 National or Classical Roman Literature 

17 feris barbaris corporis custodiam committebat. Ita propter 

18 iniustam dominatus cupiditatem in carcerem quodam modo 

19 ipse se incluserat. 

20 Quin etiam, ne tonsori coUum committeret, tondere filias 

21 suas docuit. Ita sordido ancillarique artificio regiae vir- 

22 gines, ut tonstriculae, tondebant barbam et capillum patris. 

23 Et tamen ab his ipsis, cum iam essent adultae, ferrum 

24 removit, instituitque ut candentibus iuglandium putamini- 

25 bus barbam sibi et capillum adurerent. 

26 Cumque duas uxores haberet (Aristomachen, civem suam, 

27 Doridem autem Locrensem) sic noctu ad eas ventitabat, ut 

28 omnia specularetur et perscrutaretur ante. Et cum fossam 

29 latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset eiusque fossae transi- 

30 tum ponticulo ligneo coniunxisset, eum ipsum, cum forem 

31 cubiculi clauserat, detorquebat. Idemque cum in com- 

32 munibus suggestis consistere non auderet, contionari ex turri 

33 alta solebat. At que is cum pila ludere vellet (studiose enim 

34 id factitabat) tunicamque poneret, adulescentulo, quem 

35 amabat, tradidisse gladium dicitur. Hie cum quidam 

36 familiaris iocans dixisset "huic quidem certe vitam tuam 

37 committis" adrisissetque adulescens, utrumque iussit inter- 

38 fici, alterum, quia viam demonstravisset interimendi sui, 

39 alterum, quia dictum id risu approbavisset. Atque eo facto 

40 sic doluit, nihil ut tulerit gravius in vita; quem enim vehe- 

41 menter amarat, occiderat. Sic distrahuntur in contrarias 

42 partis impotentium cupiditates. . . . 

43 Quamquam hie quidem tyrannus ipse iudicavit, quam 

44 esset beatus. Nam cum quidam ex eius adsentatoribus, 

45 Damocles, commemmoraret in sermone copias eius, opes, 

46 maiestatem dominatus, rerum abundantiam, magnificen- 

47 tiam aedium regiarum, negaretque umquam beatiorem 

48 quemquam fuisse, "visne igitur," inquit, "O Damocle, 

49 quoniam te haec vita delectat, ipse eam degustare et fortu- 

50 nam experiri meam?" Cum se ille cupere dixisset, conlo- 

51 cari iussit hominem in aureo lecto, . . . abacosque complu- 

52 ris ornavit argento auroque caelato. Tum ad mensam 

Third Period 197 

63 eximia forma pueros delectos iussit consistere, eosque, nutum 

64 illius intuentis, diligenter ministrare. Aderant unguenta, 

65 coronae; incendebantur odores; mensae conquisitissimis 

66 epulis exstruebantur. Fortunatus sibi Damocles videbatur. 

57 In hoc medio apparatu fulgentem gladium e lacunari, saeta 

58 equina aptum, demitti iussit, ut impenderet illius beati 
69 cervicibus. Itaque nee pulchros illos ministratores aspicie- 

60 bat nee plenum artis argentum, nee manum porrigebat in 

61 mensam; iam ipsae defluebant coronae; denique exoravit 

62 tyrannum, ut abire liceret, quod iam beatus nollet esse. 

63 Satisne videtur declarasse Dionysius, nihil esse ei beatum, 

64 cui semper aUqui terror impendeat? Atque ei ne integrum 
66 quidem erat ut ad iustitiam remigraret, civibus libertatem 

66 et iura redderet; iis enim se adulescens improvida aetate 

67 inretierat erratis eaque commiserat, ut salvus esse non 

68 posset, si sanus esse coepisset. 

69 Quantopere vero amicitias desideraret, quarum infidelita- 

70 tem extimescebat, declaravit in Pythagoriis duobus illis, 

71 quorum cum alter um vadem mortis accepisset, alter, ut 

72 vadem suum liber aret, praesto fuisset ad horam mortis de- 

73 stinatam, " utinam ego " inquit " tertius vobis amicus adscri- 

74 berer!'* Quam huic erat miserum carere consuetudine ami- 
76 corum, societate victus, sermone omnino familiari-^~homini 

76 praesertimdoctoapueroetartibiisingenuiseruaito! Musi- 

77 corum vero perstudiosum, poetam etiam tragicum — quam 

78 bonum, nihil ad rein; in hoc enim genere nescioquo pacto, 

79 magis quam in aUis, suum cuique pulcErum est; adhuc 

80 neminem cognovi poetam (et mihi fuit cum Aquinio amici- 

81 tia), qui sibi non optimus videretur; sic se res habet: te tua, XZ< ^ 

82 me delectan^t mea — sed ut ad Dionysium redeamus, omni i ^ 

83 cultu et victu humano carebat; vivebat cum fugitivis, cum 

84 facinerosis, cum barbaris; neminem, qui aut libertate dignus 

85 esset aut vellet omnino Hber esse, sibi amicum arbitrabatur. 

86 Non ego iam cum huius vita (qua taetrius, miserius, 

87 detestabilius excogitare nihil possum) Platonis aut Archytae 

88 vitam comparabo, doctorum hominum et plane sapientium; 

198 National or Classical Roman Literature 

89 ex eadem urbe humilem homunculum a pulvere et radio 

90 excitabo, qui multis annis post fuit, Archimedem. Cuius 

91 ego, quaestor, ignoratum ab Syracusanis (cum esse omnino 

92 negarent), saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis 

93 indagavi sepulchrum. Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, 

94 quos in eius monumento esse inscriptos acceperam, qui 

95 declarabant in summo sepulchro sphaeram esse p>ositam cum 

96 cylindro. Ego autem cum omnia conlustrarem oculis (est 

97 enim ad port as Agragentinas magna frequent ia sepulchro- 

98 rum), animadverti columellam non multum e dumis eminen- 

99 tem,inquaineratsphaeraefiguraetcylindri. Atqueegostatim 

100 Syracusanis (erant autem principes mecum) dixi me illud 

101 ipsum arbitrari esse, quod quaererem. Immissi cum falci- 

102 bus multi purgarunt et aperuerunt locum. Quo cum pate- 

103 f actus esset aditus, ad adversam basim accessimus. Ap- 

104 parebat epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus versicu- 

105 lorum — dimidiatis fere. Ita nobilissima Graeciae ci vitas, 

106 quondam vero etiam doctissima, sui civis unius acutissimi 

107 monumentum ignorasset, nisi ab homine Arpinate didi- 

108 cisset. 

109 Sed redeat, unde aberravit oratio. Quis est omnium, qui 

110 modo cum Musis (id est cum humanitate et cum doctrina) 

111 habeat aliquod commercium, qui se non hunc mathematicum 

112 malit quam ilium tyrannum ? Si vitae modum actionemque 

113 quaerimus, alterius mens rationibus agitandis exquirendis- ' D 

114 que alebatur cum oblectatione sollertiae (qui est unus 

115 suavissimus pastus animorum), alterius in caede et iniuriis 

116 cum et diurno et nocturno metu. Age confer Democritum, 

117 Pythagoram, Anaxagoram: quae regna, quas opes studiis 

118 eorum et delectationibus antepones? Etenim, quae pars 

119 optima est in homine, in ea situm esse necesse est illud, quod 

120 quaeris, optimum. Quid est autem in homine sagaci ac 

121 bona mente melius ? Eius bono f ruendum est igitur, si beati ' 

122 esse volumus; bonum autem mentis est virtus; ergo hac 

123 beatam vitam contineri necesse est. Hinc omnia quae pul- 

124 chra, honesta, praeclara sunt, ut supra dixi — sed dicendum 

Third Period 199 

.- ^i* ■ ' 

J 26 idem illud paulo uberius videtur — plena gaudiorum sunt.) 

126 Ex perpetuis autem plenisque gaudiis cum perspicuum sit 

127 vitam beatam existere, sequitur ut ea existat ex honestate. 

[ii] Socrates, Xenocrates, and Diogenes — Despisers of 
Wealth and Power, 

1 Socrates, in pompa cum magna vis auri argentique ferre- 

2 tur, "quam multa non desidero" inquit. Xenocrates, cum 

3 legati ab Alexandro quinquaginta ei talenta attulissent 

4 (quae erat pecunia temporibus illis, Athenis praesertim, 

5 maxima), abduxit legatos ad cenam in Academiam; iis ap- 

6 posuit tantiim quod satis esset, nullo apparatii. Cum pos- 

7 tridie rogarent eum, cm humerari iu beret, "quid? vos 

8 hesterna" inquit "cenula non intellexistis, me pecunia non 

9 egere?" Quos cum tristiores vidisset, triginta minas ac- 

10 cepit, ne aspernari regis liberalitatem videretur. At vero 

1 1 Diogenes liberius (ut Cynicus) Alexandro, roganti ut diceret, 

12 si quid opus esset, "nunc quidem paululum '' inquit " a sole" : 

13 offecerat videlicet apricanti. Et hie quidem disputafe'sole- 

14 bat, qiianto regem Persarum vita fortunaque su^eraret; sibi 

15 nihil deesse, illi nihil satis umquam fore; se eius voluptates 

16 non desiderare, quibus numquam satiari ille posset — suas 

17 eum coiisequi nullo modo posse. 

[m] SimpHcity — The Source of True Happiness ^ ^ ^j^ 

1 Darius in fuga cum aquam turbidam et cadaveribus in- 

2 quinatam bibisset, negavit umquam se bibisse iucundius. 

3 Numquam videlicet sitiens biberat. Nee esuriens Ptolo- 

4 maeus ederat, cui cum, peragranti Aegyptum (comitibus 

5 non consecutis), cibarius in casa panis datus esset, nihil 

6 visum est illo pane iucundius. ^_ ^^ . ,^, ^ 

7 Socraten ferunt, cum usque ad vesperum contentius 

8 ambularet, quaesitumque esset ex eo quare id faceret, re- 

9 spondisse se, quo melius cenaret, obsonare ambulando 

10 famem. . i , . 

11 Quid? Victum Lacedaemoniorum in philitiis nonne 

12 videmus? Ubi cum tyrannus cenavisset Dionysius, negavit 

200 National or Classical Roman Literature 

13 se iure illo nigro, quod cenae caput erat, delectatum. Turn 

14 is, qui ilia coxerat: "minime mirum! — conduhenta enim 

15 defuerunt." "Quae tandem?'' inquit ille. "Labor in 

16 venatu, sudor, cursus ad Eurotam, fames, sitis; his enim 

17 rebus Lacedaemoniorum epulae condiuntur." 

18 Atque hoc non ex hominum more solum, sed etiam ex 

19 bestiis intellegi potest, quae, ut quicquid obiectum est quod 

20 mod6 a natura non sit alienum, eo contentae non quaerunt 
(^ 21 amplius. . . . 

22 Timotheum, clarum hominem Athenis et principem 

23 ci"vitatis, ferunt, cum cenavisset apud Platonem eoque con- 

24 vivio admodum delectatus esset vidissetque eum postridie, 

25 dixisse: "vestrae quidem cenae non solum in praesentia, sed 

26 etiana post^ro die iucundae sunt." 

27 Quid quod ne mente quidem recte uti possumus, multo 

28 cibo et potione completi? Est praeclara epistula Platonis 

29 ad Dionis propinquos, in qua scriptum est his fere verbis: 

30 "qu6 cum venissem, vita ilia beata (quae ferebatur), plena 

31 Italicarum SyracusJarumque mensarum, nullo modo mihi 
- 32 placuit — bis in die saturum fieri, nee umquam pernoctare 

33 solum, ceteraque quae comitantur huic vitae; in qua sapiens 

34 nemo efficietur umquam, moderatus vero multo minus. 

35 Quae enim natura tain mirabiliter temperari potest?" 

36 Quo modo igitur iucunda vita potest esse, a qua absit 

37 prudentia, absit moderatio? Ex quo Sardanapalli, opu- 

38 lentissimi Syriae regis, error agnoscitur, qui incidi iussit in 

39 busto: 

40 "Haec habeo quae edi, quaeque exsaturata libido 

41 hausit; at ilia iacent multa et praeclara relicta." 

42 "Quid aliud" inquit Aristoteles "in bovis, non in regis, 

43 sepulchro inscriberes? Haec habere se mortuum dicit, 

44 quae ne vivus quidem diutius habebat quam fruebatur." 

45 Cur igitur divitiae desiderentur, aut ubi paupertas beatos 

46 esse non sinit? . . . Dies deficiat, si velim paupertatis 

47 causam defendere. Aperta enim res est — et cotidie nos ipsa 

48 Natura admonet, quam paucis, quam parvis rebus egeat, 

49 quam vilibus. 

Third Period 201 


(Born in 99 B.C.; active from 70-55) 

His Life and Works 

Lucretius was one of the world's great philosophic poets. He 
was an Epicurean and, following the tradition of the great Greek 
philosopher-scientists (Xen6crates, Emp^docles, and Parm^nides), 
embodied his philosophy in a didactic poem of some 7000 lines, 
contained in six books. The style of the poem is essentially epic — 
i.e., Lucretius consciously endeavored to impart to his language 
and style the grandeur and dignity associated with epic poetry. 
He succeeded so well that the de Rerum Natura is a landmark in 
the evolution of Latin hexameter verse, a milestone in its course of 
development from the crude beginnings of Ennius to the perfec- 
tion of Vergil — ^for Lucretius had genuine poetic genius and power. 
But only certain passages of the long didactic poem reflect this 
power; the rest, although sometimes ingenious and sometimes 
profound, is no more poetic than versified physics, chemistry, and 
astronomy would be in any language or era. Had he lived else- 
where and at some other time, Lucretius might have found liter- 
ary models more suited — ^from our point of view — to his needs; 
as a philosophical scientist and a Roman, however, he cannot be 
blamed for following his great Greek predecessors. Thus he 
created a monumental work of human thought, permeated with 
poetic genius. The uneven quality of his work Lucretius shares 
with all other philosophic poets — Dante and Goethe included; 
it is not possible to be wholly philosophic and wholly poetic at the 
same time. 

Not even Plato treats of more compelling and fundamental 
human problems. To be sure, Lucretius presents the physical 
side of the atomic theory — with its explanations of matter, energy, 
and mind — ^more or less perfunctorily; but he argues with prophet- 
ic zeal and passionate earnestness for the moral inferences of this 
system — ^namely, the materialistic conception of the universe, the 
mortality of the soul, and atheism. For him contemporary 
religions held only empty formalism and superstitious terrors. 
Although he denounced religion, his enthusiasm rose to such 

202 National or Classical Roman Literature 

heights that he unwittingly promulgated a "religion of science.'' 
As an apostle of Epicureanism, Lucretius was as religious as any 
poet-teacher that ever lived. 

The only sketch of the life of Lucretius that has survived from 
ancient times happens to come from the Chronological Tables of 
St. Jerome. The following entry appears under the year 95 B.C.^ : 
"T. Lucretius the poet was born, who afterwards was made in- 
sane by a love potion, and when, in the intervals of his madness, 
he had written several books, which Cicero corrected, he killed 
himself by his own hand in the forty-fourth year of his age." 
Hardly anything more derogatory to the great poet could be said 
or implied; in other words Lucretius was anathema to the Christ- 
ian fathers. It is safe to conclude that whatever truth there may 
be in St. Jerome's account has been considerably colored. On 
the whole this biographical item tells us almost nothing worth 
while about Lucretius — it is pure scandal! 

Nevertheless St. Jerome does give one interesting fact — namely, 
that Cicero edited the de Rerum Natura. This is really surprising, 
as Cicero opposed the Epicurean philosophy and mentions Lucre- 
tius only once, in a letter to his brother — a brief reference, obscure 
in part, but indicating that Cicero recognized the other man's 

Epicureanism and Stoicism were the two great schools of Greek 
philosophy in the Roman period. But nothing could be more 
misleading than to call them "philosophies" in the modern sense, 
for inasmuch as they supplied adherents with a complete faith — 
i.e., an explanation of the universe and man's place therein, a 
code of morals, and a philosophy of life — , they were essentially 
religions. Stoicism, which had many tenets in common with 
Christianity, appealed more strongly to the Romans than 
Epicureanism, which always suffered from misinterpretation. 
Because Epicurus taught that the chief good in life is pleasure and 
the chief evil pain, and that there is neither a hereafter nor a 
personal God, he became the patron saint of every rou6 and 
voluptuary and gave to modern languages the word epicure, 

* St. Jerome made a technical error in the date. 

Third Period 203 

We know, however, that the historical Epicurus was a man of 
blameless life: 

Him not the splintered lightenings, nor the roll 
Of thunders daunted. Undismayed his soul 

Rose, and outsoared the thunder, plumbed the abyss, 
And scanned the wheeling worlds from pole to pole; 

And from the abyss brought back for you and me 
The secret that alone can set men free. 

He showed us how the worlds and worlds began, 
And what things can, and what things cannot be.^ 

Lucretius represented the nobler interpretation of Epicureanism, 
not the false philosophy of the voluptuary. 

De Rerum Natura 


[Lucretius appeals for poetic inspiration not to the Muses, but 
to Venus! In deference to mythological tradition, he depicts her 
as the mundane goddess of love; but in his philosophy she 
symbolizes something higher — the universal regenerative power 
that transcends all other forces of nature. There is little, if any, 
inconsistency in the invocation of a goddess by a reputed atheist, 
for Lucretius was that in name only; in spirit he was a devout 
and reverent worshipper of the mystery of the universe. More- 
over the Epicureans did not deny the existence of the gods, but 
denied only their interest and intervention in human affairs and 
in the immutable laws of nature. It is therefore appropriate for 
Lucretius, the philosopher and poet, to invoke Venus, the spirit 
of Life and of Peace.] 

1 Aeneadum genetrix, hominum divomque voluptas, ^" 

2 alma Venus, caeli subter labentia signa 

3 quae mare navigerurh, quae terras frugiferentis "^^^ 

1 W. H. Mallock, Lucretius on Life and Death, II, vi-viii, p. 9; Portland, 
Maine, 1919. 


204 National or Classical Roman Literature 

4 concelebras, per te quoniam genus omne animantum 

5 concipitur visitque e:i^ortum lumina solis, 



6 te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse, 

^---^^7 quos ego de rerum jiatura parigere conor 

8 Memmiadae nostro, querp tu, dea, tempore in omni 

9 omnibus oriiatuni voluisti excellere rebus, 

10 Quo' magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem. * \\\ 

11 Effice ut interea fera indeiiera miJiiiai ^ i v^*^v> \^ 

12 per maria ac terras omnis sopita quiesqant. ^ ' '^^^ - 

13 Nam tu sola potes tranquilla pace iuvare ^ r" 

14 mortalis, quoniam belli fera moenera Mavors - " ^ v< .?..., 
. - ^ 15 armipotens regit, in gremium qui saepe tuum so 

V~^^' _^~:16 reicit, aeterno devictus vulnere amoris. > v-,^^^'^^ 

xS^^ V • • • • • 

V k -• 17 Nam neque nos agere hoc patriai tempore iniquo 

18 possumus aequo animo nee Memmi clara propago 

19 talibus in rebus communi desse saluti. 




v.^" > [2] 

'^ > v, The Mission of Epicurus 

1 Humana ante oculos f oede ciim vita iaceret , vi 

2 in terris, oppressa gravi sub Religione, 

3 quae caput a caeli regionibus ostendebat \>^^ > ' 
^ 4 horribili super aspectu mortalibus instans, ' 

6 primum Grains, homo mortalis, tollere contra 

6 est oculos ausus primusque obsistere contra, 

7 quem neque fama deum nee fulmina nee minitanti 

8 murmure compressit caelum, sed eo magis acrem 

9 inritat animi virtutem, efifringere ut arta 
10 naturae primus portarum claustra cupiret. 

^ 1 1 Ergo vivida vis animi pervicit et extra 

12 processit longe flammantia moenia mundi 

13 atque omne immensum peragravit mente anlmoque; 

14 unde refert nobis victor, quid possit oriri, 

15 quid nequeat, finita potestas denique cuique 




Third Period xV^ ' 205 

16 quanam sit ratione atque alte terminus haerens. 

17 Quare Religio pedibus subiecta vicissim 

18 obteritur; nos exaequat victoria caelo. 


Religion, What Crimes Are Committed in Thy Name ! 

[Lucretius proves his point by a famous story from Greek 
mythology: When the Greeks assembled at Aulisjn Boeptia to 
embark on the Trojan War, their fleet was long held by adverse 
winds, until the seer Calchas declared that the gods could be 
appeased only by the sacrifice of Iphigenla (or Iphianassa), eldest 
daughter of Agamemnon. On the pretext that she was to marry 
Achilles, Iphigenia was lured to Aulis and there sacrified to Diana. 
A less savage version has it that as the knife fell, a hart was 
miraculously substituted for the victim and she herself snatched 
away by the goddess and transported to Tauris.* 

Lucretius' description of Iphigenia's sacrifice may be compared 
with Tennyson's, in the latter's Dream of Fair Women. Iphigenia 

I was cut off from hope in that sad place, 

Which yet to name my spirit loathes and fears: 

My father held his hand upon his face; 
I, blinded, with my tears, 

Still strove to speak: my voice was thick with sighs 

As in a dream. Dimly I could descry 
The stem black-bearded kings with wolfish eyes, 

Waiting to see me die. 

The high masts flickered as they lay afloat; 

The crowds, the temples, waver'd, and the shore; 
The bright death quiver'd at the victim's throat, 

Touch'd; and I knew no more. 

Lucretius might well have used examples from Roman history — 
e.g., the burying alive of four human victims in Rome during the 
panic that followed the battle of Cannae, in 216 B.C. — about a 
century and a half before he wrote. Had he lived in medieval or 

^ Cf . Abraham and Isaac. 


206 National or Classical Roman Literature 

modern times, he might have instanced many wars of religious 
persecution, but of such wholesale crimes in the name of religion 
he was happily ignorant.] 

1 Illud in his rebus vereor, ne forte rearis 

^"^"^ 2 impia te rationis inire element a vianique 

3 indugredi sceleris. Quod contra saepius ilia 

4 Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta: 

5 Aulide quo pacto Trivial virginis aram 

6 Iphianassai turparunt sanguine foede 

7 ductores Danaum delecti, prima virorum. 

8 Cui simul infula, virgineos circumdata comptus, 

9 ex utraque pari malarum parte profusa 'st, 

10 et maestum simul ante aras adstare parentem ,^\ 

11 sensit et httnc propter ferrum celare ministros 

12 aspectuque suo lacrimas effundere ^ivis, 

^, :v-'i3 muta metu terram genibus sfimmissa petebat. 

■^ 14 Nee miserae prorfesse in tali tempore quitiat _ ^ ^.... - 

15 quod patrio princeps donarat nomine regem. 

16 Nam sublata virum manibus tremibundaque ad aras 

17 deducta est, non ut, sollemni more sacrorum 
-^' 18 perfecto, posset claro comitari hymenaeo; 

" ' 19 sed casta inceste, nubendi tempore in ipso, 

20 hostia concideret, mactatu maesta parentis, 

21 exitus ut classi felix faustusque daretur. \r^^^^' ^ ^^ 

22 Tantum Religio potuit suadere malorum ! '' ' \ \x-^ 

The Difficulty of Lucretius' Task ^^'' i 

1 Nee me animi fallit Graiorum obscura reperta v ^ n*-^^ 

2 difficile illustrare Latinis versibus esse, ^ . ^ ,,_ u y^'^ 

3 multa novis verbis praesertim cum sit agendum 

4 propter egestatem linguae et rerum novitatem; 

5 sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata voluptas 

6 suavis amicitiae quemvis sufferre laborem 

7 suadet et inducit noctes vigilare serenas 

8 quaerentem, dictis quibus et quo carmine demum 





Third Period . - ^^ ;^- 207 

9 clara tuae possim praepandere lumina menti, 
10 res quibus occultas penitus conVisere possis. A*^ 1 

The Two Basic Laws of Nature 
[Not religion, but science, is man's solace. We live in a uni- 
verse based on immutable law. Miracles, the caprice of the gods, 
and divine vengeance are impossible in an ordered universe. 
Religion is but the reflex of man's ignorant fears. 

According to Lucretius the two basic laws of nature are: (1) 
that nothing ever comes from nothing, and (2) that nothing is 
ever reduced to nothing. Here he has vaguely foreshadowed the 
doctrines of the Conservation of Energy and the Indestructibility 
of Atomic Matter, although the proofs which he adduces would 
seem superficial to modern experimental science.] 

1 Hunc igitur terrorem animi teneferasque necesse est 

2 non radii solis neque lucida tela diei , 

3 discutiant, sed naturae species ratiocjue. v. ....^ va v 

4 Principium cuius hinc nobis exordia sumet: ^^^^^ s^vV^— 


6 Quippe ita formido mortalis continet omnis, t^ \^r^i.J <j, ci^ i, 

7 quod multa in terris fieri caeloque tuentur, r^ ^ \^\ v\ 

8 quorum o^erum causas nulla ratione videre V^ 

9 possunt, ac fieri divino numine rentur. ^ 

10 Quas ob res ubi viderimus nil posse creari ^ ^ ' * 

11 de nilo, tum quod sequimur iam rectius inde 

12 perspiciemus, et unde queat res quaeque creari 

13 et quo quaeque modo fiant opera sine divum. 

[i4] Praeterea HAUD REDIT AD NILUM RES ULLA, sed 

omnes , 

15 discidio redeunt in corpora material. 
[i6] Quapropter pereunt imbres, ubi eos pater aether 

17 in gremium matris terrai praecipitavit; 

18 at nitidae surgunt fruges ramique virescunt 

19 arboribus, crescunt ipsae fetuque gravantur; 

20 hinc alitur porro nostrum genus atque ferarum; 


Sv^ ^^^' , V^ 

208 National or Classical Roman Literature 

21 hinc laetas iirbes pueris florere videmus ^ y-x ^ - 

22 frondiferasque novis avibus canere undique silvas; 
,.^ — 23 hinc fessae pecudes pingui per pabula laeta 

24 corpora deponunt, et candens lacteus umor 

^> u-^^ "^^ ' 26 ub^ribus manat distentis; hinc nova proles . ^ . 

. X \vs^ 26 artubiis infirmis teneras lasciva per herbas -* ^ ' " 

X ^ x^"^ 27 ludit, lacte mero mentes perculsa novellas. 

^ .^^'"'^ 28 Haud igitur penitus pereunt quaecumque videntur, 

^'"^ ^ N 29 quando alid ex alio reficit natura nee ullam 

v^ 30 rem gigni patitur, nisi morte adiuta aliena. 


The Composition op Matter 

[Lucretius contends that matter is not composed of atoms solidly- 
packed; there is void in all things. He adduces two proofs of 
his contention: (1) the permeability of matter (11. 4-11); and (2) 
the relative density, or specific gravity, of different substances 
(11. 12-21).] 

1 Nee tamen imdique corporea stipata tenentur 

2 omnia natura; namque est in rebus inane. 

3 Quod tibi cognosse in multis erit utile rebus. 

4 Dissipat' in corpus sese cibus omne animantum. 

5 Crescunt arbusta et fetus in tempore fundunt, , 

6 quod cibus in totas usque ab radicibus imis 

7 per truncos ac per ramos diffunditur omnis. 

8 Inter saepta meant voces et clausa domorum .„ v- ^' 

9 transvolitant. Rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa.^ ^^ ^ s, 

10 Quod, nisi inania sint, qu4 possint corpora quaeque ^ 

11 transire, haud uUa fieri ratione videres. 

12 Denique cur alias aliis praestare videmus 

13 ponder e res rebus, nilo maiore figura? 

14 Nam si tantundem est in lanae glomere quantum \ , v^ 

15 corporis in plumbo est, tantundem pendere par est, 

16 corporis officium est quoniam premere omnia deorsum, 

Third Period 209 


17 contra autem natura manet sine pondere inanis. ^ ^^v '» "**'^'^^ 

18 Ergo quod magnum est aeque leviusque videtur, W->^^"^ ^ }^ "^ 

19 nimirum plus esse sibi declarat inanis; ^V-^V 

20 at contra gravius plus in se corporis esse ^ \ ^ • 

21 dedicat et multo vacui minus intus habere. "^ 

22 Est igitur nimirum (id quod ratione sagaci 

23 quaerimus) admixtum rebus, quod inane vocamus. 


(Born in 84 B.C.; active from 66-64) 

His Character and Achievements 

Catullus is the most versatile and original genius of all the 
Latin poets. Although he died at about thirty years of age, 
Catullus produced a remarkable variety of verse in the dozen 
years of his literary career and, by virtue of a few masterpieces, 
ranks among the great lyric poets of the world. Nevertheless 
he is not generally regarded as the greatest of Roman poets, 
"originality" not being the criterion in classical Uterature it is in 
modern. His is rather an exotic quality, lacking the depth and 
maturity of character of both Vergil and Horace. But in the first 
twelve years of their literary careers neither Vergil nor Horace 
could match even the technical skill of Catullus; nor did they ever 
equal his spontaneity. One can only conjecture what Catullus 
might have accomplished, had he lived his full span of life. 

Catullus was both gifted and studious . His poems include, on 
the one hand, the most simple and natural verses in the Latin 
language, and on the other, some of the most elaborate and artifi- 
cial of metrical compositions. Because of the rigidity and com- 
plexity of the meters of Greek and Latin verse, Catullus achieved 
an extraordinary feat in mastering so many different verse forms; 
in this respect he is Horace's peer, if not his superior. Employing 
about a dozen different metrical forms, he showed himself a facile 
epigrammatist, a trenchant satirist, a charming and witty writer 
of vers de societe, an elegist tenderly serious or mockingly trivial as 
the occasion demanded, and a lyric poet unsurpassed. 

210 National or Classical Roman Literature 

For modern readers the term " lyric '* requires a word of ex- 
planation. It is a term that is very loosely and vaguely used in 
modern times to cover a multitude of sins! In literatvire it is 
generally applied to short poems that are subjective expressions 
of a poet's moods and feelings, and defines the spirit rather than 
the form of a composition. In Greek and Latin literature, how- 
ever, the term merely denotes verses written in those meters and 
stanzas which the Greeks originally designed for song, as con- 
trasted with recitation; it is therefore a definition of metrical form. 
Now Catullus wrote comparatively few poems that were lyric 
in form (i.e., in the Greek sense), but many that were lyric in 
spirit (i.e., in the modern sense). His modern fame as a lyric 
poet is based therefore on the spirit of his poetry and on the 
expression of his emotional nature, regardless of the verse forms 
he used. To the Romans he was renowned chiefly as an elegist 
and an epigrammatist. 

Catullus was born of a wealthy family, in the town of Verona. 
Thus, descended from Roman colonists, he nevertheless grew up 
in a land of Celtic traditions — Cisalpine Gaul. His poetic career 
began in Verona, though he went to live in Rome when hardly 
more than a stripling. He followed no career save that of a gen- 
tleman of leisure and a poet. 

The verses of this brilliant young poet reveal to us a stratum of 
Roman society in which Greek culture and Greek morals are 
supreme. The old sturdy puritanical Roman character has com- 
pletely vanished from this ''high'' society. The rapidity with 
which Roman morals had become corrupted is amazing. Catullus 
led the life of an aesthete and a Bohemian; he is no more repre- 
sentative of traditional Roman character than Lord Byron or 
Oscar Wilde are of the British. 

Third Period 211 

Preliminary Brief Selections 



The Noii-L3rric Meters 
[a] Hexameter 

The Greek hexameter was the traditional meter of stately epic 
narrative. When, in the sixth century B.C., epics ceased to be 
written by the Greeks, the hexameter was not discarded; it was 
adapted, in style and technique, to other uses — ^to familiar verse, 
to the pastoral, and even to song. 

After a lapse of three or four centuries — ^in the Hellenistic or 
Alexandrian period of Greek literature — , the epic was revived. 
The metrical technique of the "new" epic hexameter was more 
refined and mannered, and the length of poems greatly reduced. 
ApoUonius of Rhodes with his Argonautica in four books was 
regarded as an extremist in lengthy composition; most poets culti- 
vated the epyllion — a mere scene or single episode in epic style, 
generally briefer than a single book of Homer. 

Catullus showed his versatility in the two hexameter poems 
that are included in his collected works. One is a song, the other 
an epyllion. 

[i] The idyllic wedding song, in which youths and maidens sing 
in antiphonal chorus, begins as follows: i^ 

1 Vesper adest; iuvenes, consurgite; Vesper Olympo, 

2 exspectata diu, vix tandem lumina tollit. , , ^ 

3 Surgere iam tempus, iam pinguis linquere mensas; 

4 iam veniet virgo; iam dicetur hymenaeus: v ' 

5 Hymen, 6 Hymenal', Hym^n ades, 6 Hymena^e. " ^-^ 

And in praise of maidenhood the maidens sing: 

6 Ut fios in saeptis secretus nascitur hortis, 

7 ignotus pecori, nullo corivulsus aratro, 

8 quem mulcent aiirae, firmat sol, educat imber; 

9 multi ilium pueri, multae optavere puellae; 

212 National or Classical Roman Literature 

10 idem cum tenui carptus defloruit ungui, 

11 nuUi ilium pueri, nuUae optavere puellae: 

12 sic virgo, dum intacta manet, dum cara suis est; 

13 cum castum amisit pollute corpore florem, 

14 nee pueris iucunda manet nee cara puellis. 

15 Hymen 6 Hymenal', Hym^n ades 6 Hymena^e. 

The youths reply: 

IG Ut vidua in nudo vitis quae nascitur arvo 

17 numquam se extoUit, numquam mitem educat uvam, 

18 sed tenerum prono deflecteris por^dere corpus ^ ^ 

19 iam iam contingit summum radice flagellum; 

20 hanc nulli agricolae, nuUi accoluere iuvenci; 

21 at si forte eadem est ulmo coniuncta marito, ;^^ 

22 multi illam agricolae, multi accoluere iuvenci: .v^--^"^^*" 

23 sic virgo, dum intacta manet, dum inculta senescit; 

24 cum par conubium maturo tempore adepta est, 

25 cara viro magis et minus est invisa parenti. 

[ii] Very different is the stately measure of his precise and 
learned epyllion on the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, which 
opens as follows, telling how the Argo carried a band of youths 
to fetch the Golden Fleece : 


1 Peliaco quondam prbgnatae vertice pinus 

2 dicuntur liquidas Neptuni nasse per undas 

3 Phdsidos ^d fluctus et fines Aeeta^os, 

4 cum lecti iuvenes, Argivae robora pubis,' 

5 auratam optantes Colchis avertfere'pellem, 

6 ausi sunt vada salsa cita decurrere puppi, 

7 caerula verrent^es 'abiegnis aequora palmis.* .^-V -' V ^ 

[b] Elegiac 

The elegiac couplet was a very ancient Greek variant of the 
straight hexameter — i.e., every other verse was a pentameter. 
Actually this is a misnomer, for the pentameter has six feet, or 
bars — musically speaking; but in the third and sixth bars a 
''rest," or pause, is substituted for the unaccented half of the foot: 

Hexameter ^ 1^ 
Pentameter ^ 1' 

Third Period 213 

Subtracting two half-feet from six feet, theoretically one gets 
five; therefore the shorter line is called a "pentameter." 

Originally the Greeks used the elegiac couplet for that very im- 
portant form of primitive emotional poetry, the dirge. As 
Greek literature developed, elegiacs came to be used for reflective 
and didactic verse, love poetry, brief narrative, vers de societe, 
and epigrams — in other words, for everything but the epic. 
Catullus uses the elegiac couplet chiefly for epigrams (some of 
which would be called lyrics today) and for two or three longer 
poems. Two of the epigrams follow: 

[i] Misplaced i^'s 
[Arrius — a startling anticipation of the cockney 'Arry — affects 
a Greek accent and bungles.] 

1 *'Ghommoda" dicebat, si quando "commoda" vellet 

2 dicere; et ''insidias'' Arrius "hinsidias," 

3 et turn mirifice sperabat se esse locutum, 

4 cum, quantum poterat, dixerat *'h-hinsidias." 

5 Credo, sic mater, sic liber avunculus eius, 

6 sic maternus avus dixerat atque avia. 

7 Hoc misso in Syriam, requierant omnibus aures: 

8 audibant eadem haec leniter et leviter; ' 

9 nee sibi postilla metuebant talia verba, v 
10 cum subito affertur nuntius horribilis: ^ 

. 11 lonios fluctus, postquam illtic Arrius isset, 

12 iam non lonios esse, sed "Hionios." 

[ii] A Curt Rebuff to Julius Caesar 
[The occasion for this poem is unknown.] 

1 Nil nimium studeo, Caesar, tibi velle placere; 

2 nee scire utrum sis albus an ater homo. 

[c] Limping Iambic 
The Greek satiric poet Hipponax (sixth century B.C.) invented 
a meter whose taunting drawl just suited the insolence of his 
nature. The ' * limping ' ' iambic — called variously the choliambic, 
or scazon — became a traditional meter for satire, and is so used 
by Catullus. The limp comes at the end — i.e., it is a six-foot 
iambic with a trochee in the last foot: 

wjS v^ v^ w^ w^ ^w 

214 National or Classical Roman Literature 

To avoid monotony, other feet are substituted for the pure 
iambs — though far less freely than in the iambic verses of comic 
dialogue. For instance, Catullus generally uses spondees in the 
first and third feet, as in line 11 of the epigram on Suffenus: 

Nimir' id'om nesfall imur neque'st quisquam. 

Other substitutions are rare, the only example occurring in line 
12 of this same epigram: 

-^ w>iw -^ w^ v^ ^w 

quemnon inali quare vide resuf fenum. 

\ '^^ 

s;^ ^- 

On the One Failing of Suffenus c^ 

1 Suffenus iste, Vare, quern probe nosti, 

2 homo est venustus et dicax et urbanus, 

3 ideinque longe plurimos facit versus! 

4 Puto esse ego illi milia aut decern aut plura. 

^^'x V f 5 Haec cum legas tu, bellus ille et urbanus 

y^ 6 Suffenus unus cap^rimulgus aut f ossof 

^ ^^"^ ' 7 rursus videtur — tantum abhorret ac mutat! 

8 Neque idem umquam ^^^ 

9 aeque est beatus, ac poema cum scribit: ^" 

10 tam gaudet in se tamque se ipse miratur.^ 

11 Nimiriim idem omnes fallimur, neque est quisquam 

12 quem non in aliqua re videre Suffenum ^j»,^ ^ \^^ 

13 possis. Suus cuique attributus est error, ^"^'^ s^./^^* 

14 sed non videmus manticae quod in tergo est. 


There is more to be said, however, about Catullus' use of the 
choliambic. No better proof of his originality could be found 
than the successful use of this meter, in defiance of its traditional 
connotation, to express deep and tender sentiment. Catullus 
could and did employ the choliambic for lyrics (in the modern 
sense), as we shall see later. 

[d] Regular Iambic 

In addition to the three meters already discussed (the hexa- 
meter, elegiac, and limping iambic) — all frequently used by 
Catullus — , there are three varieties of the regular iambic — ^viz., 
the six- and seven-foot iambic with free substitutions, as in 

Third Period 215 

comedy; and the "pure" six-foot. These meters are used spar- 
ingly. The infrequency of the iambic with substitutions in 
Catullus is probably due to its being regarded as unliterary and 
unpolished for brief epigrams — fit only for popular extempora- 
neous satire. The " pure '' iambic on the other hand, because of 
its difficulty, was used but once by Catullus. 

[i] Six-Foot Iambic With Substitutions 

This meter occurs in a political epigram — a jibe at the Caesa- 
rian party: 

The World is Going to the Dogs! 

1 Quid ^st, Catiille? Quid mordris ^morl? 

2 Sella in curiili struma Ndniiis sed^t. \,^ \r*j>i 

3 Per c6nsuldtum p^rierdt Vatlniiis. 

4 Quid 6st, Catiille? Quid mordris ^mori. 

[ii] " Seven-Foot " ^ Iambic With Substitutions 
This meter is used in a poem of personal invective: 

^ v. To a Light-Fingered and Effeminate Dandy 

"^"^ 1 Remitte pdlliiim mihi meiim, quod involdsti, 

2 suddriumque Sa^tabum catdgraph6sque Thynos, 

3 in^pte, qua^ paldm sol^s habere tdmquam avita. 

4 Quae ntinc tuis ab linguibiis regliitina ^t remitte, 

5 ne Idneiim latiisculum maniisque m61Iic^llas, 

6 iniista tiirpit^r tibi, flag^Ua c6nscribillent, 

7 et insol^nter a6stu^^, veMt mintita mdgno 

8 depr^nsa ndvis in mari, vesdni^nte v^nto. 

[m] "Pure " Iambic 
The "pure" iambic — every foot a pure iamb, with no substitu- 
tions — ^was an experiment. In discussing Plautus, we have al- 
ready contrasted this meter with the loose rhythms of comedy 
(see p. 29). CatuUus used it for the dainty and playful verses 
on his sailboat : 

The Yacht's Epitaph 

1 Phasellus ille quern videtis, hospites, 

2 ait fuisse navium celerrimus. 

1 There are really seven and a half feet to a line. 

216 National or Classical Roman Literature 

3 Amastri Pontica et Cytore buxifer, i 

4 tibi haec f uisse et esse cognitissima , ' '•^' 

5 ait phasellus; ultima ex origine \ 

6 tuo stetisse dicit in cacumine,* 

7 deinde tot per impotentia freta 

^^ 8 erum tulisse (laeva sive dextera ^^ 

9 vocaret aura, sive utrumque luppiter 

10 simul secundus incidisset in pedem), 

11 neque ulla vota litoralibus deis 
-12 sibi esse facta, cum veniret a mari 

13 novissime hunc ad usque limpidum lacum. 

14 Sed haec prius fuere; nunc recondita 

15 senet quiete seque dedicat tibi, 

16 gemelle Castor et gemelie Castoris. 

[e] Galliambic 

Finally there is the most unusual of all of Catullus* experi- 
ments — ^his Attis, a poem of almost one hundred lines in the wild 
galliambic meter. This meter is too difficult and uncertain, 
however, for beginners to discuss. 


The Lyric Meters 

Lyric meters — i.e., song meters, in the technical Greek sense — 
exhibit greater complexity of rhythmical structure, combined with 
greater rigidity; in other words, lines and stanzas are uniform — 
they do not vary as in the epic chant and the stage dialogue. 
Although the metrical pattern may be more complex, it is strictly 
adhered to; consequently lyric meters (as contrasted with those 
of comedy) are difficult to compose but easy to "scan," for almost 
no variations or alternatives occur. 

[a] Hendecasyllabic 

The full flower of lyric melody is found only in the poems com- 
posed in strophes, or stanzas; but first — as a natural transition 
from the non-lyric to the lyric — we should consider the measure 
that was semi-lyric in spirit — Catullus' most distinctive and 
original verse form: the eleven-syllable (hendecasyllabic) line, or 

Third Period 217 

Phalaec^an.^ With masterly touch, Catullus used this meter 
chiefly for epigrams and occasionally for what we would call 
lyrics. The non-lyric affinities of the meter prevailed in subse- 
quent Latin literature, although the form was made slightly more 
rigid. It became one of the three traditional meters — all estab- 
lished by Catullus — ^that were used for the satiric epigram (viz., 
the elegiac, the choliambic, and the hendecasyllabic).^ 
The scheme of Catullus' hendecasyllabics is as follows: ' 

^^1 ^ww ^V ^V ^X 

There are always eleven syllables in the spoken line — ^i.e., after 
elisions have been made. The three different forms of the first 
foot are found in lines 4-6 of the first selection: 



^ w 


^ w 


^ w 


c - 

^ w w 


^ w 


^ w 


^ w 



— WW 



^ w 


^ w 


Catullus uses this meter with an ease and simplicity of style that 
is unmatched in all Latin literature. 

[i] Humble Thanks to Cicero 
[The occasion for this poem is unknown.] 

1 Disertissime Romuli nepotuM, V -'- 

2 quot sunt quotque fuere, Marce Tulli, ^* 

3 quotque post aliis erunt in annis, ,v^^ 

4 gratias tibi maximas Catullus 

5 agit, pessimus omnium poeta: .-^^^ '^- ' 

6 tan to pessimus omnium poeta, 

7 quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.^ 

1 Like all Greek lyric measures, this was named for the poet who composed 
or established it — ^i.e., Phalaecus. 

* These three meters occur later in the epigrams of Martial. 

' The long and short syllables are denoted in the usual way for this verse 
form, but the sign x is now introduced to indicate a variable syllable. 
It must be remembered that in any one line the variable syllable is either long 
or short — not both! In all kinds of verse — epic and dramatic, as well as Ijo-ic — 
the final syllable in a line is variable, since it is associated with the pause com- 
ing at the end of that line. 

218 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[ii] To Julius Caesar 
[On hearing that his verses had stung Caesar to the quick.] 

1 Irascere iterum meis iambis 

2 immerentibus, unice "imperator"! 

[m] Overheard in the Crowd 

[How C. Licinius Calvus, famous orator and poet, was called 
an eloquent runt.] 

1 Risi nescioquem mod6 e corona, 

2 qui, cum mirifice Vatiniana 

3 meus crimina Calvus explicasset, 

4 admirans ait haec — manusque tollens: 


[iv] 111 Winds 

1 Furi, villula npstra uon ad Austri x \ \ 

2 flatus opposita est neque ad Favoni J 

3 nee saevi Boreae aut Apheliotae, 

4 verum ad milia quindecim et ducentos. 

5 ventum horribilem atque pestilentem! 

[v] An Invitation to a Barmecide Feast 

1 Cenabis bene, mi FabuUe, apud me 

2 paucis — si tibi di favent — diebus, 

3 si tecum attuleris bonam atque magnam 

4 cenam, non sine Candida puella ^ 

5 et vino et sale et omnibus cachinnis. 

6 Haec si, inquam, attuleris, venuste noster, 

7 cenabis bene: nam tui CatuUi 

8 plenus sacculus est aranearum. 

9 Sed contra accipies "Meros Amores" 

10 (seu quid suavius elegantiusve est), , , ' 

11 nam unguentum dabo, quod meae pueilae 

12 donarunt Veneres Cupidinesque. 

13 Quod tu cum olfacies, deos rogabis 

14 totum ut te faciant, FabuUe, nasum. 

Third Period 219 

[vi] Cherchez la Femme ^ 
[To Camerius on his mysterious disappearance — Catullus 
suspects him of having eloped !] 

1 Oramus, si forte non molestum est, v 

2 demonstres ubi sint tuae tenebrae. ' ' 

3 Te in Campo quaesivimus Minore, 

4 te in Circo, te in omnibus libellis, 

5 te in templo summi Jovis sacrato. . 

6 In Magni simul Ambulatione j"* ^■*(^'-> 

7 feniellas omnes, amice, prendi, 

8 quas vultu vidi tamen serenas. 

9 Avehs te, sic usque flagitabam: 

10 "Cdmerium mihi, p^ssima^ pu^Ilae". 

11 Sed te iam ferre Herculi labos est: 

— 12 tanto ten fastu negas, amice? ;,j, 

13 Die nobis ubi sis futurus; ede * ^ 

14 audacter; committe; crede luci. 

15 Nunc te lacteolae tenent puellae? 

16 Si linguam clauso tenes in ore, 

17 fructus proicies amoris omnes. 

18 Verbosa gaudet Venus loquella. • 

[b] Lyric Strophes 

Catullus also experimented with the composition of lyric 
strophes, or stanzas. His poems of this sort are few but notable. 
The credit for establishing lyric stanzas as a stereotyped form of 
Latin verse belongs to Horace — a generation later; but had 
Catullus lived, it is doubtful whether Horace would ever have 
composed his Odes. The lyric stanzas of Catullus have a fresh- 
ness and, above all, an ease and simplicity that Horace never 

[i] The Sapphic stanza (later conventionalized by Horace) is a 
quatrain in which the scheme of the first three lines is: 

^w CX ^ww ^v ^X 

^ The meter of this poem is a unique type of hendecasyllabic, in that many 
of the Hnes (e.g., 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, and 18) are (/ecasyllabic — i.e., a 
spondee (or trochee) is substituted for the dactyl in the second foot. Had 
Catullus written more poems in this meter, the Phalaecean would never have 
been nicknamed the hendecasyMdhic. 

220 National or Classical Roman Literature 
and that of the last line, which is much shorter: 

^ V w ^ X 

Catullus' two poems in Sapphics will be found in a later section 
(see pp. 239, 249). 

[ii] Another stanza, which he used twice (it had no popular 
name), consisted of either three or four so-called "second gly- 

followed by one ''second pherecratic " : 
^ X 

The resulting five-line stanza is used in the marriage song for 
Torquatus, which will be read later (see p. 231). The four-line 
stanza is used in the following hymn : 

A Festal Hymn to Diana 


1 Dianae sumus in fide 

2 puellae et pueri integri; 

3 Dianam pueri integri 

4 puellaeque canamus. 

5 O Lalonia, maximi 

6 magna progenies lovis, 

7 quam mater prope Deliam 

8 deposivit olivam, 

9 montium domina ut fores 

10 silvarumque virentium 

11 saltuumque reconditorum 

12 amniumque sonantum, 

13 tu lAicina dolentibus \ 

14 luno dicta puerperis, -'^ 

15 tu potens Trivia, et notho cs 

16 dicta lumine Luna. 

17 Tu ciirsu, dea, menstruo 

18 meticns iter annuum, 

19 rustica agricolae bonis 

20 tecta frugibus exples. 

21 Sis (luociiinque tibi placet 

22 sancta nomine; Romulique, 

23 antique ut solita es, bona 

24 sospites ope gentem. 

[c] Lyric Long-Lines 

Lyric long-lines — having one or more caesuras, or pauses — , 
may properly be classed with lyric stanzas. Although tradition- 
ally written as long-lines (and in Catullus occasionally without 
the caesuras), their effect is that of a short-line stanza. For in- 
stance, combining the two lines discussed in the previous para- 

Third Period 221 

graph into couplets: 

^ X ^ V V ^ X 

gives us the exact equivalent of the Priapean long-line: 

of which the following verses in honor of Priapus, god of Lamp- 
sacus (on the Hellespont), are an example: 

1 Hunc lucum tibi dedico consecroque, Priape, 

2 qu& domus tua Lampsacl est qudque silva, Priape. 

3 Nam te praecipue in suis urbibus colit era 

4 Hellespontia, ceteris ostriosior oris. 

Similarly the "greater Asclepiad^an" line (see p. 246): 

iam te nil miseret dure tui dulcis amiculi 

might just as well be written: 

i: - ^ w w ^ 

iam te nil miseret 

dure tui 

dulcis amiculi. 


T/ie Carmina 

The collection of Catullus' poems that we possess today was 
published posthumously and entitled simply Carmina, In ac- 
cordance with a literary custom of the Greeks and Romans 
(which seems very strange to us), epigrams, lyrics, and other short 
poems were never given individual titles and were collected more 
or less haphazardly — neither in strict chronological order nor 
grouped according to subject matter, but generally arranged to 
contrast form and content. The editor of Catullus' poems 
(whoever he may have been) divided his material into three 
groups: (a) some sixty short poems in various meters; (b) nine 
longer poems; (c) forty-eight short poems in elegiac couplets. 
The modern reader will acquire a more sympathetic understand- 
ing of Catullus if the Carmina are rearranged in modern cate- 
gories and supplied with modern titles. 

222 National or Classical Roman Literature 

Vers de Societe 

As a writer of graceful occasional verse, sometimes perhaps 
extemporaneous, Catullus was unequalled. In fact he was unique 
among Latin poets — and in this respect appeals particularly to 
the modern reader — in his choice of homely everyday themes 
and his ability to treat them with genuine wit and humor. 
It is interesting to note that these satiric but genial verses differ 
greatly in tone from his political lampoons and virulent invectives. 

To the category of vers de societe belong some of the poems we 
have already read in the preliminary selections — viz., the elegiac 
couplets on Arrius' misplaced h's; the limping iambics on Suffenus 
the poetaster; and above all, the hendecasyllabics — the meter 
most used by Catullus for this type of verse. 

[a] On Presenting a De Luxe Edition of His Verses to 
Cornelius Nepos ^ 

1 Cui dono lepidum novum libellum, 

2 arido inodo pumice expolitum? 

• 3 Cornell, tibi; namque tu solebas 

4 meas esse aliquid putare nugas, 

5 iam tum cum ausus es unus Italorum 

6 omne aevum tribus explicare chartis, 

7 doctis — luppiter! — et laboriosis. 

8 Quare habe tibi quicquid hoc libelli 

9 qualecumque: quod, o patrona virgo, 
10 plus uno maneat perenne saeclo. 

[b] After a Merry Evening 

1 Hesterno, Licini, die otiosi 

2 multum lusimus in meis tabellis, 

3 ut convenerat esse delicatos. 

4 Scribens versiculos uterque nostrum 

* This is the famous Nepos, scholar, historian and author of the Lives. 
The edition of Catullus' poems here mentioned is not the posthumous collection 
which has come down to us, but an earlier pubhcation of a limited niunber of 
the poems. 

Third Period 223 

5 ludebat numero modo hoc modo illoc, 

6 reddens mutua per iocum atque vinum; 

7 atque illinc abii tuo lepore 

8 incensus, Licini, facetiisque, 

9 ut nee me miserum cibus iuvaret 

10 nee somnus tegeret quiete ocellos, 

1 1 sed toto, indomitus furore, lecto 

12 versarer, cupiens videre lucem, 

13 ut tecum loquerer simulque ut essem. 

14 At defessa labore membra postquam 

15 semimortua lectulo iacebant, 

16 hoc, iucunde, tibi poema feci, 

17 ex quo perspiceres meum dolorem. 

18 Nunc audax cave sis, precesque nostras 

19 (oramus) cave despuas, ocelle, ^ 

20 ne poenas Nemesis reposcat a te. 

21 Est vemens dea: laedere banc caveto. 

[c] I'll Get Even With You Yet! 

[How Calvus played a practical joke on Catullus by sending him 
an anthology not of the best, but of the worst, Greek poets for a 
Saturnalia — i.e., a Christmas present.] 

1 Ni te plus oculis meis amarem, 

2 iucundissime Calve, munere isto 

3 odissem te odio Vatiniano: 

4 nam quid feci ego quidve sum locutus, 

5 cur me tot male perderes poetis? 

6 Isti di mala multa dent clienti, 

7 qui tantum tibi misit impiorum. 

8 Quod si, ut suspicor, hoc novum ac repertum 

9 munus dat tibi Sulla litterator, 

10 non est mi male, sed bene ac beate, 

11 quod non dispereunt tui labores. 

12 Di magni! Horribilem et sacrum libellum! 

13 quem tu scilicet ad tuum Catullum 

14 misti, continuo ut die periret, 

15 Saturnalibus, optimo dierum. 

224 National or Classical Roman Literature 

16 Non non hoc tibi, salse, sic abibit: 

17 nam, si luxerit, ad librariorum 

18 curram scrinia — Caesios, Aquinos, 

19 Suffenum, omnia colligam venena, 

20 ac te his suppliciis remunerabor. 

21 Vos hinc interea valete, abite 

22 illtlc, unde malum pedem attulistis, 

23 saecli incommoda, pessimi poetae. 

[d] An Epistle 

[Caecilius is asked to leave his love nest on Lake Como and visit 
his fellow poet at Verona, on a little matter of business.] 

1 Poetae tenero, meo sodali, 

2 velim, Caecilio, papyre, dicas 

3 Veronam veniat, Novi relinquens 

4 Comi moenia Lariumque litus: 

5 nam quasdam volo cogitationes , \ \ iv ^ 

6 amici accipiat sui meique. ^ V^^ 

7 Quare, si sapiet, viam vorabit — 

8 quamvis Candida milieus puella 

9 eimtem revocet manusque collo 

10 ambas iniciens roget morari ; 

11 quae nunc, si mihi vera nuntiantur, 

12 ilium deperit impotente amore; 

13 nam quo tempore legit incohatam 

14 "Dindymi dominam," ex eo misellae 

15 ignes interiorem edunt medullam. 

16 Ignosco tibi, Sapphica puella 

17 Musa doctior: est enim venuste 

18 "Magna" Caecilio incohata "Mater." 

[e] Absent-Minded! 

[A humorous anecdote at Catullus' own expense, describing 
how, on his return from Bithynia, he had put on airs and his bluff 
had been called ! Catullus had gone to Bithynia as a hanger-on in 
the retinue of the governor, hoping for a share of the graft; but the 
governor had double-crossed him and pocketed all the boodle 

Third Period 225 

himself. Obviously Cafullus' political ideas were somewhat im- 
perialistic! The urbanity of the following verses is unsurpassed. 
The rather profane, but delightfully witty, dialogue on which 
they are based is between Catullus, Varus, and a lady (the latter's 
mistress) ; it may be reconstructed as follows : 

Va. Well, how did you make out in Bithynia? Anything doing? 

Ca. Not a blamed thing! But what could one expect from such a 
blankety-blank governor? 

Va. Yes, but surely you managed to bring back some chairmen? ^ 

Ca. (with an eye on Varus* pretty mistress) Oh, of course I managed 
that all right! I brought home eight of them, in fact. 

La. Won't you lend them to me, my dear Catullus? I'm going to 
the Temple of Serapis.^ 

Ca. (overcome by embarrassment) Hold on! I didn't mean that. 
It's my friend Cinna who has them, but of course I use them just as if 
they were mine. (His confusion changes to chagrin as he sees them 
laughing at him. To the lady) But look here, you little minx, can't a 
gentleman be a bit airy without your holding him down to facts? 
(Varus and the lady both laugh, and Catullus has to join in,)] 

1 Varus me meus ad suos amores 

2 visum duxerat e foro otiosum, 

3 scortillum, ut mihi tum repente visum est, 

4 non sane illepidum nee invenustum. _ \N-^ 

5 Hue ut venimus, incidere nobis 

6 sermones varii, in quibus, quid esset 

7 iam Bithynia, quo modo se haberet, 

8 et quonam mihi profuisset aere. 

9 Respondi (id quod erat), nihil neque ipsis, 

10 hoc praetore, fuisse — nee cohorti, v ^^^"^ 

11 cur quisquam caput unctius referret; 

12 praesertim quibus esset irrumator 

13 praetor, nee faceret pili cohortem. 

14 "At certe tamen" inquiunt "quod illic 

15 natum dicitur esse, comparasti 

16 ad lecticam homines." Ego, ut puellae 

17 unum me facerem beatiorem, 

* I.e., slaves who carried sedan chairs. 

* The cult of Serapis was very popular with the women. 

226 National or Classical Roman Literature 

18 "non'* inquam "mihi tarn fuit maligne, 

19 ut, provincia quod mala incidisset, 

20 non possem octo homines parare rectos." 

21 (At mi nullus erat neque hie neque illic, 

22 f pactum qui veteris pedem grabati 

23 in collo sibi collocare posset.) 

24 Hie ilia, ut decuit cinaediorem, 

25 "quaeso" inquit "mihi, mi Catulle, paulum 

26 istos commoda, nam volo ad Serapim 

27 d^ferrl.'' ''Mane" Inquii puellae, 

28 "istud quod modo dixeram, 'me habere,' 

29 — ^fugit me ratio. — Mens sodalis 

30 — Cfnna est — Gaius — is sibi paravit. 

31 V^rum, utrum lllius an mef, quid ad me? 

32 Utor tam bene quam mihi pararim. 

33 Sed tu insiilsa male et molesta vivis, 

34 per quam non licet esse neglegentem." 

[f] Farewell to My Villa 
[Catullus, who had wittily invited FabuUus to a Barmecide 
feast (see p. 218), was now invited to dinner by a certain Sestius, 
an orator famous for his lavish entertainments. But before the 
dinner party, Sestius sent Catullus a copy of his latest speech — a 
bitter invective against a certain Antius. Taking the hint, 
Catullus dutifully read the speech, but was so chilled by its frigid 
style that he caught cold (so he says), missed the party, and even 
had to go to his villa at Tibur to recuperate! He wrote these 
verses when he was finally cured and about to return to Rome.] 

1 O funde noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs 

2 (nam te esse Tiburtem autumant, quibus non est 

3 cordi Catullum laedere; at quibus cordi est,. ^^^'^ 

4 quovis Sabinum pignore esse contendunt) 

5 — sed seu Sabine sive verius Tiburs, 

6 fui libenter in tua suburbana 

7 villa malamque pectore expuli tussim, 

8 non immerenti quam mihi mens venter, 

9 dum sumptuosas appeto, dedit, cenas. 

Third Period 227 

10 Nam Sestianus dum volo esse con viva, 

11 orationem in Antium petitorem 

12 plenam veneni et pestilentiae legi. 

13 Hie, me gravedo frigida et frequens tussis 

14 quassavit, usque dum in tuum sinum fugi 

15 et me recuravi otioque et urtica. 

16 Quare refectus maximas tibi grates 

17 ago, meum quod non es ulta peccatum. 

18 Nee deprecor iam (si nefaria script a 

19 Sesti recepso), quin gravedinem et tussim 

20 — non mi, sed ipsi Sestio ferat frigus, 

21 qui tunc vocat me cum malum librum legi. 

[g] "Come, Landlord, Fill the Flowing Bowl" 

1 Minister vetuli puer Falerni, 

2 inger mi calices amariores, 

3 ut lex Postumiae iubet magistrae, 

4 ebrioso acino ebriosioris. 

5 At vos quolibet hinc abite, lymphae, 

6 vini pernicies, et ad severos 

7 migrate: hie merus est Thyonianus. 

[h] To Marrucinus Asinius 
[Asinius is here exposed as a cleptomaniac] 

1 Marrucine Asini, manu sinistra 

2 non belle uteris in ioco atque vino : 

3 toUis lintea neglegentiorum. 

4 Hoc salsum esse putas? Fugit te, inepte. 

5 Quamvis sordida res et invenusta est. 

6 Non credis mihi? Crede Pollioni 

7 fratri, qui tua furta vel talento 

8 mutari velit: est enim leporum 

9 disertus puer ac facetiarum. 

10 Quare aut hendecasyllabos trecentos 

11 expecta aut mihi linteum remitte; 

12 quod me non movet aestimatione, 

13 verum est mnemosynum mei sodalis. 

228 National or Classical Roman Literature 

14 Nam sudaria Saetaba ex Hiberis 

15 miserunt mihi muneri Fabullus 

16 et Veranius: haec amem necesse est, 

17 ut Veraniolum meum et Fabullum. 

[i] Advice to Egnatius 

[Egnatius, the Spaniard with the perpetual grin, is advised to 
stop advertising his Spanish tooth wash.] 

1 Egnatius, quod candidos habet dentes, 

2 renidet usque quaque. Si ad rei ventum est 

3 subselHum, cum orator excitat fletum, 

4 renidet ille. Si ad pii rogum fiH 

5 lugetur, orba cum flet unicum mater, 

6 renidet ille. Quicquid est, ubicumque est, 

7 quodcumque agit, renidet. Hunc habet morbum 

8 neque elegantem, ut arbitror, neque urbanum. 

9 Quare monendum est te mihi, bone Egnati: 

10 si Urbanus esses aut Sabinus aut Tiburs, 

11 ant parens Umber, aut obesus Etruscus, 

12 aut Lanuvinus ater atque dentatus, 

13 aut Transpadanus (ut meos quoque attingam!), 

14 aut quilibet qui PURITER lavit dentes, 

15 tamen renidere usque quaque te nollem ! — 
C\ 16 nam risu inepto res ineptior nulla est. 

Vs* 17 Nunc Celtiber es: Celtiberia in terra, 

.\_s"''' 18 quod quisque minxit, hoc sibi solet mane 

19 dentem atque russam defricare gingivam, 

20 ut, quo iste vester expolitior dens est, 

21 hoc te amplius bibisse praedicet loti. 

[j] Scurvy Politicians 

[Even as Catullus had come back empty-handed from Bithynia, 
so his boon companians, Veranius and Fabullus, were disap- 
pointed in Macedonia. There the governor, L. Calpurnius Piso, 
unduly favored his baser henchmen, Porcius and Socration. The 
two young aristocrats are now hanging about town with nothing 

Third Period 229 

to do but pick up dinner invitations. Catullus expresses his in- 
dignation at their undeserved misfortune.] 

1 Porci et Socration, duae sinistrae 

2 Pisonis, scabies famesque mundi, 

3 vos Veraniolo meo et Fabullo 

4 verpus praeposuit Priapus ille? 

5 Vos convivia lauta sumptuose 

6 de die facitis? Mei sodales 

7 quaerunt in trivio vocationes? 

[k] Welcome to the Wanderer 
[On the return of his friend Veranius from Spain.] 

1 Verani, omnibus e meis amicis 

2 antistans mihi milibus trecentis, 

3 venistine domum ad tuos penates 

4 fratresque unanimos anumque matrem? 

5 Venisti! O mihi nuntii beati! 

6 Visam te incolumem audiamque Hiberum 

7 narrantem loca, facta, nationes, 

8 ut mos est tuus; applicansque coUum, 

9 iucundimi OS oculosque saviabor. 

10 O quantum est hominum beatiorum, 

11 quid me laetius est beatiusve? 

[1] Homeward Bound 
[On leaving the retinue of Memmius, Governor of Bithynia.] 

1 lam ver egelidos refert tepores; 

2 iam caeli furor aequinoctialis 

3 iucundis Zephyri silescit auris. 

4 Linquantur Phrygii, Catulle, campi 

5 Nicaeaeque ager uber aestuosae; 

6 ad claras Asiae volemus urbes. 

7 lam mens praetrepidans avet vagari; 

8 iam laeti studio pedes vigescunt. 

9 dulces comitum valete coetus, 

10 longe quos simul a domo profectos 

11 diversae variae viae reportant. 

230 National or Classical Roman Literature 

r .y [m] Home Again 

[On returning to his villa in Sirmio, on Lake GardaJ 

"^ 1 Paene insularum, Sirmio, insularumque 

2 ocelle (quascumque in liquentibus stagnis 

3 marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus), 

4 quam te libenter quamque laetus inviso, 

5 vix mi ipse credens Thyniam atque Bithynos 

6 liquisse campos et videre te in tuto. 

7 O quid solutis est beatius cm*is, 

8 cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrino 

9 labore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum 

10 desideratoque adquiescimus lecto? 

1 1 Hoc est quod unum est pro laboribus tantis. 

12 Salve, o venusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude; 

13 gaudete vosque, o Lydiae lacus undae; 

14 ridete quicquid est domi cachinnorum. 

[n] When Cupid Sneezes 
[Sneezing is a sign of good luck.] 

1 Acmen Septimius, suos amores, 

2 tenens in gremio, "mea" inquit "Acme, 

3 ni te perdite amo, atque amare porro ^ v^-^ 

4 omnes sum assidue paratus annos 
6 (quantum qui pote plurimum perire), 

6 solus in Libya Indiaque tosta 

7 caesio veniam obvius leoni/' 

8 Hoc ut dixit, Amor sinistra, ut ante 

9 dextra, sternuit approbationem. 

10 At Acme, leviter caput reflectens 

11 et dulcis pueri ebrios ocellos 

12 illo purpureo ore saviata, 

13 "sic'' inquit "mea vita, Septimille, 

14 huic uni domino usque serviamus, 

15 ut multo mihi maior acriorque 

16 ignis mollibus ardet in medullis." 

17 Hoc ut dixit. Amor, sinistra ut ante, 


Third Period 231 

18 dextra sternuit approbationem. 

19 Nunc, ab auspicio bono prof ecti, , .\ p-^^"'' " 

20 mutuis animis amant amantur; ,-^ 

21 unam Septimius misellus Acmen 

22 mavult quam Syrias Britanniasque; 

23 uno in Septimio fidelis Acme v^ -. 

24 facit delicias libidinesque. ^ ^ 

25 Quis uUos homines beatiores \ 

26 vidit, quis Venerem auspicatiorem? 


Epithalamia, or Wedding Songs 
The poems of Catullus include three epithalamia. One is the 
song of the Fates, at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (11. 
323-381 of the epylliorif seep. 212); another, the idyllic wedding 
chorus of youths and maidens (see p. 211). In contrast with these 
two — ^which deal with imaginary characters and adhere closely in 
style and form to the true Greek epithalamium — is the quasi- 
epithalamium, or ode to Hymen, in honor of two friends of Catul- 
lus'. This charming poem was the poet^s wedding gift to 
ManHus Torquatus and Vinia Aurunculeia. It is not a true 
epithalamium in the Greek sense — i.e., a choral ode actually sung 
to the bride and groom by the wedding party — , but more compre- 
hensive and imaginative — a highly idealized and dramatic ac- 
count of all the wedding festivities from the spectator's point of 
view. Beginning with an invocation of the god of marriage and 
ending with blessings on the bridal pair, it portrays a romantic 
blend of Greek and Roman customs and ceremonies. The poem is 
composed in lyric strophes, or stanzas, identical with those of the 
Hymn to Diana (see preliminary selections, p. 220), except that 
four — instead of three — glyconics precede the final pherecratic. 

For Manlius Torquatus and His Bride ^ 

^ 1 CoUis O HeliconU v ^'' 

2 cultor, Uraniae genus, 

3 qui rapis teneram ad virum 

232 National or Classical Roman Literature 

4 vlrginem, 6 Hymena^e Hym^n, 
6 6 Hym^n Hymena^e, 

\ A-. '■ 

6 cinge tempora floribus 

7 suave olentis amarici; 

8 flammeum cape; laetus hue, 

9 hue y6ni, niveo gerens 

10 luteum pede soccum; 

1 1 exeitusque hilari die, v . -^"^ 

12 nuptialia concinens "' 

13 voce carmina tinnula, 

14 pelle humum pedibus; manu 

15 pineam quale taedam. 

16 Namque Vinia Manlio, 

17 qualis Idalium colens 

18 venit ad Phrygium Venus 

19 iudicem, bona cum bona 

20 nubet alite virgo, 

21 floridis velut enitens 

22 myrtus Asia ramulis, 

23 quos hamadryades deae 

24 ludicrum sibi rosido 

25 nutriunt um6re. 

26 Quare age, hue aditum ferens, 

27 perge linquere Thespiae ^^ 

28 nipis Aoni6s speciis, 

29 nympha quos super irrigat 

30 frigerans Aganippe; 

31 ac domum dominam voca, 

32 coniugis cupidam novi, 

33 mentem am ore revinciens, 

34 ut tenax hedera hue et hue 

35 arborem implicat errans. 

Third Period 233 

36 Vosque item simul, integrae 

37 virgines, quibus advenit 

38 par dies, agite, in modum 

39 dicite "6 hymena^e Hym^n, 

40 6 Hym^n Hy menace," 

41 ut libentius, audiens 

42 se citarier ad suum 

43 munus, hue aditum ferat 

44 dux bonae Veneris, boni 

45 coniugator amoris. 

46 Claustra pandite ianuae: 

47 Virgo adest. Viden ut faces 

48 splendidas quatiunt comas? 

49 Flere desine. Non tibi, Au- 

50 runculeia, periculum est 

51 ne qua femina pulchrior 

62 clarum ab Oceano diem 

63 viderit venientem. 

64 Talis in vario solet 

65 divitis domini hortulo 

66 stare flos hyacinthinus. 

57 Sed moraris, abit dies: 

58 prodeas, nova nupta. 

59 Prodeas, nova nupta, si 

60 iam videtur, et audias 

61 nostra verba. Vide ut faces 

62 aureas quatiunt comas: 

63 prodeas, nova nupta. 

64 Tollite, o pueri, faces: 

65 flammeum video venire. 

66 Ite, concinite in modum 

67 "6 Hym^n Hymena^e i6, 

234 National or Classical Roman Literature 
68 6 Hym^n HymeDa^e." 

69 En tibi domus ut potens 

70 et beata viri tui! 

71 Quae tibi sine serviat 

72 (o Hymen Hymenaee io, 

73 o Hymen Hymenaee), 

74 usque dum tremulum m ovens 

75 cana tempus anilitas 

76 omnia omnibus adnuit. 

77 O Hymen Hymenaee io, 

78 o Hymen Hymenaee. 

79 Transfer omine cum bono 

80 limen aureolos pedes, 

81 rasilemque subi forem. 

82 O Hymen Hymenaee io, 

83 o Hymen Hymenaee. 

84 Mitte bracchiolum teres, 

85 praetextate, puellulae: 

86 iam cubile adeat viri. 

87 O Hymen Hymenaee io, 

88 o Hymen Hymenaee. 

89 Vos bonae senibus viris 

90 cognitae bene feminae, 

91 collocate puellulam. 

92 O Hymen Hymenaee io, 

93 o Hymen Hymeneee. 

94 lam licet venias, marite: 

95 uxor in thalamo tibi est, 

96 ore floridulo nitens, 

97 alba parthenice velut 

98 luteumve papaver. 

Third Period 235 

99 At, marite, (ita me iuvent 

iOO caelites) nihilo minus 

101 pulcher es, neque te Venus 

102 neglegit. Sed abit dies: 

103 perge, ne remorare. 

104 Non diu remoratus es. 

105 lam venis. Bona te Venus 

106 iuverit, quoniam palam 

107 quod cupis cupis et bonum 

108 non abscondis amorem. 

109 Ludite ut libet, et brevi 

110 liberos date. Non decet 

111 tam vetus sine liberis 

112 nomen esse, sed indidem 

113 semper ingenerari. 

114 Torquatus volo parvulus, 

115 matris e gremio suae 

116 porrigens teneras manus 

117 dulce rideat ad patrem 

118 semihiante labello. 

119 Sit suo similis patri 

120 Manlio, et facile insciis 

121 noscitetur ab omnibus, 

122 et pudicitiam suae 

123 matris indicet ore. 

124 Talis illius a bona 

125 matre laus genus approbet, 

126 qualis unica ab optima 

127 matre Telemacho manet 

128 fama Penelopeo. 

129 Claudite ostia, virgines: 

130 lusimus satis. At, boni 

236 National or Classical Roman Literature 

131 coniuges, bene vivite et 

132 munere adsiduo valentem 

133 exercete iuventam. 



[a] On the Death of His Brother 

Nothing is known of Catullus' brother and of the manner of 
his death save that, from the Roman point of view, his loss was 
peculiarly tragic, because he died and was buried far from home 
and kindred, in the Troad, in Asia Minor. Catullus made a pious 
pilgrimage to his grave, over which he performed the belated 
last rites. 

[?■] From an Epistle to Manlius 

[Having lost his young wife, Manlius requested some consola- 
tory verses from Catullus. Because of his own bereavement, 
however, Catullus regrets that he cannot comply with the re- 

1 Quod mihi, fortuna casuque oppressus acerbo, 

2 conscriptum hoc lacrimis mittis epistolium, 

3 (naufragum ut eiectum spumantibus aequoris undis 

4 sublevem et a mortis limine restituam, 

5 quem neque sancta Venus molli requiescere somno 

6 desertum in lecto caelibe perpetitur, 

7 nee veterum dulci scriptorum carmine Musae 

8 oblectant, cum mens anxia pervigilat), 

9 id gratum est mihi, me quoniam tibi dicis amicum, 

10 muneraque et Musarum hinc petis et Veneris: 

1 1 sed tibi ne mea sint ignota incommoda, Manli, 

12 neu me odisse putes hospitis officium, 

13 accipe, quis merser fortunae fluctibus ipse, 

14 ne amplius a misero dona beata petas. 

15 Tempore quo primum vestis mihi tradita pura est, 

16 iucundum cum aetas florida ver ageret, 

17 multa satis lusi: non est dea nescia nostri, 

18 quae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem. 

Third Period 237 

19 Sed totum hoc studium luctu fraterna mihi mors 

20 abstulit. O misero frater adempte mihi! 

21 Tu mea tu moriens fregisti commoda, frater; 

22 tecum una tota est nostra sepulta domus; 

23 omnia tecum una perierunt gaudia nostra, 

24 quae tuus in vita dulcis alebat amor — 

25 cuius ego interitu tota de mente fugavi 

26 haec studia atque omnes delicias animi. 

[ii] From an Epistle to Allius 

1 Troia (nefas!) commune sepulchrum Asiae Europaeque! 

2 Troia virum et virtutum omnium acerba cinis, 

3 quaene etiam nostro letum miserabile fratri 

4 attulit! Hei misero frater adempte mihi! 

5 Hei misero fratri iucundum lumen ademptum! 

6 Tecum una tota est nostra sepulta domus. 

7 Omnia tecum una perierunt gaudia nostra, 

8 quae tuus in vita dulcis alebat amor. 

9 Quem nunc tam longe, non inter not a sepulchra 

10 nee prope cognatos compositum cineres, 

11 sed Troia obscena, Troia infelice sepultum, 

12 detinet extremo terra aliena solo. r .^ 

[in] At His Brother's Tomb in the Troad 

[It was probably when Catullus went to Bithynia in the retinue 
of the new governor, Memmius, that he took advantage of the op- 
portunity to visit his brother's grave and to perform the impor- 
tant burial service, so intimately connected with family worship.] 

1 Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus, 

2 advenio has miseras, frater, ad inferias, 

3 ut te postremo donarem munere mortis 

4 et mutam nequiquam adloquerer cinerem, 

5 quandoquidem Fortuna mihi tete abstulit ipsum, 

6 heu miser indigne frater adempte mihi, 

7 Nunc tamen interea haec, prisco quae more parentum 

8 tradita sunt tristi munere ad inferias, 

238 National or Classical Roman Literature 

9 accipe fraterno multum manantia fletu, 
10 atque in perpetuum, frater, ave atque vale. 

The above poem and the one on Sirmio (p. 230) inspired Tenny- 
son to write his famous Frater Ave Atque Vale, when he visited 
the ruins of Catullus^ villa — near the modern Desenzdno — -, on the 
Lake of Garda. In reading Tennyson's poem, pronounce the 
Latin phrases in mid- Victorian style — i.e., as though they were 
English prose: Frater dve atque vale (not Frater av' atque vaU) : 

Row us out to Desenzdno, to your Sirmi6ne row! 

So they rowed, and there we landed — ^"O venusta Sirmio 'M 

There to me through all the groves of olive in the summer 

There beneath the Roman ruin where the purple flowers 

Came that "dve dtque vdle,'' of the poet's hopeless woe^ 
Tenderest of Roman poets, nineteen hundred years ago, 
"Frdter dve dtque vdle" — as we wandered to and fro. 
Gazing at the Lydian laughter of the Garda Lake below. 
Sweet Catullus' all-but-island, olive-silvery Sirmio ! 

[b] To Calvus — On the Death of His Wife, Quintilia 

1 Si quicquam mutis gratum acceptumve sepulchris 

2 accidere a nostro. Calve, dolore potest 
a (quo desiderio veteres renovamus amores 

4 atque olim missas flemus amicitias), 

5 certe non tanto mors immatura dolori est 

6 Quintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo. 

Poems to Lesbia 

Scattered haphazard among the published poems of Catullus 
are those dealing with his ''grand passion" — his love affair with 
Clodia, sister of the notorious P. Clodius Pulcher (who was 
murdered by the henchmen of Milo) and wife of Q. Caecilius 
Metellus Celer. Following the romantic tradition, Catullus gave 
to Clodia, in the verses she inspired, a metrically equivalent 

Third Period 239 

pseudonym; he called her Leshia, the Lesbian — i.e., Sappho! 
She was a fascinating, beautiful, and dissolute woman — idealized 
by Catullus, but unflatteringly portrayed by Cicero in his oration 
Pro Caelio. 

In the society of that time liaisons were expected; they were 
even governed by their own code of honor, to which Catullus, 
genuinely in love, adhered. But Clodia was in reaHty on a lower 
moral plane than her youthful lover; she was the final product of a 
decadent society — the well-born harlot. The blow of this dis- 
covery almost cost Catullus his sanity. 

The poems inspired by this deep experience are unique in 
Roman literature for their intensity and variety of expression. 
By any modern test of literary power they would entitle Catullus 
to the first place among Roman poets. They have been grouped 
here in their probable chronological order: 

[a] Innamoramento 
A Declaration of Jealous Passion 
[A masterly translation, in the original meter (see p. 219), of 
one of the most famous love lyrics of Greek literature, Sappho's 
Ode to Anactoria. In his treatise On the Sublime, Longinus has 
preserved the Greek original for us, quoting it as an example of 
sublime simplicity.] 

1 lUe mi par esse deo videtur; 

2 ille, si fas est, superare divos, 

3 qui, sedens adversus, identidem te 

4 spectat et audit 

6 dulce ridentem, misero quod omnis 

6 eripit sensus mihi; nam simul te, 

7 Lesbia, aspexi, nihil est super mi 

8 vocis in ore, 

9 lingua sed torpet; tenuis sub artus 

10 flamma demanat; sonitu suopte 

11 tintinant aures; gemina teguntur 

12 lumina nocte. 

240 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[b] Symptoms 
[i] Telltale Irritability 

1 Lesbia mi, praesente viro, mala plurima dicit: 

2 haec illi fatuo maxima laetitia est. 

3 Mule, nihil sentis. Si nostri oblita taceret, 

4 Sana esset: nunc quod gannit et obloquitur, 

5 non solum meminit, sed, quae multo acrior est res, 

6 irata est: hoc est, uritur et loquitur. 

[ii] Telltale Garrulity 

1 Lesbia mi dicit semper male nee tacet umquam 

2 de me: Lesbia me dispeream nisi amat. 

3 Quo signo? Quia sunt totidem mea: deprecor illam 

4 adsidue, verum dispeream nisi amo. 

[c] The Heyday op Love 
[i] Life is Short 

1 Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus, 

2 rumoresque senum severiorum 

3 omnes unius aestimemus assis. 

4 Soles occidere et redire possunt: 

6 nobis cum semel occidit brevis lux, 

6 nox est perpetua una dormienda. 

7 Da mi basia mille, deinde centum, 

8 dein mille altera, dein secunda centum, 

9 deinde usque altera mille, deinde centum; 

10 dein, cum milia multa fecerimus, 

11 conturbabimus ilia, ne sciamus, 

12 aut ne quis malus invidere possit, 

13 cum tantum sciat esse basiorum. 

[it] How Many Kisses? 

1 Quaeris quot mihi basiationes 

2 tuae, Lesbia, sint satis superque. 

3 Quam magnus numerus Libyssae harenae 

4 Idserpfciferfs iac^t Cyr^nis, 

Third Period 241 

6 oraclum lovis inter aestuosi 

6 et Batti veteris sacrum sepulcrum; 

7 aut quam sidera multa, cum tacet nox, 

8 furtivos hominum vident amores; 

9 tarn te basia multa basiare 

10 vesano satis et super Catullo est, 

11 quae nee pernumerare curiosi 

12 possint nee mala fascinare lingua. 

[in] Enviable Sparrow! 
[In this and the following poem, the sentimental idealization of 
Lesbia reaches its height. Catullus actually pictures her as an 
ingenue !] 

1 Passer, deliciae meae puellae 

2 (quicum ludere, quern in sinu tenere, 

3 cui primum digitum dare appetenti 

4 et acrls solet incitare morsus, 
6 cum desiderio meo nitenti 

6 carum nescioquid libet iocari), 

7 et solaciolum sui doloris 

8 (credo, ut tum gravis acquiescat ardor) — 

9 tecum ludere sicut ipsa possem 
10 et tristis animi levare curas! 

[iv] The Sparrow Is Dead! 

1 Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque 

2 et quantum est hominum venustiorum: 

3 passer mortuus est meae puellae, 

4 passer, deliciae meae puellae, 

5 quem plus ilia oculis suis amabat; 

6 nam mellitus erat suamque norat 

7 ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem, \-x 

8 nee sese a gremio fUius movebat, j-^^" 

9 sed circumsiliens modo hue mod6 illAc 

10 ad solam dominam usque pipiabat. v..^ ^ ^^^ 

1 1 Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum _- ^"^ 

12 illtic unde negant redire quemquam. 

242 National or Classical Roman Literature 

13 At vobis male sit, malae tenebrae 

14 Orci, quae omnia bella devoratis: 

15 tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis! 

16 Vae factum male! Vae miselle passer! 

17 Tua nunc opera meae puellae 

18 flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli. 

[v] Quintia Is Fair, But Lesbia Is Charming 

1 Quintia formosa est multis: mihi Candida, longa, 

2 recta est. Haec ego sic singula confiteor. 

3 Totum illud "formosa" nego. Nam nulla venustas, 

4 nulla in tam magno est corpore mica salis. 

5 Lesbia formosa est, quae cum pulcherrima tota est, 

6 tum omnibus una omnis surripuit Veneres. 

[vi] To Amedna — Who Claimed to Be As Fair As Lesbia 

1 Salve, nee minimo puella naso 

2 nee bello pede nee nigris ocellis 

3 nee longis digitis nee ore sicco 

4 nee sane nimis elegante lingua, 

5 decoctoris amica Formiani. 

6 Ten Provincia narrat esse bellam? 

7 Tecum Lesbia nostra comparatur? 

8 O saeclum insapiens et inf acetum ! 

[vii] Warning to a Would-Be Rival 

1 Quaenam te mala mens, miselle Ravide, 

2 agit praecipitem in meos iambos? 

3 Quis deus tibi non bene advocatus 

4 vecordem parat excitare rixam? 

5 An ut pervenias in or a vulgi? 

6 Quid vis? Qualibet esse notus optas? 

7 Eris, quandoquidem meos amores 

8 cum longa voluisti amare poena. 

[c] A Falling-Out 
Regrets Are Vain 

1 Miser CatuUe, desinas ineptire, 

2 et quod vides perisse, perditum ducas. 

Third Period 243 

3 Fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles, 

4 cum ventitabas quo puella ducebat, 

5 amata nobis, quantum amabitur nulla. 

6 Ibi ilia multa tum iocosa fiebant, 

7 quae tu volebas nee puella nolebat. 

8 Fulsere vere candidi tibi soles. 

9 Nunc iam ilia non vult: tu quoque, impotens, noli 

10 — nee quae fugit, sectare — nee miser vive — 

11 sed obstinata mente perfer — obdura! 

12 Vale, puella! Iam Catullus obdurat, 

13 nee te requiret nee rogabit invitam: 

14 at tu dolebis, cum rogaberis nulla. 

15 Scelesta, vae te! Quae tibi manet vita! 

16 Quis nunc te adibit? Cui videberis bella? 

17 Quem nunc amabis? Cuius esse diceris? 

18 Quem basiabis? Cui labella mordebis? — 

19 At tu, CatuUe, destinatus obdura! 

[d] Reconciliation 
Unhoped-For Joy 

1 Si cui quid cupido optantique obtigit umquam 

2 insperanti, hoc est gratum animo proprie. 

3 Quare hoc est gratum nobis quoque, carior auro, 

4 quod te restituis, Lesbia, mi cupido. 

5 Restituis cupido atque insperanti, ipsa refers te 

6 nobis: o lucem candidiore nota! 

7 Quis me uno vivit felicior, aut magis hac rem 

8 optandam in vita dicere quis poterit? 

[e] Doubts 
[i] All Things are Fleeting 

1 lucundum, mea vita, mihi proponis amorem 

2 hunc nostrum inter nos perpetuumque fore. 

3 Di magni, facite ut vere promittere possit, 

4 atque id sincere dicat et ex animo, 

5 ut liceat nobis tota perducere vita 

6 aeternum hoc sanctae foedus amicitiae. 

244 National or Classical Roman Literature 

[it] Writ in Water 

1 Nulli se dicit mulier mea nubere malle 

2 quam mihi, non si se luppiter ipse petat. 

3 Dicit: sed mulier cupido quod dicit amanti 

4 in vento et rapida scribere oportet aqua. 

[f] Steadfast Devotion 
[i] To a Scandalmonger 

1 Credis me potuisse meae maledicere vitae, 

2 ambobus mihi quae carior est oculis? 

3 Non potui, nee si possem tam perdite amarem : 

4 sed tu cum Tappone omnia monstra facis. 

[ii] To Allius — In Memory of Happier Days 
[Allius had opened his house to Catullus and Lesbia for their 
first rapturous secret meetings. These lines are from an elegy.] 

1 Non possum reticere, deae, qua me Allius in re 

2 iuverit aut quantis iuverit officiis, 

3 cum tantum arderem quantum Trinacria rupes 

4 lymphaque in Oetaeis Malia Thermopylis, 

5 maesta neque adsiduo tabescere lumina fletu 

6 cessarent tristique imbre madere genae. 

7 Is clausum lato patefecit limite campum, 

8 isque domum nobis isque dedit dominae, 

9 ad quam communes exerceremus amores. 

10 Quo mea se molli Candida diva pede 

1 1 intulit, et, trito fulgentem in limine plantam 

12 innixa, arguta constituit solea — 

13 coniugis ut quondam flagrans advenit amore 

14 Pr6tesildedm Ldodamia domum. 

15 Aut nihil aut paulo cui tum concedere digna, 

16 lux mea se nostrum contulit in gremium, 

17 quam circumcursans hinc illinc saepe Cupido 

18 fulgebat crocina candidus in tunica. 

19 Quae tamenetsi uno non est contenta Catullo, 

Third Period 245 

20 rara verecundae furta feremus erae, 

21 ne nimium simus stultorum more molesti: 

22 saepe etiam Juno, maxima caelicolum, 

23 coniugis in culpa flagrantem concoquit Iram, 

24 noscens omnivoli plurima furta lovis. 

25 Nee tamen ilia mihi, dextra deducta paterna, 

26 fragrantem Assyrio venit odore domum, 

27 sed furtiva dedit mira munuscula nocte, 

28 ipsius ex ipso dempta viri gremio. 

29 Quare illud satis est, si nobis is datur unis, 

30 quern lapide ilia diem candidiore notat. 

31 Hoc tibi, quod potui, confectum carmine, munus 

32 pro multis, Alii, redditur officiis. 

33 Sitis felices et tu simul et tua vita 

34 et domus (in qua nos lusimus et domina) 

35 et longe ante omnes mihi quae me carior ipso est, 

36 lux mea, qua viva vivere dulce mihi est. 

[g] Bitterness and Pain 
[i] Successful Rivals 
[a] 1 Quinti, si tibi vis oculos debere Catullum 

2 (aut aliud si quid carius est oculis), 

3 eripere ei noli multo quod carius illi 

4 est oculis — seu quid carius est oculis. 

[6] 1 Rufe, mihi frustra ac nequiquam credits amic§ 

2 (frustra? — immo magno cum pretio at que malo), 

3 sicine subrepsti mi, atque (intestina perurens) 

4 hei misero eripuisti omnia nostra bona? 

5 Eripuisti eheu — nostrae crudele venenum 

6 vitae, eheu! — nostrae pestis amicitiae! 

[ii] Unsympathetic Friends 
[a] 1 Mdle est, C6rnificf, tu6 Catullo; 

2 mdle est (me hSrcule) ei — 6t Iab6ri6se, 

246 National or Classical Roman Literature 

3 et magis magis in dies et horas: 

4 quern tu (quod minimum facillimumque est) 

5 qua solatus es adlocutione? 

6 Irascor tibi. Sic meos amores? 

7 Paulum quidlibet adlocutionis, 

8 maestius lacrimis Simonid^is! 

[b] 1 Alfene, immemor at que unanimis falsS sodalibus, 

2 iam te nil miseret, dure, tui dulcis amiculi? 

3 lam me prodere, iam non dubitas fall ere, perfid§? 

4 Num facta impia fallacum hominum caelicolis placent? 

5 — quae tu neglegis, ac me miserum deseris in malis. 

6 Eheu, quid faciant (die!) homines, cuive habeant fidem? 

7 Certe tute iubebas animam tradere, iniqug, me — 

8 inducens in amorem, quasi tuta omnia mi forent. 

9 Idem nunc retrahis te, ac tua dicta omnia factaque 

10 vent OS irrita ferre ac nebulas aerias sinis. 

11 Si tu oblitus es, at di meminerunt, meminit Fides, 

12 quae te ut paeniteat postmodo facti faciet tui. 

[c] 1 Num te leaena montibus Libystinis 

2 aut Scylla latrans infima inguinum parte 

3 tam mente dura procreavit ac taetra, 

4 ut supplicis vocem in novissimo casu 

5 contemptam haberes, ah nimis fero corde? 

[d] 1 Desine de quoquam quicquam bene velle merer! 

2 aut aliquem fieri posse putare pium. 

3 Omnia sunt ingrata; nihil fecisse benigne — 

4 immo etiam taedet — taedet obestque magis: 

5 ut mihi, quem nemo gravius nee acerbius urget 

6 qudm modo qui me unum d,tque unicum amlcum habuft. 

[Hi] Despair 
[From the elegy to Manlius.] 

1 . . . Quod scribis "Veronae turpe, Catulle, 

2 esse, quod hie quisquis de meliore nota est 

3 frigida deserto tepefecit membra cubili," 

4 id, Manli, non est turpe, magis miserum est. 

Third Period 247 

[iv] Disillusionment 

1 Dicebas quondam solum te nosse Catullum, 

2 Lesbia, nee prae me velle tenere lovem. 

3 Dilexi tum te, non tantum ut vulgus amicam, 

4 sed pater ut gnatos diligit et generos. 

5 Nunc te cognovi: quare etsi impensius uror, 

6 multo mihi tamen es vilior et levior. 

7 "Qui potis est?" inquis. Quod amantem iniuria talis 

8 cogit amare magis, se bene velle minus. 


[h] Struggle and Self-Mas tery 
[i] Hate and Love 

1 Odi et amo. Quare id faciam, fortasse requiris. 

2 Nescio, sed fieri sentio et excrucior. 

[it] Reproach , 

1 Nulla potest mulier tantum se dicere amatam 

2 vere, quantum a me, Lesbia, amata, mea, es. 

3 Nulla fides ullo fuit umquam foedere tanta, 

4 quanta in amore tuo ex parte reperta mea est. 

[m] Impasse 

1 Hue est mens deducta tua, mea Lesbia, culpa 

2 (atque ita se ofiicio perdidit ipsa suo), 

3 ut iam nee bene velle queat tibi, si optima fias; 

4 nee desistere amare, omnia si facias. 

[iv] Apologia Pro Amore Suo .^ 

1 Si qua, recordanti benefacta priora, voluptas 

2 est homini, cum se cogitat esse pium, 

3 nee sanctam violasse fidem, nee foedere in ullo 

4 divum ad fallendos numine abusum homines, 

5 multa parata manent in longa aetate, Catulle, 
\^ 6 ex hoc ingrato gaudia amore tibi ; 

7 nam quaecumque homines bene cuiquam aut dicere possunt 

8 aut facere, haec a te dictaque factaque sunt: 

9 omnia quae ingratae perierunt credita menti. 

248 National or Classical Roman Literature 

10 Quare cur tu te iam amplius excrucies? 

1 1 Quin tu animum offirmas, atque istinc teque reducis 

12 et dis invitis desinis esse miser? 

13 Difficile est longum subito deponere amorem. 

14 Difficile est, verum hoc qudlibet efficias. 

15 Una salus haec est; hoc est tibi pervincendum; 

16 hoc facias, sive id non pote sive pote. 

17 O di, si vestrum est misereri, aut si quibus umquam 

18 extremam iam ipsa in morte tulistis opem, . ■ ^^-^'^ 

19 me miserum aspicite et, si vitam puriter egi, "^ 

20 eripite hanc pestem perniciemque mihi. 

21 Heu, mihi subrepens imos ut torpor in artus, 

22 expulit ex omni pectore laetitias! 

23 Non iam illud quaero, contra me ut diligat ilia, 

24 aut, quod non potis est, esse pudica velit: 

25 ipse valere opto et taetrum hunc deponere morbum. 

26 di, reddite mi hoc pro pietate me^,. 

[i] Loathing 
[i] To M. Caelius Rufus 

[Rufus was first the friend, then the rival, and now again the 
friend of Catullus.] 

1 Caeli, Lesbia nostra — Lesbia ilia 

2 — ^illa Lesbia, quam Catullus unam 

3 plus quam se atque suos amavit omnes, 

4 nunc in quadriviis et angiportis 

5 glubit magnanimi Remi nepotes. 

[ii] Clodia and Clodius 

[In which Catullus hints at incestuous relations between Clodia 
and her brother, P. Clodius Pulcher.] 

1 Lesbius est pulcher: quid ni? — quem Lesbia malit 

2 quam te cum tota gente, Catulle, tua. 

3 Sed tamen hie Pulcher vendat cum gente Catullum, 

4 si tria notorum savia reppererit. 

Third Period 249 

[j] Scorn 

The Final Word 

[Catullus repulses Lesbians offers of reconciliation. With deep 

irony, Catullus wrote this last poem to Lesbia in Sapphic strophes 

— which he had not used since his first poem to her, the translation 

of Sappho's Ode to Anactoria.] 

1 Furi et Aureli, comites Catulli, 

2 sive in extremos penetrabit Indos, 

3 litus ut longe resonante Eoa 

4 tunditur unda, 

5 sive in Hyrcanos Arabasve moUes, 

6 seu Sagas sagittiferosque Parthos, 

7 sive quae septemgeminus colorat 

8 aequora Nilus, 

9 omnia haec, quaecumque feret voluntas 

10 caelitum, temptare simul parati — 

11 pauca nuntiate meae puellae 

12 non bona dicta: 

13 cum suis vivat valeatque moechis, 

14 quos simul complexa tenet trecentos, 

15 nullum amans vere, sed identidem omnium 

16 ilia rumpens; 

17 nee meum respectet, ut ante, amorem, 

18 qui Alius culpa cecidft veliit prati 

19 ultimi flos, praetereunte postquam 

20 tactus aratro est. 

If Catullus' obscenity is occasionally offensive to modem taste, 
it must be remembered that literature in his day did not circulate 
so indiscriminately as in the modern era of the printing press and 
the newspaper; moreover fashions change. Even English litera- 
ture has the ribaldry of the Elizabethan and Restoration poets. 
In modern times no poet has shown a vein of genius so similar to 

250 National or Classical Roman Literature 

that of Catullus as Robert Burns, who could write the purest 
and tenderest of lyrics and at the same time shock his con- 
temporaries by saying: 

The kirk and state may join, and tell 

To do such things I maunna: 
The kirk and state may gae to hell. 

And 1^11 gae to my Anna. 

To be outspoken was the fad in the society in which Catullus 
moved. Catullus himself — if one may venture to piece together a 
fragment and an excerpt — has left us an apology for his naught- 

1 Si qui forte mearum ineptiarum 

2 lectores eritis manusque vestras 

3 non horrebitis admovere nobis, 

4 num me ex versiculis putabitis {quod 

5 hi sunt molliculi) parum pudicum? 

6 Pol castum esse decet pium poetam 

7 ipsum, versiculos nihil necesse est! 

Or, as Walter Savage Landor wrote: 

Tell me not what too well I know 
About the bard of Sirmio. 

Yes, in Thalia^s son 
Such stains there are — as when a Grace 
Sprinkles another's laughing face 

With nectar, and runs on. 



Boldface indicates lemmata — ^i.e., words or phrases com- 
mented on. Where no lemma occurs, a note is on the entire 
passage or line. 

Italic indicates: (1) English translations; (2) Latin syno- 
nyms and equivalents — e.g., Miles, 1. 33: vivere, esse; (3) 
Latin and other foreign words in English sentences; and 
(4) titles of literary works. 

Leaders indicate: (1) correlatives — e.g.: cum . . . turn, not 
only . . . but also; (2) tmesis — i.e., the separation of parts of a 
compound word by the intervention of one or more words, 
— e.g.: qui . . . ciunque, quicumque; and (3) words included 
within a lemma — e.g., Miles, 1. 1: Ubi . . . est, Ubi Artotro- 
gus nunc est. 

Square brackets indicate words supplied to expand or 
complete a phrase — e.g., Miles, 1. 4: od tuas [virtutes]. 





Like Shakespeare's Taming of the 
ShreWy the Miles Gloriosus has an 
induction, or preliminary tableau, un- 
connected with the plot and even 
preceding the prologue. 

[1] A bracketed number indicates 
a line abridged or otherwise adapted 
to the purposes of this edition. 

2. forma regia, ablative of descrip- 
tion, of royal mien. 

3. turn, in the emunerative sense, 
furthermore^ also, ausit, equivalent 
to audeat. discere, mentioUj supply 
viriutes as object. 

4. aequiperare, aequare. 

5. Quemne, the one whomf ser- 
vavi, i.e., spared his life, campi 
Ctirculionii, a comic invention. Cur- 
culio means weevil (for which we 
might use a more familiar equiva- 
lent — e.g., cockroach or cootie). 

6. Bumbo-mach-ides Clyto- 
mestori-dysarch-ides, a bombastic 
mock-heroic Greek name meaning ap- 
proximately: Buzz-haitle-son Famed- 

8. nempe, of course. 

9. spiritu, breath. 

10. Vel, for instance. The connec- 
tion is intentionally vague, for Arto- 
trogus' flattery is quite d propos of 

10-11. elephanto, dative of posses- 
sion, modifies bracchium (1. 11): lit., 
the arm to the elephant — i.e., the ele- 
phant's arm. ei bracchitmi, its arm. 
English would render the entire sen- 
tence as foUows: For example, that 

elephant in India! — how you broke its 

11. pacttmi, the same as modus in 
such phrases as: quomodo, nulla modo 
(1. 415). pugno (from jm^tw), fist. 
prae-fregisti, from prae-fringo. 

12. femur, thigh. 

13. iceram, from Ico (cf. the more 
familiar participle ictus), pel (or 
edepol), a mild oath or byword origi- 
nally meaning by Pollux (cf . m£-castor 
and e-castor, by Castor; and W6- 
hercle and hercle, by Hercules). 

14. con-nixus (from conr-nitor), em- 
phatic nitor (strive), cerium, hide. 

15. OS, bone (or bones), transmi- 
neret, pierce (cf. the more familiar 
e-minere) . 

16. istaec, ista, neuter plural; has- 
ce, has. Compare istaec with the 
form haec, istanc (1. 284) with hanc, 
and istuc (1. 105) with hoc. The full 
suffix -ce appears in ha&-ce and isiis-ce 
(1. 194) and originally meant here (cf . 
vulgar English this-here). aenimnas, 
woes, venter, i.e., my hunger. 

17. *st, est. For est and es (but 
for no other forms of the verb to be) 
the usual rule of elision is reversed — 
i.e., the final syllable of the preceding 
word remains intact, and the e of est 
or es is dropped, adsentandum *st, 
lit., must be assented to. mentibitur, 
meniietur, say falsely, tell a lie. 

18. tabellas, writing tablets. 

19. facete, cleverly. 

20. meditate, adverb, by heart. 

21. prae-olat mihi, impersonal, 
equivalent to prae-olfaciam, I smell in 
advance, I get a whiff (or an inkling) 

22. Ecquid, interrogative, anything. 



Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 

23. ScjTtho-latronia, an imaginary 
country, Scytho-mercenaria (see note 
on 1. 50). 

25. tu, metrical hiatus because of 
the dramatic pause. 

26. istaec, ista, nominative singular 
feminine (see note on 1. 16). summa, 
noun, rationem, reckoningy calcula- 

29. memoria optima, emphasized 
by hiatus, ablative of description. 
*s, es (see note on 1. 17). offae, 
morsels, a himiorous word, like our 

30. edes, eat (not from e-do). 

31. te, accusative. The more log- 
ical thing to say would have been 
communicabo mensam meant tecum, 
but Pyrgopolinices reverses the per- 
sonal and impersonal objects of the 
verb — as though his food were more 
important than his guest: I'll present 
you to my food. 

32. Quid, why? quod, what. 

33. vivere, esse, 

34. Ablatives of specification. 

35. ted, te. iniuria, wrongly (oppo- 
site of iure). 

36. here, heri, adverb, pallium, 
mantle (see p. 264, column 2). 

38. hic-i-ne, for hic-ci-ne, lit., this- 
here man? The suffix -ci is the same 
as -ce (see note on 1. 16). inquit mihi, 
says one to me (not logical after the 
plural rogitabant, but amusingly col- 

39. Immo, no. In 1. 44 it means 
yes; the reader must judge by the 

41. liberalis, noble, aristocratic. 
caesaries (singular), hair, locks. 
quam, how. 

42. Quae-n, quae-ne (cf. tu-n, 1 
167); obsecraverint, subjunctive in 
a relative clause of cause. The equiv- 
alent English idiom would be: 
What! When they begged me? 

43. Pyrgopolinices is a host in 
himself, a whole parade, a one-man 

circus, ilia, adverb, hy that route 
(or way). 

44. nimius-a-um, nimis, (in Plau- 
tus) mv^h, very, etc. (not too mv^h, too, 

46. arcesso, -Sre, also spelled ac- 

47. ut, result, dare operam, more 
often operam dare or operdmdare, 
attend to. 

49. Seleucus, a name to conjure 
with — as if one should say: my boss, 
Napoleon, opere maximo, maximo- 
pere (superlative of magnopere), max^ 

50. latrones, mercenaries. It was 
not until Cicero's time that the word 
quite deservedly came to mean 
brigands, cogerem, gather. 

51. Age, come (exclamatory). 


52. Ems (or herus), master (of a 
slave only). 

53. sese, him, object of the infini- 
tive, sectarier, sectari. This longer 
form of the present passive infinitive 
is found in all conjugations. 

54. quaqui, by whatever way, where- 
ever — hardly different from quoqud, 

55. hau, haud (not the exclamation 
hau or au). diu servio, the equival- 
ent English idiom requires the perfect 
tense, servitutem servio, cognate 
accusative — i.e., be a slave. 

58. ems, Pleusicles. 

59. mulierem, Philocomasiimi. 

60. He was envoy of Athens to 
Naupactus (situated on the Gulf of 

61. forte, by chance. 

63. ubi, when, amicam, sweet- 
heart, erilem, master's. Erilis-e is 
the possessive adjective derived from 

64. vivus, lively, quick, quantum 
posstmi, quam maxime. 

Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 


66. altum, mare (Latin), the deep, 
volunty decree. 

67. ubi, whercy in which. 

68. dono (Jor a gift) dat me huic 

71. contra, in turn, aspezit, the 
subject is she. 

75. sese, subject of amare and 
odisse (1. 76). 

77. quoniam, when, after. 

78. clan-culum, adverb, clam. 

82. in proximo, 7i€xf cZoor. deverti- 
tur, lodges. 

83. lepidum, pleasant, jolly. 

85. intus, adverb; within, indoors. 
machinas (cf. English machinations), 
trick, scheme. There are many other 
colloquial and witty terms used to 
designate the strategems that are a 
favorite feature of the comedy of 
manners — e.g., astutia (1. 108), com- 
mentum (1. 112), dolus (1. 118), 
sycophantia (1. 282), and fabricae 
(1. 286). 

86. qui, whereby. Here it intro- 
duces a purpose clause (cf . the use of 
quo with certain pmpose clauses), 
amantis, noun, lovers, imi, Ht., to- 
gether, inter se convenas, accessible 
to each other. 

87. conclave, room. 

88. eapse, ipsa. 

90. commeatus, passag^e. hinchuc, 
to and fro. 

91. sene, Periplectomenus. 

92. foris concrepuit, the door creak- 
ed {rattled, was kicked, or whatever 
stage business traditionally preceded 
an entrance), hinc a vicino, ht., 
hence from our neighbor's. The Eng- 
lish idiom requires the locative — i.e., 
here at our neighbor's. 

Act I, scene 1 

94. quid agis, how are youf occisi 
sumus (slang), we are ruined. 

95. negoti, trovhle. tegulsie, tiles — 
i.e., roof. 

96. modd, adverb, just now. ves- 

trum, vestrorum, familiarium, lit., 
housemaids — i.e., 8om^ one from y(mr 


97. im-pluvium,lit., rain^fe. hos- 
pitem, my friend (or guest), Pleusicles. 

100. periisse (slang), ocdsum esse 
(see note on 1. 94). heus (not heu), 
hey! quid agis (not as in 1. 94), lit., 
what are you doing? 

101. sectari, sequi. giwinm, mon- 

102. hic-i-ne (see note on 1. 38), 

103. si*s, si vis, if you will — i.e., 
please, iube, supply her. transire, 
i.e., through the hole in the wall, 
quantum possit, quam primum, quam 
celerrime (1. 64). se, her. 

104. familiares, the household (cf. 
1. 96). The servants could testify 
that they had seen her at home, where 
she belonged. 

105. dicito, die. 

106. The ut-c\a\ise indicates that 
dicito connotes command, ut verbis 
vincat, that she convince, se (both 
times), her. ne, metrical hiatus em- 
phasizes the negative. 

107. si quidem, etsi. infitias eat, 
lit., go to denial; equivalent to the 
simple verb infitiari, deny. 

108. incipisso, incipio. astutiam, 
see note on 1. 85. 

109. Philocomasimn will pretend 
to be twins. This is just the opposite 
of the Comedy of Errors. 

110. If cum were elided, it would 
make an iambic foot. 

111. lacte, nominative, lac. eos, 
the supposed twin sister and her lover, 
devertier, see note on 1. 53. 

112. euge (or eu), Greek for bene. 
commentum, see note on 1. 85. 

113. ut . . . , a clause of purpose, 
illic, he, the conservus (1. 98 ff). ad- 
versum, preposition, to. 

114. hanc, Philocomasium, object 
of vidisse. This is indirect discourse, 
depending on concriminatus. 


Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 

115. alteram, the supposed twin 

116. exquiret, compound of quaero 

117. titubo, totter, falter — i.e., err. 

118. Nimis, see note on 1. 44. 
doctum, clever. 

122. •pTandetf she is lunching, ope- 
rae non est, she's not at leisure. 

123. isti, there, ^^chez vous." 

124. dice, die. 

125. docte perdoctam, cleverly 

129. illic, ille (see note on 1. 16). 
custos, jatZer — ^i.e., Scelednis, to whom 
Pyrgopolinices had assigned the task 
of keeping an eye on Philocomasium. 

Act I, scene 2 

131. proximae viciniae, locative 
case, in the very near neighborhood — 
i.e., at our next-door neighbor's. 

132. malam rem (slang), trouble. 

133. quantum, as far as. 

135. volup est [mihi], I am glad. 
Volwp is an adverb (cf. bene est mihi). 
fac sciam, fac ut sciam, let me know. 

137. forte fortuna, colloquial re- 
dundancy, just by chance. 

140. Tu-ti-n, tUy with emphatic 
sufifix -ti (or -te; cf . tu-te, 1. 144) and 
interrogative suffix -n (or -ne). The 
whole word means therefore. What! 

142. pergi'n, continue,- supply haec 
dicere. The form is a colloquial con- 
traction of pergis-ne (cf. iube'n, 1. 147; 
vi'n, 1. 155; sd'n, 1. 157; and audi'n, 1. 
408). vis dicam, vis (from volo) ut 

143. Quin etiam, emphatic, but 
still! *st, she is. Eho, exclamation 
of surprise. 

144. vise, from viso. tu-te, see 
note on 1. 140. postulo, expect (older 
meaning of the word.) 

145. certum 'st (colloquial), I am 
resolved, opperiar, await. 

146. te, ablative of comparison. 

147. Iube*n, iubes-ne, colloquial use | 

of the present for the future, tibi, 
equivalent to tuos. nusquam *st, i.e., 
does not exist. Sceledrus must be 
seeing things! 

148. eccam, ecce earn (cf. eccr-um, 1. 
262; ecc-os, 1. 593; eco4llam 1. 296). 

150. ilico, derived from in loco (cf. 
Johnny on the spot), right there (or 

151. nihil est qui, there is no way 
by which (cf . nihil est vbi, nihil est cur, 

152. suscitant, madden. 

155. Vi*n, vis-ne, verb, uti, ut. 

156. corde, animo, need not be 
translated, uti, from utor. 

157. nullum commeatum, Palaes- 
trio is bluffing. There is no apparent 
reason for the hiatus after commea- 

159. dignu*n, dignv^-ne. verberi- 
bus, from verber. 

161. Pede, on the hoof, in the flesh! 

Act I, scene 3 

163. Quid ais tu, the conventional 
phrase to attract a person's attention 
— e.g., look here!, hey there! Hanc 
rem gero (idiom), I'm busy. 

164. Respice-dimi, if translated at 
aU, the suffix -dum means just. 

165. probnun, adjective used as 
noun, wickedness. 

166. em (not hem), ecce, here you 

167. tu-n, tu-ne. 

168. hercle, see note on 1. 13. 

169. carebis, supply istis oculis. 

170. qui, which — i.e., eyes. 

171. viderim, emphasized by hi- 
atus. moTSi, foolish (cf. sopho-more), 
supply sum. multum, very, capitis 
perdam, I'll have his life (comic exag- 
geration) . 

175. exit, exiit. 

176. facinus, verbal noun from 
facio; happening, fact, thing. In 
Plautus' time it had not yet come to 
mean crime. 

Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 


177. domi, i.e., at Pyrgopolinices' 
house. *st, she is. carta res est, 
certum est [mihi]. (See note on 1. 

180. Ne (sometimes spelled nae), 
a positive particle used only in combi- 
nation with personal pronouns, need 
not be translated. ser6, too late. 

181. resipisces, recover your senses. 
si prius, cum primum. 

182. eTperioTf I realize, caliginem, 
a mist. 

185. con-ticiscam, derived from 

Act I, scene 4 

186. Inde, imperative of the verb 
in-do (not the adverb thence), gratis; 

187. templis, in its original mean- 
ing of regions. This is a mock-heroic 
description of the stormy sea. 

188. servavit, the indicative in a 
eum-causal clause is common in early 

191. See 1. 176. 

192. quidem, really, earn esse 
hanc, hanc (i.e., the woman we see) 
esse eam (Philocomasium) . 

193. quid istuc est (colloquial), 
expresses remonstrance. 

194. quid tibi debetur (idiom), 
what's your business? 

195. tu-te, supply loqueris. 

196. viti, from vitium. 

197. quicum, quocum. 

199. Quin, why not? 

200. odiosu's, odiosus es, a common 

202. enim, why (non-interroga- 
tive), nos, nos-met, subject and 
object respectively of perdiderimv^ 
{have lost). 

203. intemperiae, distemper, mad- 

204. perperam, adverb, wrongly. 

206. Tu-ne, here the positive par- 
ticle -ne echoes the interrogative. 
quae, i.e., / who. As she is a stranger 

in Ephesus, Sceledrus can know 
nothing about her name. 

208. ind-audivi, in-audivi. quae- 
situm, supine. 

210. manifestaria, caught in the act. 

211. altrinsecus, adverb, <m the 
other side — i.e., hy the other arm. 

212. nil merer (idiom), I don't care 
to (with complementary infinitive), / 
don't care for (with direct object), 
qui, how (see 1. 86 and note). 

213. atque, hut — i.e., not Philoco- 
masitun, but another like her. siet, 
sit (so also siem, sies, etc.). 

215. nusquam, emphatic negative, 
firmatam fidem, oath, word of honor. 

216. cogis, an oath given under 
compulsion is not binding. 

218. fide, sense of honor (non- 
existent in a woman!). 

220. machaeram, the national 
Greek weapon, a kind of bowie knife, 
intus, means from within as well as 
within, ea, with it. 

221. recti, adverb, s<ra?^/ii. quem- 
que, quemcumque. 

224. faxo, old future perfect of 
facio, I'll see to it (or warrant). 

225. opu'st, opus esty a common 
contraction. Eccam, Philocomasium. 
lecto, bed. 

226. ne, a positive particle (see 
note on 1. 180). 

228. faciet quin, convince that .--^ . 
not — i.e., prevent her from being .... 

229. istaec, eam, Dicea. huius, 
Philocomasium . 

230. propius, surer, lit., nearer. 

231. ero, dative of erws. In 11. 234- 
235 ero is the future of sum. 

232. mussitabis, keep mum. 

233. consili, consilii, partitive geni- 
tive with quid. 

234. hunc, Periplectomenus. 

Act I, scene 5 

236. T\m,tu-ne. 

237. ludificavisti, mocked, insulted. 
hospitam, Dicea. 


Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 

238. ausctilta, listen. 

239. Piirgare, exculpate. 

241. Licet-ne, supply loqui. me 
di . . . , equivalent to our phrase so 
help me God. 

242. virgamm, rods, switches — i.e., 
unless I get the revenge of having you 
flogged by your master. 

246. nostrai, the old genitive form — 
i.e., ista tvxi est ita similis huius nos- 

247. me, i.e., my house. 

257. complexam, agrees with illam, 
but refers to hospitem as well (cf. 
variations of the same phrase in 11. 
97-98, 138, and 149). osculantem, 
emphasized by hiatus. Ea-ne, Philo- 

259. iam (with the future), soon, 
immediately. It is emphatic here and 
is therefore not elided. 

260. ludificarier, /ooZed. 

261. miris modis, wonderfully. 

266. ex-cors, brainless. 

267. furci-fer, lit., wearer of a 
frame — i.e., condemned criminal, rogue, 

268. vincam , . . , 7 shall control my- 

271. comprimes, future indicative, 
equivalent to a command (so also the 
future perfects, nesciveris and videris, 
in 11. 271-272). 

Act II, scene 1 
276. Cohibete, keep. 
278. steriUsi empty, platea, pZaza, 

280. bonis, good men. 

282. nam, were this elided, it 
would make an iambic foot, syco- 
phantiam, see note on 1. 85. 

283. qui, see note on 86. admutile- 
tur, be trimmed. 

284. dari, i.e., be told, rationem, 

285. anulus, finger ring. 

286. igitur, then, fabricanmi, see 
note on 1. 85. 

288. ut, as, correlative with ita. 

290. praedicat, predicates, states — 
viz., that his beauty exceeds the 
beauty of Alexander (i.e., the Homeric 
Paris, whose other name was Alex- 

291. se, object of sectari. memo- 
rat, states. 

292. potis, adjective, able, supply 

293. facetianmi, drollery. 

294. ingenuam, agrees with muli- 
erem (1. 292). aequi facio (idiom), 
it's all the same to me. 

297. usus, noun, opus (cf. 1. 301). 

298. crinis comptos, matron's head- 

299. Erro . . . , idiomatic or pro- 
verbial phrase (cf. the English: / 
don't follow you, I don't get what you're 
driving at). 

300. ancilla, maidservant, illi, to 
her — i.e., has she? cata, clever. 

302. de-perire (slang), be smitten 
(or dead in love) with. 

303. quasi, depends on simulet; 
colloquial, as in the English pretend 
as if. favea, ancilla. porro, deinde. 
mihi, supply dederif. 

304. interpres, go-between. 

305. potuit, supply Sol. Nothing 
is hidden from the sun! 

306. The fifth foot is a tribrach 
(qudm ego), therefore no elision is 

309. nomines [eam], call her. 
311. face, see note on 1. 135. 

Act II, scene 2 

313. salvimi, supply ie. omatus, 

314. obviam es, you are met. 

315. ornatu, guise. Eu, bravo, see 
note on 1. 112. noster, meus, col- 
loquial phrase, my friend forever. 

316. amabo (colloquial), please. 
318. ecquid, mere interrogative 


Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 


319. meditatam, trained^ coachedj 

321. populi oditim/ quern populus 
odit — i.e., quem omnes oderunfy the 
most unpopular man in toivn, the uni- 
versal "Mte noire." cincinnatum, 

322. nam, interrogative particle. 

323. ilium, Pyrgopolinices. 

325. datum, the subject is the ring. 
de-perire (see note on 1. 302), the sub- 
ject is earn; the object, ilium. 

326. cum extemplo, cum primum. 

327. cura, imperative of the verb. 

328. Vos, object of curate, modd, 
jv^t, only, onerattun (slang), stuff edj 
loaded — i.e., fooled. 

329. meditate, adverb, carefully. 

Act n, scene 3 

332. quod . . . , si id quod agas. 

333. Seleucum, see 11. 49-50. para- 
situm, Artotrogus. 

335. dum fieret, purpose is im- 
plied — i.e., that meanwhile. 

336. rem, affairs. 

337. condicio, amour^ match, lu- 
culenta, high-toned. 

339. -dum, see note on 1. 164. 
auceps, snarer, (with sermoni) eaves- 

340. hoc (with partitive genitive), 
this hit of. clandestine, adverb. 

341. arrabo, token, pledge. 

342. Quid [est] hie [arraho]? lu- 
culenta, note the hiatus. 

343. expetessit, expctit. 

344. nunc porro av cilia mi dedit 
eius (her) anulum, ut deferrem ad te. 

345. Nupta-ne . . . , married or 
single? Vidua is emphasized by- 
hiatus, potis, supply est (see note on 
1. 292). 

350. de-moritur (slang), see note 
on 1. 302. 

351. muliere, Philocomasium (for 
the idiom see note on 1. 220 for ea) . 

352. Quin, just, sicut, in as much 

355. occasionem, accusative of ex- 

356. ce-do, old imperative of dare 
with prefix -ce, here (see note on 1. 
16), give J out with! This is not to be 
confused with cedo^ I yield. 

357. actutum, at once, per gra- 
tiam, with good gracCy with no ill will. 

358. adfatim, satis. 

359. mulieri, having been at- 
tracted into the relative clause, this 
is made to agree with illi — i.e., iuhe 
mulierem habere sibi dono aurum . . . 
sibi dono habere, have as a gift for 
herself, take and keep, instruzti, 
instruxistij bestowed. 

362. delicatu(s e)s, youWe joking. 
quae, since she (relative clause of 

365. bellula, sentimental diminu- 
tive of bellus-a-um, pretty, pithe- 
ciimi, ape. prae ilia, compared to her 
(the lady) . spintumicium, call it rain 

Act II, scene 4 

366. hos, the object of videam and 
the subject of esse. 

369. sati'n, satis-ne, used as a mere 
interrogative particle, haec, Milphi- 

370. subigit, impels. 

371. nihil amassis (colloquial), ne 
amavcris, prohibition, ilia, the lady. 

372. hanc, the lady's maid. 

374. evenat, eveniat. 

375. uhi sit id quod quaeris. 

377. cedo, ce-do. horunc, from 

378. multae, supply faciunt. 

379. numquis, covertly alluding to 
Pyrgopolinices. ce-do . . . , a word 
with you alone! solae, soli. 

381. tantisper, tani diu (cf. paulis- 

381. hac, mea. 

382. tibi, for you. Properando, 
lit., hurrying — i.e., hurry up. The 
word is used for the sake of the pun. 


Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 

operdmdo (colloquial pronunciation) 
and {'pr)operando. Note the hiatus. 

383. pede-temptim, step by stepy 
cautiously. mercis (from merx), 

384. concinnum, commoduniy con- 
venient, agreeable, hoc, ablative, than 

385. teneo, I know, I haven't for- 
gotten. She knows her part in the 
plot all right, but wants a hint as to 
how she may approach Pyrgopoli- 
nices now. 

387. illaec, Milphidippa. 

388. illam, the lady, her mistress. 

389. tis, genitive of tu. missa, the 
subject is Milphidippa. 

391. non libeat [tibi], i.e., nolis, 
supply illam duccre uxorem. incla- 
mato, imperative, scold. 

392. Voco-ne, interrogative. 

394. Pyrgopolinices jestingly lays 
claim to the famous Roman cognomen 
Pulcher, or Prettyman. 

395. liceat, Milphidippa would 
have added some such phrase as: era 
mea orat — i.e., my lady begs that she 
may spend her life with you; but think- 
ing she has finished, Pyrgopolinices 
gives her words the meaning: that I 
may spend my life with you. 

399. illaec, the maidservant, ilia, 
the lady. 

400. Qua ab, a qua. 

402. ab tui (genitive) cupienti 
(ablative), from one desirous (or a 
lover) of you. 

403. quae, who, the antecedent is 

404. illi, to her. suppetias, auxili- 

406. Exprome, display. 

407. Eu, sarcastic, verbero (-oms), 
one who gets flogged — i.e., villain, 

408. condicionem, see note on 1. 

409. eampse, ipsam, the lady. 
414. istic, at your house. 

Act n, scene 5 

415. pacto, modo (see note on 1. 11). 

416. recipi, be welcomed, amise- 
rim, dimiserim. 

420. domum, i.e., to Athens. 

426. cubare, be sick-a-bed. lip- 
pam, sore-eyed. 

427. nauclerus (Greek), skipper — 
i.e., Pleusicles in disguise. 

430. Qui potius quam, lit., how 
rather than? — i.e., why not {quin)? 

431. ducere, marry. 

432. cognates, your relatives. 

433. Quid ego ni, what can I do but?, 
how can I help?, why shouldn't If 

435. illaec, Acroteleutium. 

436. extrudam, expellam. 

437. faxis, perfect subjunctive, /ece- 
ris (see note on 1. 224). 

438. illaec, those things — ^i.e., her 
clothing and jewelry. 

440. usu*st, usus (opus) est ut 
Acroteleutium ad me veniat. 

Act II, scene 6 

443. arbiter, witness. 

444. conventum, colloquial con- 
struction, the past participle instead 
of a complementary infinitive. Et 
ego vos, supply conventos volo. 

445. date . . . (colloquial), just pay 
attention, id, for that reason, that's 
why. si, in case. 

447. differri, distraught. 

448. istius, Pyrgopolinices. 

449. abierim, i.e., / have divorced 
my husband, istius nuptiarimi, mar- 
riage with him— i.e., Pyrgopolinices. 
ordine (colloquial), in due order, cor- 

450. dotalis, adjective, belonging to 
your dowry— i.e., your own property. 

451. hinc, i.e., from the house, 
senem, Periplectomenus in the role of 
her divorced husband, postquam, 
n^io that. 

452. ille, PyrgopoUnices. alienam, 
another man's. 

Notes: Plautus (Miles Gloriosus) 


453. discitO) imperative of disco, 
learn, hear. 

454. abierit, i.e., after her tryst 
with Pyrgopolinices. gubemator, 
nauclerus (see 1. 427). 

455. verbis, in the name of. 

457. siqtiid, quicquid, whatever. 

458. soluturum, cast off, set sail. 
operam dare, serves, is favorable. 

459. ille, Pyrgopolinices. 

461. illi, Philocomasium. dicam, 
bid (see note on 1. 106). onus, i.e., 
her luggage. 

462. adeo, moreover. 

463. prorsum, adverb of place, 
straight to; protinam, adverb of time, 

464. triduum, tris dies, quin liber 
sis, without your being free — rather il- 
logical, but typically colloquial. 

465. numquid . . . , (question) 
Numquid aliud vis?, (answer) Volo 
ut haec memineris. 

466. illimi, PyrgopoHnices. 

4Q7. commodum, adverb, jv^t in 
time, pat. 

Act n, scene 7 

469. ei, to her. 

470. *s, es, imperative. 

471. te, ablative. Ero optimo 
stands in apposition. 

472. cum, since, that, concilio, 

474. gestio, /Zon^/or/ier. modice, 
supply gestire. 

Act n, scene 8 

475. ipstmi, Pyrgopolinices. 

476. Ut, how. 

477. te, the subject, supply eum as 
the object. 

478. adiri eimi, he is approached — 
i.e., by those who would present their 

479. copia, opportunity. 

480. inclitu's, are famous (or re- 
nowned) . 

482. Two wishes: (1) ut Pyrgopo- 
linices benignus sit, (2) ne gravetur 
{be not vexed at) id quod cupiam. 

486. mutent, i.e., cause him to 

488. praedicatio, statement, descrip- 

489. opinione illius, than his ex- 
pectation — i.e., than he expected. 

490. ducere, emphasized by hiatus. 

491. quibo, from queo (possum). 

493. viLem., cheap. 

494. Sine [ut], let her. 

495. obtigisse, contigisse. 

496. Phaoni, Phaon of Lesbos, for 
whom — according to legend — Sappho 
died of unrequited love, se, him — 
i.e., ut mulier se tarn amaret. 

497. Eo, verb, present tense equiv- 
alent to future. 

499. ec-fringam, from ec (ex) and 
frango — i.e., pull them off their 

500. Tene, verb. 

501. animus defit, my senses leave 

501. per octdos, the eyes are the 
windows of the soiil. 

503. mea (colloquial), my dear, si, 
if only. 

504. ut, when, as soon as. 

505. nescio, supply whether. 

506. Ut, how. 

507. te, emphasized by hiatus. 

511. mtdierem, supply istu^ facere. 

512. se, her. eas, verb. 

514. Quin, nay. virum, emphatic 
— whence no elision. 

515. dotales, belonging to her dow- 
er — ^i.e., her own personal property. 
huius, Acroteleutium. 

516. in exspectatione, late. 

517. animi, locative case. Non 
ero, supply in exspectatione. 

519. thalassico (Greek), nautical. 

520. hanc, Philocomasiimi. 


Notes: Plautus (Poenulus) 

Act n, scene 10 

529. Quid modi, lit., what of end? — 
i.e., when will you stop? Quid ego ni, 
see note on 1. 433. 

530. ubi, where, 

531. Audi*n, peremptory, look here! 

532. isti, to her — i.e., Philocoma- 

535. explicent, unfurl — i.e., set sail. 

536. See 1. 426. venissent, supply 
mother and sister as subject. 

539. attinere, attinuere, attinvs- 
runty have touched, animum, heart. 

541. complecti, the object te would 
naturally be understood, but Philo- 
comasium means Pleusicles. 

543. aflaigatur, he hurt. 

543-544. animo . . . hide, she's had 
a spell (or turn). 

545. moror, see note on 1. 212. 
malo, verb — i.e., mdlo ut quiescat. 

546. nexa (from necto)^ closely 
joined, his-ce, old nominative plural 
masculine plus the suffix -ce. 

548. Temptabam, I was trying to 
find out. spirarent, the subject is 
lips, admotam oportuit, you ought to 
have applied. 

549. magis vis, mavis. 

550. resipisti, resipivisti. 

551. apud me, in my senses. 
553. cimi ero, w^th my master. 
555. rerimi omnium, genitive of 


561. dicant, people would say. 
565. factum, noun. 

Act II, scene 11 

571. duo . . . , quern dux) di. 

572. obsecrat, the subject is she. 
574. fer opem, cf. fers suppetias 

(1. 404). 

Act n, scene 12 

576. subiimem, aloft — i.e., on your 

577. inter . . . , like the accursed 
Sinis of Greek fable. 

579. numerd, too soon. 

580. subigitare, make advances to. 
Note the hiatus. 

581. ventum *st ad me, impersonal, 
equivalent to / was approached. 

585. non de nihilo, not without 

587. lura, verb, non homini ne- 
mini, colloquial redundance, not a 
single soul. 

589. Veneritmi nepotulum, see I. 

590. Mavortem, Mart em. 

591. vapularim, active verb with 
passive meaning, be beaten {or flogged). 
iure, rightly. 

595. lanam, patch (see 1. 517). 
597. porta, i.e., the city gate. 

599. Verba . . . esse, / have been 
cheated, scelus viri, genitive, vir 

600. illexit (from in-licio), enticed. 
fraudem, misdeed, ad me, home. 



1. quae, in grammatical agreement 
with the feminine noun avis, but to be 
translated by who. tunicis (from 
tunica), a Semitic costume — a long 
flowing garment, unbelted, with no 
cape (pallium) over the shoulders (see 
note on 1. 1 of Epidicus, p. 264). 

2. num-nam, interrogative par- 
ticle, circumductu'st, was he cheated 
out of? — i.e., is it because someone 
stole his clothes at the bath, that he 
appears in a bathrobe — so to speak? 

3. *st, est (see note on 1. 17, p. 253). 
Gugga, the meaning of this word is 

5. Qui, how? Vide*n, vides-ne (see 
note on 1. 142, p. 256). sarcinatos, 
burdened — i.e., bent (like old men). 

7. Quia . . . , Ut., because they walk 
with ringed ears — i.e., because they 
wear rings in their ears. This was a 

Notes: Plautus (Poenulus) 


thing no Greek or Roman would do, 
unless he were prevented from wear- 
ing finger rings by lack of fingers! 

8. hos-ce, see note on 1. 16, p. 253. 
punice, adverb, in the Punic language. 

11. commeministi, EngUsh re- 
quires the addition of the comple- 
mentary infinitive to speak. 

13. illim, adverb, illinc, from there. 
This is redundant with Carthagine, 
but colloquial, perierim, was lost. 

14. ad, expresses manner. Eng- 
lish uses in or after, illunc, see note 
on 1. 16, p. 253. 

15. pueri, children (of both sexes). 
Hanno is thinking of his kidnapped 

16. Vi*n, vis-ne, supply ut. 

17. scis, i.e., to talk Punic. 

19. cuiatis, nominative singular, 
of what nationality? 

20. parseris, from parco. Avo, a 
Punic greeting. This happens (quite 
accidentally) to be so similar to the 
Latin ave, that any Roman could 
easily guess its meaning. Of course 
it is inconsistent for Milphio to 
switch to Latin after the first word, 
but just a word or two of Punic is 
enough for dramatic effect; besides 
the audience must understand what 
Milphio says. Avo is probably the 
one Punic phrase that the rascally 
Milphio really knows — all the rest is 

21. byn, son of, like the Hebrew 
ben and similar forms in all Semitic 

24. Donni . . . doni, here Milphio's 
extremely meager knowledge of Punic 
fails him, and he begins to pun. Doni 
vult . . . , hie (Hanno) vidt dare tibi 
nescioquid doni. ' 

25. pollicitarier,poZKatori (see note 
on 1. 53, p. 254). Pollidtor has the 
same meaning as polliceor. 

26. verbis meis (idiom), in my 
name, for me. 

27. Avo donnim, the clever bluffer 
puts together the only two Punic 
words that he has heard so far from 

28. Mehar bocca . . . , this and all 
the other Punic is mere gibberish, so 
far as the play is concerned. It 
would contribute nothing to the 
thought even if it did make sense, for 
its sole purpose is to give Milphio an 
opportunity to pun and bluff, sit, 
a wish. 

29. miseram buccam, sore jaw. 

30. arbitrarier, narrative infinitive, 
equivalent to arbitratur. 

31. nega . . . , nega [nos] esse 

34. Tu, although he is addressing 
Hanno, Milphio includes Hanno's fol- 
lowers in his questions {venistis and 
quaeritis being plural), zonam, belt. 

36. Quid venit, why has he come? 
Agorastocles assumes that Hanno is 
answering the questions. 

37. mures (from mus), mice. 

38. dare . . . , give to the aedilesfor a 
procession at the games. 

40. Ligulas, canalis, nuces, shoe 
straps, water pipes, and nuts. 

41. operam . . . sibi, to help him. 
veneant (from ven-eo), be sold. 

42. Assam . . . Arvinam, whatever 
assam may mean in Carthaginian, it 
happens also to mean roast in Latin 
(adjective, assus-a-um), and Milphio 
immediately answers: . . . yes, suet. 

44. Palas et mergas, spades and 
pitchforks, datas [esse], infinitive in 
indirect discourse, vendendas, to be 
sold, for sale. 

45. messis, noun, harvest. 

46. metere, verb, harvest. 
49. si's, si vis, if you please. 

51. ut . . . , [orat] ut iubeas te sup- 
poni. Gratis, hurdle in the old Eng- 
lish sense — i.e., a piece of woven 
wickerwork, large enough to be set 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

up as a fence and jumped over on 
horseback. To be drowned, crushed, 
or suffocated under such a hurdle 
(placed flat and weighted down with 
stones) was a very ancient form of 
execution. For one to request such 
treatment, is of coiuse absurd, ed, 
adverb, thereon ^ on it. 

56. nequam, indeclinable adjective, 

57. hommem . . . , qui hominem . . . 
inrideas. peregrinum, foreign. 

59. captatum, supine to express 
purpose. migdiliXy the meaning of 
this word is imknown. 

60. bisulci, forked. 

61. compescas face, fac [ut] com- 

67. popularitatis, our common na- 

69. Antidamai, genitive. 

71-72. tessera hospitalis, a friend- 
ship token — e.g., a large coin broken 
in half, or two pieces of metal en- 
graved with the same inscription. 
Friends long parted, or sons of 
friends, proved their identity by 
matching tokens. 

73. Est par, it matches. 

74-75. mi tuus . . . , tuus pater 
Antidamas fuit mihi hospes. 

77. praebebitur, supply <^6^ or yo6is. 

80. uti, ut. 

81. Aetolum, Aetolian. Calydon 
was in Aetolia. 

84. tuum, tuorum. 

85. Memora-dum, just tell me. 

86. novi [eos]j verb. 

88. Patrem . . . , Hanno starts to 
say: patrem amisisH, or some such 
statement — but wishing to break the 
news more gently, he changes the 
construction of his sentence and con- 
cludes: vellem [ut] viverent tibi. 

89. Factum, it is a fact. 

90. sobrina, cousin on the mother's 

91. frater patruelis, cousin on the 
father's side. 

93. quo privatum . . . mortuo, some- 
what redundant, deprived of him dead. 
med, accusative, subject of privatum 

94. ita *st, ut, is tru£ that. 
96. puero [tibi], i.e., when you 
a boy. 


Dramatis Personae 

Thesprio, a typical slave's name, 
denotes foreign birth, but is of no sig- 
nificance as regards his character. 
Apoecides should mean Emigrant 
or Colonist; but as the character 
represents an influential citizen, and 
not a foreigner, his name can have no 
significance for the Latin play — 
whatever it may have suggested 
in Plautus' Greek original. 

Act I, scene 1 , 

1. pallitmi, the national Greek cos- 
tume — viz., a short cape, worn over a 
tunic — ,very different from the Roman 
toga. Because the comedies of Plau- 
tus and Terence, presented Greek 
characters in Greek costume, they 
were called fabulae palliatae. 

2. odio, a nuisance, dative of the 
noun, equivalent to the adjective 
odiosus. 's,es. nimium(andnimis), 
very in the Latin of Plautus' day (not 
too much). 

7. Venire . . . gaudeo, conventional 
greeting to a returned traveler. Quid, 
what about? e6, thereto, ad-solet, 
fit., is customary in addition. 

8. Cena, dinner. Spondee, prom- 

9. Ut, ht., how? Exempliim, proof. 
Eu-ge-pae (Greek), bravo. 

10. videre, videris. habitior, ??M>re 
portly, gratia, thanks to. 

11. Quam, i.e., his left hand. 

12. furti-ficus, furtum faciens. ra- 
pio, rob (as highwaymen do). 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


13. Ut, how. 

14. ut, when. 

15. modd, just now. Scurra, tovm 
chap — ^i.e., weakling. 

16. quamvis audacter, [tarn] audac- 
ter quam vis. 

17. perpetue-n, the suffix -ne. 
17-18. The joke Ues in the pun on 

varie: How's your health been since I 
lefif asks Epidicus. Chequ£red (va- 
rie)! answers Thesprio. / don't like 
^^ chequered" men; replies Epidicus, 
they remind me of goats (capreae) or 
panthers — i.e., their backs are cheq- 
uered from flogging. 

19. vis, vis [ut] dicam. Utillaeres, 
how were things there? 

20. erilis, adjective. (H)erilis 
noster filius (Stratippocles) is equiva- 
lent to filius nostri (Ji)eri. pugi- 
lice, athletice, Greek words with 
Latin terminations having the same 
meaning as their English derivatives. 

22. *stt est. is, Stratippocles. nisi 
si, perhaps. The second si is super- 
fluous, vidulus, traveling hag. meli- 
na, marten skin — i.e., knapsack (made 
waterproof by the cheap marten fur). 

23. Te vole, the expected retort to 
Di te perdant, would be: Te volo 
perditum — but Epidicus does not dare 
say it to Thesprio. He therefore 
pauses and adds: . . . percontari (or 
percunctari) . . . to ask you a question. 

24. operam da, pay attention^ listen. 
opera reddetur, deinde ego operam da- 
bo tibi. 

25. lusdicis, a pun meaning either: 
you say what is fair and just {aequum 
dicis), or: you interpret the law — i.e., 
you are a judge (praetor), praeturam 
geris, hold the praetorship, are praetor. 

26. hoc, i.e., than me. 

28. Thesprio implies that the elm 
rods would be used on^ not hy, 

31. Mulciber, Vulcan. 

32. travolavenmt, flew across. 
Vulcan (the Greek Hephaestus) could 

make all sorts of magic appliances — 
even mechanical men or robots! 
prognatu'st (prognatus est) . . , , son of 
Thetis — i.e., Achilles. Heaven knows, 
Stratippocles is no Achilles; he is 
more of a Paris! 

33. Sine, sine [ut] perdat [arma]. 
Nerei filiae, daughters of Nereus, sea 
nymphs. In the Iliad Thetis and her 
nymphs brought Achilles a new suit 
of armor after the death of Patroclus. 

35. Plautus (or Menander) may 
have had others in mind, but at least 
we know that the Greek poets 
Archilochus and Alcaeus lost their 
shields in battle and boasted of it. 

36. honori, dative of the noun, 
equivalent to the adjective honora- 
bile. fuit, fuit [honori]. 

37. scut&nnsy shield m^kery armorer. 

38. in singulis stipendiis, in qv^que 
stipendiOj in every campaign, dabit, 
the subject is he (Stratippocles). 

42. nevolt, non vult. 

45. Animi causa, because of affec^ 
tioUy for love. And Epidicus retorts: 
How many loves has he? 

47. leno, slave dealer, fidicina, 
music girl. 

48. id . . . , lit., 7 have rendered that 
accomplished for him — i.e., it is a 
"fait accompli." 

49. A proverb — i.e., one trims one's 
sails to suit the wind. 

51. Quid, what about? 

52. mina, Latin corruption of the 
Greek mna. Call it silver piece, 
rather than any exact sum in dollars 
and cents. 

53. adeo, moreover. danista, 
money lender. 

54. In dies . . . ^ at the rate of a 
nummus (farthing) for each silver 
piece per day — i.e., at least one — per- 
haps even two — percent per day. This 
is usury with a vengeance ! Papae, an 

55. qui, the antecedent is danista, 
not eo (Stratippocles). 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

56. basilice, Greek word with Latin 
ending, royally. As we would say '.IV s 
better to he hanged for a sheep than a goat. 

57. epistulas, i.e., the letters re- 
minding Epidicus to secure Acropo- 
listis ( !) at any cost. 

59. plus . . . , lit., to know more than 
say. The English idiom would be: 
to know more than he saijs. 

60. servum hominem, the subject 
of scire and loqui (1. 59). 

61. timidu's, timidus es. 

62. videre, videris. commeruisse 
in te aliquid mali, to have committed 
some crime. 

63. poti'n, potis-ne [es]. astare, ad- 

65. de-agetur cerium, the hide will 
be removed. 

66. amat, supply her as object. 
68. iussit, iussit [me ire]. 

71. dinimierare, count out, pay in 

72. res turbulentas, accusative of 

73. Haec-i-ne, haec-\-ce {here) +r?e 
(indicating exclamation) . 

74. puppis, my stern. 

78. benevolens cum benevolente, 
amicus cum amico — i.e., we^ll stand by 
each other to the bitter end. 

83. sufifulcis, Epidicus is like a 
man in a nightmare — he seems to see 
a cliff tottering above his head and 
tries vainly to hold it up (suffulcire) 
with his hand. 

84. itaque montes mali, such moun- 
tains of disaster. 

88. senem, Periphanes, censeret 
. . . , i.e., he thought he was buying 
(and freeing from slavery) his long- 
lost daughter, Telestis, when actually 
he was getting his son's sweetheart, 

90. fidicinam, Acropolistis. ille, 
the son. quam . . . , quam abiens 
[em^ndam] mandavit mihi, whom he 
(Stratippocles), on his departure, 
commissioned me to buy for him. 

93. verba dare alicui (idiom), to 
deceive someone. 

95. bat, a meaningless comic word 
echoing at. English translators have 
rendered the echo variously by: o hut, 
tut; o wellj o hell; etc. 

96. Nequam, indeclinable adjec- 
tive, worthless. 

97. Qui, why? libido [tibi] est, 
tibi libet. loqui, loqui [tibi]. 

99. dare mutua (idiom), loan. 
consilia, good suggestions. 

100. obviam, to meet. 

101. adulescenti, Stratippocles. il- 
lic est, adest. 

103. orationem, sermonem, talk, 

Act I, scene 2 

104. admodum, fully, with edictavi. 

105. summam, noun. 

106. praeter . . . es, a parody of the 
familiar phrase: you are wise beyond 
your years. This is witty, but not 
strictly logical; for it really means: 
you are stupider than the average of 
your age and profession — being both 
very young and a soldier! 

108. vitio . . . , qui id tibi vitio-vertat. 
vitio vertere (idiom), blame. 

109. Qui . . . , [eos] omnes, qui 
[mihi] invident, inimicos . . . 

110. vim nee vitium, violence nor 
damage. This is redundant, but 
Stratippocles wants to make it em- 

111. istoc, for that reason. 

112. agit, accomplishes. 
112-113. verbis [iuvat], re iuvat, 

these are contrasted. 

114. tibi, for you. 

115. quod, which amount. 

116. Nam quid, quid-nam? te, the 
subject of esse (not the object of the 
impersonal verb re-tulit). 

117. ad rem, attributive phrase, 
modifies auxilium, practical help. 

118. clamor, collective noun ; claim- 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


antSy creditors^ duns, differor, am 

119. istiusmodi, of your type, like 
you. fumo mersos quam foro, a pun 
that cannot be exactly reproduced in 
English. The picturesque phrase/oro 
mergi {to he sunk in the Jorum) means 
to he hankrwpt] the phrase /wrno mergi 
suggests to he thrown into the oven. 

120. operam, hel-p. pretio pretioso, 
even at a costly price — therefore at any 

121. irrigatum plagis, drenched with 
hlows — i.e., bloody, pistori, to the 
miller — i e., to work in the pistrinum 
as a penalty. 

122. comparassit, equivalent to 
comparaverit (future perfect), prius, 
with quam (1. 124). 

124. promittit, servabit, the subject 
is he (Stratippocles). 

125. scapulis, for my shoulders (or 
hack) — i.e., that part where the flog- 
ging is administered. 

126. symbolae, equivalent to picnic 
(or party). 

127. Impertit salute, a ridiculously 
pompous phrase for salutat. 

128. Salvum . . . hue [gaudeo], the 
usual conventional phrase, less pom- 
pous than the expression employed in 
11. 126-127. 

131. Quod . . . impetratum *st, 
means the same as quod . . . curavi 
(1. 130). Epidicus repeats the idea 
because he hopes to trap Stratippocles 
and make him admit his fickleness. 
quod, the matter ahout which. 

132. missiculo, send often, frequen- 
tative verb derived from mitto. 
operam, efforts. 

133. placet, the subject is she. 

135. illam, Acropolistis. cura, 
fancy (noun), love — i.e., Telestis, the 
captive maiden. 

136. qui, an untranslatable par- 
ticle attached to hercle. id quod faci- 
as bene, heneficium. ingratum homi- 
ni, i.e., imwelcome to the recipient. 

138. mentis, practically the loca- 
tive case, scripta, epistolas. 

139. Men, me-ne? piacularem, a 

140. subdas succidaneum, offer as 
a substitute. 

141. Quid istJc, come now (expres- 
sing impatience). 

142. calidis (slang), hot off the 

143. tarpezita, hanker. 

144. loculi (plural), moneybox. 

145. ne in-bitas, ne in-eas, prohibi- 

147. fabulare, fabularis. nostros, 
my fellow slaves (especially those who 
did the flogging), mihi, emphatic. 

148. Patieri'n, patieris-ne. 

149. audaciam, bold emprise. 

150. istuc, i.e., the danger (or 
hardship), quodlibet, he corrects 
istuc {that) to quodlibet {anything). 

151. ilia fidicina, Acropolistis. res, 
means, solution. 

152. aliqua ope exsolvam, by some 
means I'llfulfdl my promise. 

154. tibi, for you. istam, Acropo- 
listis. banc, Telestis, the prisoner of 

155. continue, on the spot, ultro, 
of his own accord. 

156. erit, the subject is she. 

157. hunc hodie diem, colloquial 

158. luculente habeamus, spend 

159. senatum, meeting of the senate. 
consiliarium, adjective, deliberative. 
We would say: a meeting of the senate 
to consider. The question to be con- 
sidered is: On whom shall I declare war 
in order to get the money f (1. 160), and 
is decided in 1. 163 — viz., to tackle the 
old man, Periphanes. 

Act n, scene 1 
166. quos pudet, who are reluctant, 
who hesitate (not quite so strong as 
who are ashamed). 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

166-167. A loosely constructed and 
redundant sentence. The subject 
nominative, pleriqiie homijies, is left 
hanging in the air. Apoecides might 
have said: plerique homines . . . amit- 
tunt pudorem, most men lose their 
reluctance; instead of that he changes 
the construction to: most men — their 
reluctance leaves them. 

168. Is adeo tu 's, that's you, you're 
an example. 

168-177. In 11. 168-172 Apoecides 
proves his first point — viz., that 
Periphanes now hesitates when there 
is no need to hesitate; in 11. 173-177 
he proves his second point — viz., that 
formerly, when Periphanes buried his 
wife, he did not show quite the reluc- 
tance he should have shown. 

169-170. genere . . . uxorem, the 
subject is te; the verb, domum-ducere 
{mnrry); and the object, uxorem — 
modified by genere-natam-bono and 

170. qua ex, e qua. tibi, with 

172. filiam, quae domi *st, Peri- 
phanes thinks it is his daughter 
Telestis whom he has in his house, but 
it is really Acropolistis. 

173-174. te credidi exsequi, I 
thought you buried. 

174. extulisti, carried to the grave, 
practically a synonym of exsequi. 

175. sacrificas ilico Oreo, exag- 
gerated of course. 

176. iniuria, adverb, sine iure. 

177. tibi, with licitum 'st. earn 
vincere vivendo, outlive (eam is the 
object), ei superstitem esse. 

179. aerumna, labor (one of the 
twelve labors of Hercules). There 
seems to be nothing particularly ap- 
propriate about the sixth. 

180. Pulchra . . . , pecunia est 
pulchra dos. Quae . . . , English 
would use an i/-clause — e.g., yes, if 
it's not married (i.e., if it comes without 

a wife) — an impossibility of course, 
but pleasant to imagine. 

Act II, scene 2 

183. liquido, clear, modifies auspi- 

184. avi sinistra, with favorable 
omen (lit., bird). 

185. qui, ablative neuter, quo. The 
antecedent is cultrum, knife, ex- 
entero, disembowel. marsuppium, 

186. ipsum, my master, vetulos, 

187. hirudo, bloodsucker (not to be 
confused with hirundo). 

189. qui, the antecedent is eoruvi. 
cluent, are reputed. The form is ac- 
tive, but the meaning passive, senati, 
genitive singular, columen, English 
uses the plural, pillars, when speaking 
of two individuals. 

190. As is often the case, the un- 
supported u<-clausc expresses a sug- 
gestion: let him get married — i.e., get 
him a wife. During his confidential 
whisperings with l*eriphanes, Apoe- 
cides has evidently suggested that this 
is the best way to overcome any op- 
position on Stratippoclos' part to his 
father's remarrying. Observe Peri- 
phanes' last previous remark on the 
subject (1. 173): Rcvereor fdium. 

191. nescioquam, Periphanes little 
knows that his son's sweetheart is the 
girl whom Epidicus has already 
palmed off on him as his own 

193. pactum, equivalent to modus 
(in all such phrases as quomodo, co 
modo, etc). 

194. oma te, dress yourself for the 
part (see 1. 195). pallidum, equiva- 
lent to pallium (see note on 1. 1). in 
collum ccnice, i.e., in order to seem to 
be running. Con-ice comes from con- 
icio, which in turn comes from iacio. 

196. Age . . . agis, self-encourage- 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


199. per myropolia et lanienas, at 

all the perfumers and butcher shops. 
204. animo male *st, / feel faint. 

208. plenis, i.e., full of people. 

209. arma et iumenta, i.e., booty. 

210. captivorum quid, quot et quales 

212. quisque visunt, the usual 
colloquial construction, equivalent to 
omnes visunt or quisque visit. 

214. meretrix, harlot. numerus 
tantus . . . quantum, the logical equiv- 
alent of tantum . . . quantum or tot . . . 

215. quif how, 

216. retia, nets. 

217. atque, lo! illam, emphatic, 
her. praestolor, wait. 

218. tibicina, flute player (cf. Jidi- 
cina). Quicum, quacum. 

219-220. Epidicus cleverly plays on 
Periphanes' fears, expressed in 11. 
191-192. de-amat, de-perit (syno- 
nyms), laves madly. 

221. veneficam, podsoner^ sorceress. 

222. ntle^idet how charmingly, ut 
concinne, how elegantly. 

223. an ..., in a "princess" or 
"gypsy" dress? 

224. Impluviatam . . , ,in a "sky- 
light" dress — just an example of the 
names they give to women's clothes 

225. Uti-n(e), hmof 

226. fundis, farms — ^i.e., dresses 
worth as much as farms. 

227. tributus, taxes, negant, sup- 
ply people as the subject — i.e., (for 
the most part) the husbands of 
extravagant wives, pendi, he paid^ 
supply tributum as the subject, potis 
[esse], posse. 

228. Illis . . . , ht., to those women 
for whom (or whose support) a larger 
"tax" is paid, it can be paid! 

229. Quid istae, how about those? 
230-233. This Ust of queer and 

extraordinary words for women's 
fashions is of course full of puns and 

local hits, which it would be mere 
pedantry to reproduce exactly — 
anyone may make a similar list for 
today. The approximate meaning of 
the Latin terms is as follows: (1. 230) 
loose-woven, close-woven, cut-linen; (1. 
231) skin-tight, gold-fringed, marigold 
or buttercup; (1. 232) scanty (with a 
pun on supparus, a sort of tunic) or 
not-quite, mantilla, royal or exotic; 
(1. 233) wavy or plumy, waxen or 
flaxen{?) — all flummery! 

234. Cam . . . , they^ve even bor- 
rowed the name of (a certain breed of) 
dog. Laconicum, cf. Shakespeare's: 
Hounds bred out of the Spartan kind. 

235. auctiones . . . , subigunt viros 
ut f aidant auctiones, bring husbands to 

236. Quin , , • , get back to your 
story, oc-cepisti, in-cepisti, 

237. abscessi, from abs-cedo. 
sciens, purposely. 

238. dissimulabam dare, simula- 
bam non dare. 

239. satis, fully. 

240. libido *st, [mihi] libet. 

242. sunt conspicatae, the subject 
is mulieres dune (11. 236-237). 

244. Supply some such phrase as: 
said one to the other. 

245. illi, to her. 

246. Periphanai, genitive. 

248. rurstmi accedere, to hack. 
versum ad, towards. 

249. hominum vis, the crowd, re- 
truderet, were shoving. 

253. Id parattmi [esse], that it was 
got — ^i.e., that he had actually got the 

254. eapse, her. 

256. aliquid, some sort of (followed 
by the genitive), calidi conducibilis, 
prompt and profitable. 

257. ille, Stratippocles. 

258. catum, clever. 

263. utitor, imperative. 

264. rectius, a better plan. 

265. mihi, dative of agent. Said 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

in the passive the statement is more 
modest and humble, but it would 
mean the same in the active: ego istic 
nee sero nee meto (reap) . nisi, only. 

267. arbitretur, not deponent here, 
he determined (or decided on). This 
recommendation — ^viz., get your son a 
wife — is only a blind. Epidicus is 
merely seconding Periphanes' own 
desires, atque ut, and I advise that. 

269. curetur, impersonal passive, 
cura (or cures) ut. serviat, i.e., re- 
main a slave. This second recom- 
mendation — ^viz., to get even with the 
music girl by keeping her in slavery — 
is the more important item in Epidi- 
cus' plan. As a matter of fact the 
real music girl, Acropolistis, has al- 
ready been freed and is in Periphanes' 
house, masquerading as his daughter, 
fiat, be accomplished. 

271. Nunc, emphatic, advenerit, 
the subject is he (Stratippocles). 

273. alius, another soldier. 

275. animi gratia, for your own 

276. Quam . . . , whafs the advan- 
tage of that? 

277. prae-stino, buy firsts supply 
her as the object. 

278. ut . . . , tti dicas te earn emere in 
libertatem. dicas, claim — contrary to 
his real intentions. 

279. ut, / advise that. 

280. Immo, docte, no^ n^! well 

281. te commentum [esse]y from 
comminiseor, that you have contrived. 

282. amota ei fuerit, there will be 
removed from him — i.e., he will have 
no chance for. 

282-283. omnis consultatio nupti- 
arum, any discussion of his marriage — 
i.e., a discussion on his part as to 
whether or not he will marry. Thus 
the first recommendation can be car- 
ried out without hindrance. With 
the disappearance of his demimonde 

sweetheart, Stratippocles will have no 
decent excuse for refusing to marry 
any girl his father may select for him. 

283. ne gravetur, lest he dissent 
fromj that he may assent to. vive, 

285. rem loquere, verum dieis. 
repperi . . . , repperi qui suspido absee- 
dat a te. 

287. homine, someone. ill6, thither 
— i.e., to him (the slave dealer who 
owns the music girl). 

289. fili causa, on your son^s ao- 
count (not for the sake of) . 

289-290. This is merely a pretext 
to keep Periphanes in the background ; 
the real reason is to prevent Peri- 
phanes from questioning the slave 
dealer or from discovering the hoax in 
any other way. Instead of Peri- 
phanes' going to the slave dealer, the 
slave dealer will be brought to the go- 
between, Apoecides. 

290. evenat, eveniat. 

292. tenet, comprehendit. 

293. habeas, subjunctive expres- 
sing obligation, you ought to. 

294. ilium, the slave dealer, cuius- 
a-um, whose. Here ilium is the ante- 
cedent of cuia. 

295. hoc, Apoecides. As there is 
no time to spare (for supposedly every- 
thing must be done before Stratip- 
pocles arrives), Epidicus gives Peri- 
phanes this broad hint: with him 
(Apoecides) I'll take the money (to the 
slave dealer) , please, quanti, minimo, 
the genitive of indefinite, and the 
ablative of definite, price. 

296. posse, a complementary in- 
finitive, depends on fortasse (it may 
be that). Ad quadraginta . . . minis, 
it would be more grammatical to say: 
ad quadraginta minas, for about forty 
silver pieces; but minis (ablative of 
price) is added as an afterthought. 

297. referam, I'll bring back the 
change, captio, trap. 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


298. occupatum, tied up. non de- 
cern dies, — less than ten daijs, ten days 
at the most. 

302. impetras (colloquial), you get 
your wish. 

303. huic, Epidicus. visam, I'll 
look in at, I'll run down to. 

304. eo veni, meet me there, a-bitas, 

305. / [intro], numera [argentum]. 

Act n, scene 3 

307. feracem, i.e., Periphanes is a 
rich field to work. 

310. Quod, hut. 

311. ulmos . . . , i.e., make the lash 
stick to him and fleece him like a 

313. Quam, interrogative, with 

314. mane, this morning. 
315-316. The same music girls 

played secular music for gay parties 
and sacred music for religious rites 
just as a musician today may play for 
dances on week days and in church on 

317. ei praemonstrabitur, imper- 
sonal; it shall he shown to Aer, she shall 
he coached. It will not be necessary 
therefore for Epidicus to bring any 
slave dealer to Apoecides, as he had 
reluctantly anticipated (1. 294). By 
merely doing what he was asked to 
(namely, hire a music girl for a sacri- 
ficial rite) he will fool Apoecides, who 
will think this is Epidicus' ruse for 
getting the girl away from her owner 
and into the hands of Periphanes. 

317-318. Epidicus takes it for 
granted that the girl who is hired for 
sacred music will be quite willing to 
connive at an amorous intrigue. 

318. fiat subdola adversum, he de- 
ceptive to. 

319. danmoso, spendthrift (irnin- 
tentionally, of course). 

Act m, scene 1 

320. exedor, / am consumed, ex- 
enteror, / am tormented. 

323. Per, in regard to. illam co- 
piam, that resource — i.e., Epidicus. 

324. parare licet (colloquial), you 
might as well get. 

325. illo, him. 

329. qui, with hahes (1. 330). The 
antecedent is tUj subject of vis. tibi 
cui (idiom), tu cui, repeats the subject 
of vis for emphasis. 

332. aliqui, aliquo, someone, tibi 
mecum, for you with (i.e., and) me. 

333. muri-cidus, ht., mouse-killer. 

Act ni, scene 2 

338. Per hanc curam, as regards 
this matter. 

338. 339. hoc, the money. 

339. ni, ne. oppido, utterly, quite. 
This has nothing to do with oppidum^ 
town, pollinctum, ready for hurial. 

340. Crede, said to an imaginary 
listener, nostri, my family. 

343, commeatum, caramrz. He will 
carry the money to its destination, 
like a captain convoying a caravan. 

344. mihi, to my own cost, it's my 
own loss. 

346. plus satis, plus [quum] satis. 

348. flocci facie, make light of. 

349. Nam quid, quidnam, why? 
perenticida (from pera-\-enti+caedo), 
a. comic word coined by Plautus, 
perhaps meaning cutpurse. 

350. nil merer, / don't care for. 

351. perattun ductare, take a purse- 
ful. follitum, a sackful. 

352. omne . . . abstulit, took all his 
(Periphanes') cash, cleaned him out. 
This refers to the original purchase of 
Acropolistis, engineered by Epidicus 
before Stratippocles' return. 

353. pater . . . , qu^m (whom) pater 
credit esse suAim natam. 

354. itenim, this is emphatic, 

355. inveni, / have found a way. 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

atque, and even, hanc orationem, a 
speech with respect to this. 

356. eius copia, access to her. 

357. cautorem dedit, appointed to 
be my watcher (or to check up on me). 

360. crumina, wallet. 

361. adomat, praeparat. adveni- 
ens . , , f ut adveniens maritus fias 
extemplo domi. 

363. adempsit, ad-emeritj future 

364. ad lenonem domum, equiva- 
lent to ad lenonis domum. 

367. quippe ego qm, quippequi ego, 
because I. dinumeravi, paid the bill. 

369. Ihifthen. sceleratum, in Lat- 
in comedy slave dealers are always 
villains. impnidens, unwittingly. 
caput alligabit, take oath. 

371. versutior • . • » more nimble 
than a potter's wheel, parabo, get. 

372. nummo, for a trifling sum. 

374. simul, secum. 

375. penneditatam, well-rehearsed 
(or -versed) in. 

378. nimis doctus, very clever. 
380. abs te intus, from your house. 

Special Note on the Plot Development 

In this scene Epidicus gives only a 
hasty and sketchy outline of his plans. 
Not only is he in too much of a hurry 
for details, but he rather enjoys mysti- 
fying Strati ppocles and keeping him 
in suspense. Had Epidicus had the 
time to reveal his plans in full, the 
conversation with Stratippocles might 
have been somewhat as follows: 

Ep. (to Stratippocles) In the first 
place, I have advised yoiu* father to 
get your sweetheart, AcropoHstis, out 
of the way. 

St. Very good. That suits me per- 

Ep. Knowing very little about 
AcropoHstis (least of all, that he al- 
ready has her in his own house), he 
has now commissioned me to pur- 
chase her; and he intends to whisk her 

away to the country out of your reach. 
(That's how I got the fifty silver 
pieces I just gave you.) I shall now 
hire another music girl from the 
forum for just a few hours, and coach 
her in the r61e of AcropoHstis. Before 
your father has time to carry her off 
to the country, I'U arrange for her to 
sHp out of the house and disappear. 

St. Well done, Epidicus! I ap- 
prove of everything. 

Ep. In the second place, your 
father is going to get you a wife — 
you are to be married at once. 

St. Nothing doing! No one shall 
ever separate me from my new love. 

Ep. Don't worry, I've looked out 
for that too. You will not have to 
marry. Now that you have the money 
to free the captive maiden, you shall 
make her your mistress. Under 
those circumstances your father will 
find no one wiUing to marry his 
daughter to you; and if he tries to take 
your new sweetheart away from you, 
you can refuse to give her up on the 
grounds that he himself ordered me to 
buy her from the slave dealer for fifty 
silver pieces. Meanwhile I'll tip off 
the slave dealer to back me up in this, 
but to say nothing further. He'll 
only have to swear that he received 
fifty silver pieces for a music girl, 
which he really did — I paid him that 
amount day before yesterday for 
AcropoHstis! Just make sure that 
your father does not see your mistress; 
he will not suspect that she is another. 
He wiU take her to be the runaway 
music girl, whom he mistakenly 
believes to be AcropoHstis! Should 
he vent his anger on me for the mis- 
carriage of his plans, I'll have to bear 
it. But I shall have good grounds on 
which to defend myself, for I shaU 
only have carried out his orders ! And 
if your supposed sweetheart has 
eluded his clutches, that won't be my 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


St. Epidicus, you're a genius! . . . 

Such are Epidicus' plans, and he 
now thinks everything is pat. But 
there is one crucial fact he does not 
know — i.e., the identity of Stratip- 
pocles' captive maiden — , for he has 
not yet seen her, and Stratippocles 
has not chanced to mention her by 
name. In comedy, as in the detective 
story, some insignificant oversight like 
this always leads to the downfall of 
the malefactor. But comedy is also 
akin to the novel of roguery, in which 
the crook is the hero, who triumphs in 
spite of setbacks. 

Act in, scene 3 
382. oris causa, for the face. 
aequum fuit, it would he a good thing. 

385. qui, ablative, one in which. 
cordis copiam, their mental abilities. 

386. cogitarent, the subjunctive 
expresses the idea of should or might. 

387. ut, how. 

391. delinquo, do wrong, med er- 
ga, erga me. 

392. solida, real. 

394. praeda, Acropolistis (as he 
thinks) . 

395. mercatorem, said only in fun. 

397. suppetunt, agree with. 

398. istanc, her. 

400. sins (from sino), siveris. 

401. copulari, associate. The sub- 
ject is hanc (the new arrival). 

402. aediculam, room. 

403. divertunt, are different. The 
subject is mores, mores . » , , the 
characters of a maiden and of a harlot. 

406. istam, her. temperi, just in 

408. iam dudum, a while agOy jvst 

409. Hanc rem, the purchase of 
Acropolistis (which they think they 
have just forestalled). 

410. Ne, an affirmative particle 
used only with personal pronouns, 
you certainly have, graphicus, ideal. 

411. auro contra, worth his weight 
in gold. 

413. Apoecides did not know that 
she was laughing at him. 

415. dixit, the subject is he (Epidi- 
cus); the object, her. esse, with 

416. redierit, the subject is he 
(Stratippocles). rectam institit, he 
took the right path. 

417. illi, the slave dealer. 

421. com-bardus, fool. A delight- 
ful list of words with this meaning 
occurs in Plautus' Bacchides (1. 1088) : 
stultij stolidi, fatui, fungiy hardiy 
blennij bu^cones. 

422. res magna amici, an important 
case of a friend of mine. 

425. amico, ablative. 

426. tuo, velis, indefinite second 
person, one. 

427. adlegassem, adlegavissemt I 
had commissioned. 

428. doctum, adjective. 

429. OS sublitum (from svb-lino)^ 
slang, my face would have been smeared 
— i.e., / would have been cheated, albis 
dentibus, impHes a good, healthy, 
young grin. 

432. undantem, cf. coat tails flying 
in the wind, chlamys (Greek), pal- 
lium (see 1. 1). 

Act ni, scene 4 

433. praeter-bitas, praeter-eas. 

434. Platenius, the Platenian. Per- 
haps this refers to some village as his 

435. Incertus, equivalent to dum 
(until) certvs sis. 

441. explices, deploy. 

442. Prowess in words might be of 
more advantage here than prowess in 

443. illae [pu^nae], the latter (i.e., 
latter's) battles, de illius [pugnis], in 
comparison with the former's. 

445. Nempe quem, the one whomf 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

447. ind-eptum (from ind-ipiscor), 

448. manibus dimissis, vrith arms 
outstretched — i.e., full speed. 

451. cui . . . , for whom you may 
patch up your old rags — ^i.e., tell your 
old chestnuts. 

452. illivitio-vertere (idiom), 6Zame 

453. egomet quod, quod egomei, for 
what I. 

455. eradicabam, English would 
say wore out. 

457. amicam, Acropolistis. 

463. tramittas, transmittas. 

466. Mihi . . . , this is quite an hon- 
orable proposal, for the concubina 
might be a foreign-born wife, ab- 
solvam, coTne to terms with. 

469. tuas possidebit f erias, vdll oc- 
cupy your time off — i.e., when he is 
not campaigning, faxo, I'll warrant. 

470. atque ita, i.e., and on these 
conditions I'll let you have her. 

473. fides (plural), harp. 

474. accessere, ao-cesserunty went 
with her J a legal term. 

475. hanc, her. in-temperiae (plu- 
ral), the same as in-sania (singular). 

476. tenebras (slang), compared 
with his true love — his lux {fiame), 
etc. — , he can only call this creature a 

481. rere (from reor)^ reris. 
484. peccatum, erratum [est tibi], 

486. sectari, attend. 

487. destinavit, bought. 

488. te . . . concidit (slang), made 
mincemeat of you. 

489. SiCj just. 

490. cerva, hind (female deer), just 
as for Iphigenia in Greek legend — 
when she was about to be offered as 
a human sacrifice by her father, King 

491. See note on 1. 429. 

492. illam, Acropolistis. 

493. Eu-ge (Greek), bravo, frugi, 

indeclinable adjective, good — in a 
slangy sense here. *s, es. 

494. me emimxisti (slang), cleaned 
me out. mucidum, minimi preti, 
modifies me; sniveling, worthless. 

496. Fando audivi, lit., heard in 
speaking — i.e., heard tell of. 

505. admodum, adverb, modifies 

508. Periphanalt, genitive. The 
music girl does not know that she is 
talking to Periphanes. 

513. A literal answer to the music 
girl's conventional leave-taking. 

514. Fides, accusative plural, my 

516. reddes, the object is it (the 
harp) — for which she will bring a law- 
suit against him. 

517. qui, the antecedent is ego (1. 
518). in tantis . . . , placed (or merin 
tioned) in such important verdicts — 
i.e., whose name appears in such im- 
portant documents. He is a man of 
influence in the community and in the 

518. earn, the music girl — who has 
just insulted his dignity, impune, 
adverb, supply esse or facere. 

518-519. alterum tanttmi, the same 
amount again. 

520. habittun, modifies me, re- 
garded, depeculatui, lit., for swind- 
ling — i.e., easy prey. 

521. [mihi] data esse verba (idiom), 
to have been fooled. 

622. me minoris facie, / blame my- 
self less, illo, Apoecides. 

523. fictor, conditor, framer and 

524-525. malleum excusso manu- 
brio, a hammer with its handle 
knocked off. 

Act IV, scene 1 

526. Si . . . , si quid miseriarum 
homini est, if anyone is in trouble. 

527. quod miserescat, so that one is 
distressed, ex animo, emphatic. 

Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 


629. me habet, keeps me. 

532. potita, fallen into the power of. 

633. peregre, from foreign parts. 

635. illi usus venlt, she needs. 

636. dare, supply to anyone (ante- 
cedent of qui). 

537. Noscito, present indicative 
active, nam . . . , nam mihi videor 
(methinks) vidisse [earn] prius nescio- 

540. comprimere, that I sediiced. 

544. Sicut, causal, dubia, noun. 

645. mcerte J doubtfully, tistviy cun- 
ningly, cautiously. 

546. malitia, cunning (noun). 

647. Orationis aciem, the weapon of 
speech — i.e., speech, my only weapon. 

549. quod credidisti reddo, / repay 
you what you entrusted to me (viz., a 
salutation) — i.e., / give you tit for tat. 

650. flnimiim inducam, persuade 

551. Inique iniuriu's (iniurius es), 
you are very unfair. 

552. interpretari, act as interpreter 
for. commode, fittingly. 

554. guttula, ju^t a drop (of com- 

556. me levare, indirect discourse, 
depends on meministin above. Me is 
the subject. 

567. obsevisti (from oh-sero)^ plant. 

563. postquam ilico, as soon as. 

565. adeo, moreover. 

566. VLtutj although, impense, wer?/. 
667. Canthara, an old family nurse. 

Act IV, scene 2 

675. Tu ne, yes, you. 

579. This is a homely proverb: 
Lions* whelps smell very different from 
those of pigs. 

580. Ne, afl&rmative. 

581. Quod . . . , interrogative, 
what slave bv^ness . . . f — ^i.e., am I 

(unwittingly) becoming a slave dealer? 
alienas, strange women. 

684. fuat, equivalent to sit. 

585. matris filia, my mother's 
daughter, myself. 

686. Non, with aequum 'st, 

590. Non, with *st (est). 

591. didici, from disco. 

692. plaustnim perculit, a homely 
proverb, he ha^ upset the cart. English 
might say: he has upset the apple cart 
(or spilled the beans). 

599. Quid . . . esset, even if your 
servant had disagreed with you — i.e., 
as to the girl's identity, nosse, 
recognize her. 

604. Circam, an obscure allusion to 
Circe — perhaps because, like Topsy, 
she did not know her father and 

605. relictis rebus, relictis ceteris 
negotiis. operam dabo, devote myself 

606. faciam hunc diem ut fiat, 
faciam ut hie dies fiat. 

Act V, scene 1 

607. male morigerus, very disobUg- 

609. caperrat, is wrinkled. 

614. Quid agis, how are youf com- 
moditas, convenience, benefit — i.e., my 
helper. Quod miser, [ago] quod miser 
[agit], i.e., I'm feeling very badly. 

615. mi adomas viaticimi, provide 
me with traveling money. 

616. defloccati, fleeced. This is a 
remarkable identity of ancient and 
modem colloquialisms. 

617. copulas, lora (1. 612). 

618. in mundo sita (idiom), in 

619. illi, they (Periphanes and 

620. gravastellus, gray-heard. 
624. consimilis . . . (colloquial), 

isn't she like as when? 
624. signum, picture. 


Notes: Plautus (Epidicus) 

625. ex tuis verbis, judging from 
what you say. corium, hide. 

626. Apella, Zeuxis, the two most 
famous Greek painters. But the 
reference here is to Periphanes and 
Apoecides, who are artists with the 
elm switch. 

627. Sici-TLfSic-ne. iussi, supply w^ 

628. qui . . . , qui [fuisse], he who 
is said to have had feet of lead (identity 

630. id quod, as much as. 

632. Per-numeratum, i.e., he has 
the exact amount ready, in-de, im- 
perative of in-do. Sapienter, wisely 

634. Sati*n, a mere interrogative 
particle, oculis utilitatem obtineo, 
do I have the use of my eyes? 

636. satam, begotten. 

638. Quod, so far as. English 
would add a negative, either: not so 
far as, or: so far as . . . no. 

640. These are diminutives of 
luna, anus {ring), aureus, and digitus 
— although anellus (finger ring) had 
lost its diminutive connotation. 

642. ut fiat, how could he be? She 
knows that she is her mother's only 

643. liquido, serene. 

647. Siquid . . . , should any coin be 
suspected of being counterfeit or 
clipped — more usual in ancient times 
than now. 

648. aeque, equally well as I. 

649. suum, her kin (brother). 
651. tu-te, tu. 

653. quod ames, a girl to love. 
fidicina, Acropolistis. She can now 
be Stratippocles' sweetheart, as Epidi- 
cus had originally planned before 
Stratippocles fell in love with the 
captive maiden. 

655. huic, Telestis. aquam, for the 

657. Thesprio, see Act I, scene 1. 

659. suppetias, aMxiZiwrn. cumso- 
rore, you with (i.e., and) your sister. | 

660. istic per hortum, by the 

garden gate — a back way. 

661. dudum, before. 

663. eadem, at the same time. 

664. certum *st [mihi], I am re- 
solved, neque haud, single negative. 

665. pedibus provocatum, chal- 
lenged to a race — by running away ! 

Act V, scene 2 

666. Sati'n, a mere interrogative 
particle, illic homo, Epidicus. 

667. habes, keep. 

670. misero [mihi] in genua, into 
my poor knees, flemina, swellings. 

671. exemplis, modis. 

673. apage (Greek), away with! 

674. aestu . . . , Ae scorches you. 

675. Duodecim dis, ablative of 
comparison. The phrase is humor- 
ously exaggerated: lit., more than 
there is (or are) of immortal gods by 
twelve gods — i.e., a total of twenty-four. 
This is double the usual number. 

677. Quicquid, however much. 

678. Apolactizo (slang), borrowed 
from the Greek, kick off. 

679. Dum, provided. 

680. hunc, Apoecides. 

683. There is a line missing in the 
manuscripts between 11. 681 and 683. 

684. conliga, supply me. 

685. Ilicet (from ire -{-licet), it's all 
over, I give up. vadimonium facit, he 
gives bail. As a matter of fact Epidi- 
cus does even more — he surrenders 

686. mancipium, servus. 

687. nil moror, with an infinitive, / 
don't care to have you do so and so. 

688. agis, colloquial use of the 
present for the future, arbitratu, 
ujish (noun). 

689. haec, supply manus. 

690. tragulam, javelin, metaphor- 
ical here, adomat, praeparat. 

693. mos geratur, lit., let him be 

694. Cede, ce-do. Morantur, the 

Notes: Ennius (Annales) 


subject is they (i.e., my hands), arte, 

695. Obnoxiose, timidly^ not hard 
enough, facto, done, finished, arbi- 
tramino, imperative. 

696. bene habet, honum est. 
697-698. quae . . . , dicere [earn], 

quae empta 'st (Acropolistis) meam 
filiam esse. 

699. da pignus, make me a het, 
what will you bet me? filia, Epidicus 
means a daughter; Periphanes under- 
stands your daughter. It is impos- 
sible to reproduce the catch in Eng- 

700. "mater," Philippa— her al- 
leged mother, matris filia, her moth- 
er's daughter. 

701. Epidicus' ridicule of Peri- 
phanes is heightened by his offer not 
to give, but to accept, odds — i.e., 
doughnuts to dollars (not dollars to 
doughnuts) . 

702. arnica, Acropolistis. 

705. is, iis, with minis, tetigi 
(from tango), slang. 

706. Quomodo, just as? ludos 
facere (idiom), Ivdificari. fidicina, 
the (unnamed) music girl — who was 
palmed off on Periphanes by Epidi- 
cus and unmasked by the Rhodian 
soldier in scene 4 of Act III. 

708. postremo, adverb, argento, 
with the money. 

709. maligno, stingy. 

710. malum, a swearword. 
712. vise, go and see. 
714. temere, adverb. 

716. cuius . . . , cuius opera hodie 
haec filia. 

718. ut, how. mall, ill treatment. 

719. Quam-ne, the one whom? 

720. reperire, quaerere, EngHsh 
would use a participle here. 

721. htiyforhim (Epidicus). 

721-722. me . . . facere, lit., / ap- 
preciate that he has deserved of me that 
I may he allowed (liceat) to treat him, 
(facere) in accordance with his deserts. 

722. ut, let me. 

724. supplicitmi, satisfactiony am- 

727. quod pappet (slang), some pap 
to eat. 

728. orassis, oraveris, beg my per- 

732. Grex, the whole theatrical 
company — as it steps to the front of 
the stage and pronounces the epiloque. 

733. lumbos porgite, stretch your 



He smashed his brains with a stoncy 
or (to preserve the pseudo-tmesis) : he 
knocked the stuf- with a stone -fing out 
of him. 

in suam do-mum. 


O Tite Tati tyranne, O King Titus 
Tatius. tu-te, tu. tanta, neuter plu- 
ral, object of the verb. 

In the second line the subject is 
machina minax maxima; the object 
is multay neuter plural. 

[b] is . . . , is dictus est ab illis 
civibus olim. delibatus, culled, choic- 
est, suadae medulla, lit., of persua- 
sion the marrow (i.e., pith or essence). 


[a] The strength of Rome lies in her 
laws and in her men. 

[b] re, property, wealth. 

[c] noenum, non. post-que magis- 
que, a strained but forceful expression, 
viri, Fabius. 


Notes : Cato (De Agri Cultura) 


1. dederitis, perfect subjunctive of 
darCf expresses prohibition. 

2. cauponantes, haggling oveVf traf- 
ficking in. 

3. vitam cemamus, decide the issue 
of life or death. 

4. [h]era Fors, Dame Fortuney the 
subject of both velit and ferat — i.e., 
virtute experiamur, utrum vos an me 
regnare Fors velit, quid-ve Fors ferat. 

6-7. Lit., to spare the liberty of (i.e., 
to grant liberty gratis to) those whose 
valor the fortune of war has spared. 

7. certum *st [mihi], I am resolved. 

8. Done, verb, ducite, take them. 

f axit, equivalent to faciat. virum, 


Chapter I: On Buying a Farm 

1. parare, get, acquire — a, colloquial 
meaning which occurs in all periods of 
Latin literature, uti ne, ut ne. In 
Ciceronian Latin the ut would be 

1-3. Praedium . . . circumire, when 
you consider acquiring an estate, bear 
in mind not to buy too eagerly, not to 
spare pains in inspecting it, not to be 
satisfied with going over it only once. 

2. opera, accusative plural of opus, 
direct object of par cere. In Ciceron- 
ian Latin parcere takes the dative. 
visere (from viso), complementary in- 

4. quod, that which, pacto, modo. 
niteant, lit., be sleek — i.e., prosper. 

6. Et uti . , . , exhortation or ad- 
vice, expressed by an independent ut- 
clause with the subjunctive. 

5-6. eo . . . uti, to such an extent 
(or in such a way) . . . that (result). 

£t • . . possis, see to it that you go 
in and look about you in such a way 
that you can get out — i.e., don't com- 
mit yourself to a bargain until you 
are sure. 

7. siet, sit. solo (from solum), 

7-8. Uti . . . valeat, let it have good 
climate, not be subject to storms, and 
have the advantage of naturally good 

8. sua virtute, inherently, naturally. 

10. aquarium, watering place (for 
cattle), validum, thriving. 

11. qui, where. Celebris, fre- 

12-13. Siet . . . vendidisse, let it be 
in the neighborhood of farms that do 
not often change hands. Let those 
who sell estates thereabouts be reluctant 
to sell. 

14. alienam disciplinam, another's 

15. colono, husbandman. 

17-18. Ad . . . esse, when you come 
to the buildings, see whether the presses 
and storage jars are many; where they 
are not, know that the produce will be 
correspondingly small. 

19. Instrument! . . . bono siet, lit., 
that it may not be a farm of large 
equipment, let it be in a good location — 
i.e., a good situation will compensate 
for meager equipment. 

19-22. Videto . . . multum, see to it, 
that it be not a farm of meager equip- 
ment and expensive to operate. Know 
that a farm is the same as a man; 
though it be a good earner, if it is a 
heavy spender, there will not be much 

23-24. Praedium . . . centum, if 
you ask me what kind of farm ranks 
first, I shall say: one of varied character 
and excellent location, one hundred 
iugera (about sixty-five acres) in ex- 
tent, de omnibus agris, composed of 
all kinds of lands. Cato advises 
against single-crop farming. 

Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 


24-28. Vinea . . . silva, the vineyard 
ranks firstf if the quality or quantity 
of the wine is good; in second place 
amies a well-watered truck garden; 
third f a willow plantation; fourth, an 
olive grove; fifth, a meadow; sixth, corn-- 
fields (i.e., grainfields) ; seventh, timber' 
land; eighth, an orchard; ninth, an 
acorn forest (for hogs). 



Date of the Play and Details of Its 
Accurate records of the perform- 
ance of plays in this **classic" period of 
the drama were later compiled by Ro- 
man scholars, of whom the chief was 
M. Terentius Varro, a contemporary 
of Cicero's. A so-called didascalia (a 
technical term borrowed from the 
Greek) was prefixed to each of the 
plays. These didascalia^ were writ- 
ten in archaic style, somewhat after 

the fashion of a "playbill" of Ter- 
ence's own time. Fortunately the 
didascaliae of Terence's plays have 
been preserved in the manuscripts of 
his works. The record of the 
Adelphoe is as follows: 



With Terence, a prologue is a kind 
of author's foreword. It is not part 
of the play proper and was spoken by 
an actor who wore a special costume, 
different from any of those worn in 
the play itself. The prologues of 
Terence are concerned chiefly with the 

^ INCIPIT, here heginneth. 

2 ACTA . . . , performed at the funeral games for Paulus. 

2 FABlus, son of Aemilius Paulus, for whom the funeral games were celebrated; 
but adopted by the famous Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator, a hero of the Second 
Punic War. 

^ CORNELIUS, son of the same Aemilius Paulus and adopted grandson of the 
famous P. ComeUus Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal at the close of 
the Second Punic War. The Cornelius mentioned here in the didascalia — 
namely, P. ComeHus Scipio Africanus Minor — -w&s the patron of Terence 
and other authors who formed the Scipionic Circle. At the time of their 
father's death, both sons were curule aediles and thus in a position to pay 
notable public tribute to their father's memory. 

^ EGERE [fahulam], presented the play — i.e., they were the actor-managers, 
but not simultaneously: L. Ambivius Turpio was the manager of the original 
performance; L. Hatilius Praenestinus and his company presented the play at 
some subsequent date. The actor-manager owned a troupe of players and con- 
tracted with the aediles for a performance. 

* MODOS . . . , Flaccus, slave of Claudius, composed the music on Sarranian 
(Tyrian) pipes. 

^ TOTA, throughout — ^i.e., in the whole play. 

* VI, sixth (and last) of Terence's plays. 

* COS., consulibus. The date of their consulship was 160 B.C. 


Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 

literary discussions and feuds of his 
day. Referring to himself in the 
third person, as "the author," Ter- 
ence defends his literary practices 
and ideals. 

Following a general introduction, 
the prologue to the Adelphoe discusses 
two charges — ^first (11. 6-14): con- 
taminatio, or patchwork methods — 
i.e., the piecing together of scenes 
from different plays, or the borrowing 
of a scene from one play and its inser- 
tion into another — , a sort of mild 
plagiarism; second (11. 15-21): the 
charge that Terence did not write his 
own plays (see p. 110 above). Ter- 
ence's answer to each of these hostile 
criticisms is clever and guileless. He 
laughingly says that the scene he 
borrowed from a play by the Greek 
poet Diphilus and inserted into 
Menander's Adelphoe^ was discarded 
— ^i.e., by Plautus — , and that his use 
of it could therefore not be called 
plagiaristic. He merely toys with the 
second charge, saying that if it is 
true that his plays are composed by 
noble Romans and not by himself, he 
is honored and not disgraced! 

1. poeta, Terence, scripturam, col- 
lective noun, his literary work. 

2. observari, scrutinized, criticised. 

3. rapere in peiorem partem, forc- 
ibly misinterpret^ insist on misinter- 
preting, sumus, there is a gap here 
of one or two lines. All we know is 
that the antecedent of quam, some- 
where in the next line, was fahulam — 
i.e., the play that we are now going to 

4. indicio erit, he will give evidence. 

5. laudi-n, laudi-ne, whether praise- 
worthy, duel, to he considered, id 
factum, the following fact. 

7. Com-morientis, Plautus' trans- 
lation of the Greek title, Syn- 
apothnescontes. It might be rendered 
in English as: United in Death, fa- 
bulam, play. 

8. in Graeca [fahula], the Synapo- 
thnescontes. eripit, kidnaps from. 

9. in prima fabula, in the first part 
of the play. 

10. reliquit integrum, left un- 
touched (or unused) — i.e., did not in- 
clude it in his translation of the play. 
Hence Terence wittily implies that it 
was abandoned property and could 
be appropriated by anyone. 

11. expTessvaxif translated, eztulit, 
set forth. 

12. eam [fahulam], the Adelphoe. 
novam, for the first time. 

13. furtum, plagiarism. 

15. Nam quod, now as for what. 

16. hunc, Terence, the object of 

17-18. quod . . . eam, id . . . quod, 
that . . . which. Eam is substituted 
for id because of the proximity of the 
predicate noun, lavdem,. 

18. euro., since, placet, the subject 
is he (Terence), illis, the great 
nobles who were supposed to be help- 
ing Terence. According to one tradi- 
tion they were: Scipio Africanus, 
Laelius, and Philus; but this is im- 
possible, for these men — though 
patrons of literature — were not yet 
civil and military leaders (11. 19—21). 

20. opera, help, generosity. 

21. superbia, without stint (on the 
part of the nobles). 

22. dehinc, here — i.e., in the fol- 
lowing lines of the prologue. 

23. aperient, tell. 

24. facite, fadte [ut]. aequanimi- 
tas, good will, favor. There is a gap 
here in the manuscripts, probably of 
only one line, as 11. 24 and 25 may 
easily be run together as follows: [ut] 
aequanimitas [vestra] augeat poetae 
indv^triam ad scrihendum. 

Scene 1 
1. Storax, a slave — probably an 
adversitor, or gentleman's escort. 
This particular adversitor was one — 

Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 


perhaps the oldest and most respons- 
ible — of those who had accompanied 
Micio's son to the dinner party the 
night before. To avoid public scan- 
f dal, Micio calls the name of the slave, 
rather than that of Aeschinus. cena, 

2. ne, for fear lest, alserit (from 
algesco), take a chill, catch cold. 

[3]. See note on 1. 1 of Plautus' 
Miles, p. 253. ceciderit, from coda. 
OS, o hone. 

4. *st, see note on I. 17 of Plautus' 
Miles, p. 253. 

6. Dissimili, i.e., from me. is, 
frater mens, studio, ingenio, moribus. 
'st iam inde, has ever been. 

7. isti, people. 

8. nie . . . , [fecit] omnia contra haec. 

9-10. agere, habere, narrative in- 
finitives; egit, habuit. These infini- 
tives do not differ in connotation from 
duxit and the other perfect indicatives 
that follow. 

13. item me habeat, regard me in 
the same way — i.e., return my affection. 
contra, adverb; on the other hand, in 
return, facio, strive. 

14. praetermitto, overlook faults. 

15. clan-culum, clam, preposition, 
governs patres: behind their fathers' 

15-17. postremo, consuefed filium, 
ne me celet ea, qvxie alii adulescentes 
clanculum patres faciunt. 

16. quae (neuter plural accusative) 
fert adulescentia (nominative singu- 
lar), which things youth produces (or 
engenders) — i.e., all sorts of esca- 

19. satius, better. 

22. adulescentem, Aeschinus. no- 
bis, nostrum,. 

23. svmiptum suggeris, lit., supply 
the cost — i.e., pay the bills. 

25. praeter aequtmi, beyond what is 

29. T^atrivan, fatherly — i.e., a father's 

30. alieno metu, fear of another. 

31. hit., in this a father and a master 
is different, nequit, supply facere. 

34. nescioquid, somewhat. 

35. iurgabit, he will scold, adveni- 
re, in town. The entire phrase is a 
merely conventional greeting how- 

36. gaudemus, gaudeo. In Latin 
the first person plural is constantly 
used for the first person singular, even 
when it is neither editorial nor regal, 
quaerito, the present indicative active 
of quaeriiare (not the longer impera- 
tive form of guaero). 

37. ubi, when, since. 

38. siet (sit) nobis, we have on our 
hands. Dixi-n, dixi-ne. 

41. tenere se, binds him. 

42. modo, just now (see p. 31). 
designavit, perpetrated. 

44. familiam, servants, household. 

45. mulcavit, punished, cudgeled. 
47-48. quot homines hoc dixerwni 

mihi advenienti. 

48. in ore *st . . . , it is the talk of the 

50. rei dare operam, pay attention 
to business. 

51. huius, on his (Ctesipho's) part. 
53. imperito, i^noranf . iniustiu*st, 

iniustius est. 

55. Quorsum, lit., whither? — i.e., 
what are you driving at? 

57. scortari, to wench. 

59. siit (from sino), sivit. egestas, 
inopia (1. 60), poverty. 

60. laudi, dative of the noun, equiv- 
alent to laudahile. 

61. esset, supply nobis — i.e., if 
we had the whereunthal. 

62. tuum, supply filium. 

66. ausculta, listen. obtimdas, 

69. illi, therein, maximam . . . , 
take the chief blame. 

70. obsonat, lives high, is an epi- 
cure, de meo, supply est — i.e., it 
comes out of my purse. 


Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 

72. excludetiir, i.e., by his sweet- 

73. di-scidit, has torn. 

74. re-sarcietur, patchy mendy 

75. est unde, supply mihi — i.e., / 
have the wherevnthal. molesta, burd- 
ensome — i.e., beyond my means. 

77. consiliis, by virtue of wise 

78. Tu-ii[e], supply fads, pergis, 

80. Curae (dative) est mihi, lit., he 
is for a care to me — i.e., I care for him. 

83. dedisti, supply adoptandum. 

84. quid istitc, colloquial idiom, ex- 
presses exasperation and reluctant 
assent — e.g., oh very well! istuc, see 
note on 1. 16 of Plautus' MileSj p. 253. 

86. npn nil, very, molesta, an- 
noying, disturbing. 

86-87. nolui illi ostenderey me aegre 
pati {that I am worried). 

89. Quam, what girlf omnium, 
neuter plural, the whole business. 
He has sown enough wild oats and is 
now ready to settle down. 

90. taedebat [eum], impersonal, he 
was tired of. 

92. Nisi (colloquial), anyhow. 

93. hominem, him (Aeschinus). 

Scene 2 

95. in-opi, helpless, ilico, on the 

97. istam, her; supply tenebo, abdv/- 
cam, or some such verb. 

98. 'st, the subject is he (Sannio). 
committet, risk, vapulare, be beaten. 
This is active in form and passive in 

101. solves, pay (or atone) for. 
quod, that which. 

102. Abi prae (adverb) strenue, 
proceed boldly, hoc, what I say. nili 
facis, make light of, care nothing for. 
Nili is the genitive of value. 

106. in-nuo, nod at. pugnus, fist. 
mala, his jaw. 

108. geminabit, double — i.e., repeat 

the blow. 

109. peccato, imperative, err. 

111. omatus, decorated, treated. 

112. Nostin, novisti-ne. 

113. tui, genitive of tuum, of yours. 

114. Qui, how, meam, supply 
slave girl. 

115. abripiere, you shall be haled. 

116. operiere, you shall be covered. 
lonmi, lash, liber, a free man, 

117. Hic-i-ne, htc-ci-ne, so here, 
sarcastic. (See note on 1. 38 of 
Plautus' Miles, p. 254.) 

118. debacchatus, vented your 

121. modd, dummodo, supply dicas. 

122. minis (from mina). Latinized 
form of the Greek mna, an Attic coin; 
call it: pieces of silver. 

123. dabitur, supply tibi — i.e., VU 
pay you the same for her. 

124. vendendam, supply illam esse 
— i.e., that she is salable. 

125. liberal! causa, in a lawsuii for 
freedom, illam adsero manu, / am 
going to claim her, 

126. meditari . . . , work up your 
case — merely a picturesque way of 
saying: go to law. 

128. ipsum, Sannio. faxo, see note 
on 1. 224 of Plautus' Miles, p. 257. 

129. bene, with actum, well treated. 

130. nescioquid concertasse, had a 
little tiff. 

133. amica, sweetheart. 

135. dicam, / could say. quin, but 
that. This is correlative with ita — 
i.e., quin virtus tua superet id. 

136. rem, advantage. 

137. homini nemini esse, no man 
has, principem, master of. This 
voices rather vague (but enthusiastic) 

138. Ellum, em ilium, ecce ilium 
(or eccillum), 

139. Festivum caput, a splendid 

140. omnia sibi, all his own affairs. 

Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 


post (adverb) . . . prae (preposition), 
o/ minor importance . . . compared unth. 

142. pote, potis, supply est esse. 

146. illam, tristitiem (or tristitiam). 

148. adsentandi, genitive of pur- 
pose, adsentandi causa, quo, because. 
gratum, supply <e, dear. 

149. inepte, vocative. norimus, 

150. nos, I. rescisse, i.e., about 
your love afifair. rem, affair. 

150-151. in eum locum redisse, 
reached the point. 

152. pudebat, embarrassedj too shy 
(not ashamed in the moral sense). 
parvulam rem, his reticence (or shy- 

153. e patria, supply an exclama- 
tory infinitive — e:g., exire. Desper- 
ate lovers always went away to a dis- 
tant country, istaec, neuter plural. 

154. illam, Bacchis. 

155. At, supply oro or o6secro. red- 
dat, pay, the subject is Aeschinus. 
modd, just. 

158. aliqui, in some way, somehow. 
permanet, from permano, -are. 

159. 's, cs, imperative. 

160. lectulos, dinner coux^hes. 

161. re, the business — i.e., the 
financial dealings with Sannio. ob- 
sonium, provisions for the feast. 

162. hoc, things so far. 

Scene 3 

164. Supply anyone as antecedent 
of quam and qui. 

167. Nunc illud est cum, now is the 
time when. 

168. malo J trouble, salutem, a rem- 
edy, adferant, could bring. 

169. circumvallant se, range them- 
selves around, emergi, impersonal 
passive, one cannot emerge. 

173. animam, breath. 

174. actmn *st (slang), it's all up. 
177. id occulte fert, keeps it dark. 

eripuit, supply her. 

179. credas, indefinite second per- 
son, you or one. nostnun-ne, ne 
introduces exclamations as well as 
questions. Aeschinum, accusative of 

180. vitam, support, livelihood, om- 
nium, of us all. 

181. hac, her (Pamphila). victu- 
rum, from vivo. 

182. in sui patris gremio. Se is 
Aeschinus and patris is Micio, "fath- 
er" of Aeschinus. puenmi, his child 
by Pamphila — whose birth was ex- 
pected any minute. 

183. Ita, thus — i.e., with (or by 
means of) the child, obsecraturum, 
supply esse. 

185. sanu'n, sanus-ne. 

186. An, really. 

187. alieno animo esse, alienari. 

188. infitias ibit, will enter denial. 

189. si maxime, even if. 

190. banc, Pamphila. 

191. quoquo pacto, quoquo modo, 
by all means. 

193. potis est, potest. 

194. CedOf I yield, ut^ since, quan- 
timi potest, qvxim celerrime. 

195. eius, her (Pamphila 's). 

196. Simulus, Sostrata's husband, 
summus, best friend. 

Scene 4 
199. disperii, this has the same 
colloquial meaning as perii. 

201. ganeum, brothel, dive. 

202. ille, Aeschinus. 

203. siet, the subject is Ctesipho. 

204. grege, gang. 

205. Carnifex, scoundrel (Syrus). 

206. seni, my old man, my boss 

207. haberet, esset. 

208. nil quicquam, neminem quem- 

211. argentum, i.e., to pay Sannio 
for Bacchis. 

212. in simipt\mi, for {incidental) 


Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 

213. ex sententia, supply med or 

214. Hiiic, to him (Synis). This 
remark is addressed to the world in 

216. rationem, idea^ system^ way of 

217. ne dicam dole, ut dicam vere. 

218. purga, clean. 

219. congnim, eel (a live one at 

223. f ac . . , fSee that these anchovies 
he well soaked. 

224. The first direct question is 
introduced by utrum . . . -ne, the 
second by an. studio, intentionally, 
purposely, id, that policy, sibi ha- 
bet, holds, entertains, follows, laudi, 
see note on 1. 60. 

228. psaltria, music (or chorus) 
girl (Bacchis). 

229. Ellam, em illam. habiturus, 
the subject is Aeschinus, whom De- 
mea of course believes to be Bacchis' 

230. Haecin, this is the same as 
Haecine (1. 221). 

233. per-nimium, per- is a super- 
lative prefix. 

234. quantus quantu*s, quantus- 
currujue es, howsoever much you are. 
This is a sly dig. 

235. somnium, fool, tuum, sup- 
ply jilium. 

237. olfecissem, the proverbial 
English phrase for this is smell a rat. 

238. siet, subjunctive of wish, the 
subject is Ctesipho. 

241. hvmc, Demea. 

242. Sati'n, satis-ne, need not be 
translated. This is used merely as an 
interrogative particle. Oh qui, the 
English idiom would be: What! When 
I . . . ? produxi, saw him off. 

243. iratum, the continuation of 
his previous remark — i.e., Ctesiphonem 
iratum produxi. admodum, adverb, 
quite, very. 

244. Quid, why? 

245. Ai*n, ais-ne. 

246. numerabatur, i.e., as Aes- 
chinus and Syrus were paying Sannio 
for Bacchis. 

247. homo, Ctesipho. 

248. admittere, committers. 
251. suum, siwrum. 

253. unde, a qiw, from whom; the 
antecedent aliquem is to be supplied 
as the object of habuit. Fit, lit., it is 
done — i.e., / do it. 

261. ei, they (the fish), cautio *st, 
is my worry. 

262-263. nobis [servis] tam flagi- 
tium est id (this) non facere, quam 
vobis [dominis] flagitium est ilia (those 
things) non facere, qvne modo dixisti. 

263. quod, so far as. 

265. too salty; burned; not washed 

268. patinas, pans. This is a 
parody of 1. 255. 

269. facto usus sit, facere opus sit. 

270. nos quae, quae nos. 

271. morem geras, humor him. 

272. dari, supply volo (in answer to 
the preceding vis). 

275. is, Ctesipho. quam ob rem, 
propter quern. 

277. istoc, Aeschinus. 

279. tribulis, clansman. 

281. Ne, an affirmative particle, 
illius modi, equivalent to talium, with 

283. opperiar, await. 

285. illan, illa-ne. The suffix de- 
notes exclamation. 

288. alieno, outsider, stranger, nili 
pendit, doesn't care, equivalent to nili 
facit (see note on 1. 102). 

289. hie, refers to pater eius (Micio) . 

290. facient, the subject is they 
(Micio and Aeschinus) . quae, neuter 
plural, what, illos, supply facere. 
sic auferent, get away with it. 

293. ille senex, Simulus, the de- 
ceased husband of Sostrata (see 1. 

Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 


296. Salvere . . . , a conventional 

300. officium, the direct object of 
functus. In Ciceronian Latin, fungor 
takes the ablative. 

301. noras, noveras. 

301-302. amicum aequalem, friend 
and contemporary. 

303. vitiavit, the subject is Aeschin- 

305. ferendum, bearable, endurable, 

307. scit, the subject is Aeschinus. 

309. se ducturum domum, that he 
toiU marry. 

310. mensis decimus, it is nine 
months since. 

311. ille bonus vir, Aeschinus. 
nobis, noster. 

312. paravit,^o«. illam, Pamphila. 

314. in medio, at hand. 

315. captus, noun, the general run. 

319. illaec, she. fidem, help, pro- 

320. voluntate, of your own free 
vrill — ^i.e., not under compulsion of 
the law. impetret, let her obtain. 

323. non me in-dicente, negative 
prefix -in, not without my saying so — 
i.e., / told you so. 

324. defimctimi, all were over, this 
were the end of it. 

326. evomam (colloquial) , this need 
not be translated Uterally. 

327. quod, so far as. 

328. consolere, consoleris, same 
construction as sis (1. 326). 

330. Si est, ut is f acturus sit, if it so 
be that he ... . 

332. respondeat, i.e., now, as soon 
as he meets him. 

Scene 5 

333. Die sodes, do tell! sodes 
(from si odes), please. Odes is the 
vulgar Latin pronunciation of audes, 

y which here has its original meaning of 
C. wish (not dare). Ci. the other word 

for please — namely, si's (from si vis), if 
you wish (or will). Avdeo is derived 
from avid-eo — i.e., from the familiar 
root seen in the English avid and the 
Latin avidus and aviditas. 

334. nunc cum maxime, right now. 

335. Quod . . . , provided it be done 
without harming his health. 

337. istoc rectius, more properly 
(or thoroughly) than that. 

338. misere nimis cupio, I'm aw- 
fully anxious. 

344. nequior, supply es. 

346. Hisce . . . , so that you could 
have had business with them. Quae 
non data sit, business which I did not 

349. illius, Demea's. sensum,cAar- 
acter. calleo, understand. 

350. ovem, sheep. 

353. Lupus in fabula, the proverbial 
wolf. The English equivalent is: 
speak of the Devil and he appears. 

355. me, supply vidisti. 

356. Ne, a positive particle. 

357. a villa mercennarium, farm 

360. viso, I'm coming to see. 
363. cellam, room (not cell). 
365. si sic fit, if this keeps up. 
368. discidit, from either di-sdndo 
or dis-cldo. labrum, lip. 

370. produxe, produxisse (see 1. 
242). Supply te as the subject; the 
ob j ect is eum. venit, the sub j ect is he. 

371. Non puduisse, an infinitive of 
exclamation, think of his not being 

372. modd tantillum, only so big. 
manibus, arms. 

373. patrissas, you take after your 
father, abi, exclamatory, go to! 

374. Ne, positive. 

375. cogito, / wonder. 

377. Dimminuetur . . • , i.e., I'll 
knock your brains out. 

378. illius hominis, Micio's sup- 
posed friend — ^whose name Syrus can- 
not remember. 


Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 

379. apud macelliim, hy the meat 
market, hie deorsum, down this way. 

380. Praeterito, imperative, recta 
platea stirsus, straight up the street. 

381. clivus . , , , the down slope is 
ahead of you. 

382. sacellum, shrine, angipor- 
tum, alley, propter, adverb, near hy. 

383. Quodnam, what alley? capri- 
ficus, fig tree. 

385. cense*n . . . , you must think me 
an idiot. 

386. hac multo propius ibis, this 
way is shorter, erratic, chance of 

387. ditis, divitis. 

388. Dianae, supply templum or 

389. portam, city gate. 

390. ^istriHaflittlebakery. fabrica, 

391. lectulos in sole, garden 
benches, ilignis, call it mahogany. 
faciendos dedit, ordered made. 

392. Ubi potetis, where you may 
carouse — i.e., on the new garden 

393. silicemium, lit., funeral feast 
— i.e., old hones, death's heady or some 
such opprobrious epithet. 

394. odiose cessat, is devilish late. 
397. carpam, nibble, cyathos sor- 

bilans, lit., sipping goblets — i.e., lap- 
jying up a few drinks. 

Scene 6 
404. illi, her. 
407. turba, muddle. 

409. adeo, moreover. 

410. exorassem, I could have pre- 
vailed on (or persuaded) him. 

411. illas, Sostrata and Pamphila. 

419. dicere, i.e., about his affair 
with Pamphila. 

420. istas, supply fores pultavi or 
pepuli (in answer to Micio's question, 
1. 417). 

422. Erubuit, the subject is Aes- 
chinus. salva res est, all is well. 

Aeschinus has not yet lost his sense of 

425. advocatum sibi, as his advo- 
cate — i.e., to help or advise him in a 
matter of law. At this period such 
advice was generally amateur, rather 
than professional. 

427. ut, as. te, the subject of 
nosse. et certo scio, in fact I am sure 
— i.e., that you do not know them. 

430. illi, to her. genere, of kin. 

431. leges cogunt hanc nubere huic 
(him) . 

432. avehat, supply her. 

434. male *st, supply mihi — ^i.e., / 
feel faint. 

435. ipsae, supply faciunt. illas, 
supply facere. 

436. Commenta est (from com,- 
miniscor), faked up a story. 

437. eum, refers to viro (not to 

438. ilium, the other lover (Aes- 
chinus) . huic, the supposed kinsman . 
dari, supply earn as the subject. 

439. haec, she (Sostrata). 

440. abducet, the subject is the 

444-445. Quid animi, what feelings, 
what state of mind, illi misero, 

445. ilia consuevit, had the affair 
with her. 

448. quo magis, therefore. 

449. tui, in your sight. 

453. id, supply est or erat. 

454. ce-do, tell me. 

456. te, supply esse, socordem 
(se-cordem), thoughtless. 

460. arcessas, the first step in the 
wedding ceremony, preceding the 

462. oderint, a wish. 

463. quam (than) amas illam (Pam- 
philam). aeque, i.e., not more, but 
just as much. 

466. quo, inasmuch as. 

Notes: Terence (Adelphoe) 


469. qui, how? morem gereret, 

could he he indulgent (or kind) . 

470. gestandus in sinu, a poetic 
phrase, cherished. 

471-472. These words mark the 
triumphant success of Micio's policy 
(see 11. 13-19). 

Scene 7 
474. ut, utinam. 

479. certum est, / am resolved. 

480. illis, Sostrata and Pamphila. 
484. qui, qualis. 

489. Salus, the goddess of Salva- 

491. Syr-isce, Syrush oV hoy. The 
suflBx -iscus is Grfeek. 

494. si's, if you -please. 

497. sapientia, vocative, Syrus' 
favorite nickname for Demea. 

498. Dis, dives. 

499. Tem.j fortune. 

505. parasit-aster, hanger-on (cf. 
poet-aster) . 

507. mastigia, verhero (see note on 
1. 407 of Plautus' Miles, p. 260). 

508. cerebrum dispergam, see note 
on 1. 377. Abit, abiit 

509. comissator, reveler, guest. 
512. villi, diminutive of vinum. 

518. lites (from lis), a row. suc- 
currendum *st, supply mihi (by me). 

519. nostrum liberum, genitive 

530. Scilicet . . . , / suppose the 
occasion requires it. 
532. censeo, / suggest. 

535. favillae, ashes, pollinis (from 
pollen), meal, flour. 

536. molendo, grinding — i.e., faxo 
(I'll see to it) sit plena favillae . . . 
coquendo et molendo. 

537. stipulam colligat, glean. 

538. excoctam, sunburned. Sim- 
burn was never regarded as a mark of 
beauty until the advent of the 
twentieth-century athletic giri. 

538. carbo, coal. 

539. cui rei est, lit., for which thing 

(or purpose) it exists — i.e., the day is 
meant for joy and merriment. 

Scene 8 

540. ita bene-subducta-ratione, so 

well-balanced (metaphor taken from 
the balancing of account books) — i.e., 
sure of himself. 

540. ad, toward. 

541. novi, a partitive genitive with 

545. spatio, my span of life. 
549. laedere os, narrative infini- 
tive, he affronted (see note on 1. 9). 

552. ibi, there — i.e., in matrimony. 

553. cura, in apposition with filii. 

554. facerem, i.e., money, in quae- 
rendo, in the pursuit of gain. 

555. fructi, a second declension 
form, partitive genitive, pro, in re- 
turn for. 

556. patria, adjective, agrees with 
the noun commoda. 

557. illi, to him. 

562. possiem, possim. 

563. hoc provocat, he challenges me 
to this. 

564. magni fieri, lit., to be made of 
great value, postulo, expect. 

565. posteriores, supply partes, 
stage metaphor, second part (or fiddle). 

566. deerit, financial term, there 
will be a deficit, natu maximus, i.e., 
he is an old man and has not much 
longer to live. 

568. Quis homo, who is it? 

572. faxim, perfect subjunctive, 
equivalent to faciam, I would do. 

574. hue, next door, quam mox, 
how soon? 

576. vocare, vocaris. 

578. spectatus satis, i.e., excellent. 

579. tibi, supply dominum curae 

580. usus, opportunity. 

582. procedit, impersonal. 

583. primulum, primum. facie 
meam, i.e., win the favor of. 

288 Notes: Terence (Heautontimorumenos) 

688. hos-ce, meos. 

590. tihicmsijfiute player, qui can- 
tent, those who are to sing — i.e., the 
chorus (or choir). 

591. vi'n, vis-ne. 

593. maceriam, wall. 

594. hac, that way — i.e., by the 
short cut. 

596. Euge, hravo. 

597. turbam, moh. adducet, the 
subject is frater (Micio). 

600. illas, Pamphila, Sostrata, and 
the whole crowd. 

601-602. cum video te velle. 

602. ex animo factum velle, wish 
it done to suit. 

609. imam, i.e., with ours. 

615. operam dare, urge. 

616. ineptis, verb, you're absurd. 

618. sine, allow me. 

619. aufer, supply manum. da 
veniam, grant it as a favor. 

621. estis auctores, suadetis. 

622. largitor (from largior)^ im- 

623. quid si quid mains, what ij 
something greater^ 

625. prolixe, generously — ^i.e., he 

628. hoc cimi confit, cum hoc confit, 
since this comes to pass. 

629. Quid, supply est. 

631. agelli, diminutive of ager. 
locitare foras, rent out. 

632. qui, ablative, quo. fruatur, 
have the income of, live on. 

633. huic, Pamphila. 

635. Frugi, indeclinable adjective, 

636. esse aequum, Syrum fieri li- 

638. istos, supply fllios. 

641. prodesse aequum *st, it is 
right that this benefit him (or stand him 
in good stead), meliores, the better 
for it. 

642. hie, Aeschinus. 

647. huius filio, the newborn child 
of Aeschinus. 

648. mammam, the breast (as a wet 

650. quanti *st, as much as she is 
worth — i.e., Demea says to Micio: 
I will stand the financial loss. 

653. prae manu, cash in hand. 

654. unde {de quo) utatur, from 
which he may have the income, which 
he may use as a loan (or borrow). 
Istoc vilius, Ut., the cheaper for that. 
Micio sarcastically thanks Demea for 
promising speedy repayment of the 

658. prolubiimi, whim. 

659. quod, because, that. 

662. invisa, hateful. 

663. iusta iniusta omnia, cognate 
accusatives with ohsequor — i.e., he- 
cause I do not indulge you in all things, 
just and unjust alike. 

664. missa facio, / wash my hands 
of the whole business. 

665. quae, the antecedent is haec 
(1. 667). 

666. videtis, understand. The 
verbs cupitis and consulitis are 
parallel, and might be connected with 
videtis by and. impense, strongly. 

667. me, subject of the infinitives. 
in loco, at the proper time. 

670. habeat, supply her. istac, 


Act I, scene 1 
1-8. Chremes very naturally ap- 
proaches his melancholy and imcom- 
municative neighbor with elaborate 
apologies — hence the long and in- 
volved sentence. 

1. nuper . . . , notitia (acquaintance) 
est admodum (quite) nuper. 

2. This parenthetic line explains 
nuper. inde adeo cum, only from the 
time when (or since). 

3. nee . . . fuit, governed by qu^m- 
quam. The word order is as follows: 

Notes: Terence (Heautontimorumenos) 289 

nee quicquam rei {any dealings) fere 
sane {hardly at all) amplius hoc 
{further than this) fuit. 

5. quod, which fact — i.e., vicinitas. 
in propinqua parte, a close second to. 
The entire line is equivalent to: quod 
ego -prope amicitiam puio. 

7. quod, because, videre, videris. 
praeter, a preposition. 

8. praeter quam, otherwise than. 
res, situation. 

11. eo, than that. 

12. preti maioris, more costly (or 
valuable) J modifies agrum. 

13. servos, supply hahes. proinde 
. . . , \facis\ proinde quasi nullus servus 

14. tu-te, tu. fungere, fungeris. 
At this period of the Latin language 
the object was in the accusative case 
— not in the ablative. 

15. mane, adverb, early. 

16. fundus, /arm. 

17. allquid f erre, bear some burden. 

19. voluptati, equivalent to an ad- 
jective, agreeable. 

20. Chremes puts into the mouth 
of Menedemus a possible excuse for 
his conduct, only to demolish it 
again immediately (11. 21-22). Enim 
[dices], yes — you will say — but. pae- 
nitet [me]y I am dissatisfied with. 
operis, a partitive genitive with 
quantum, fiat, supply a servis. 

21. quod operae tuae, lit., what of 

22. sumas, consumes, illis, servis. 
agas, accomplish. 

23. The word order is as follows: 
est tibi tantum oti ab re tua {your 
business) f 

24. aliena ea, neuter plural, equiv- 
alent to rem aliorum, other people's 

26. Apologetic in tone — i.e., just 
regard all this as a suggestion or a 
qu£ry. Hoc does not refer to 1. 25, 
but to all that Chremes had said from 
11. 1-22. 

27. The questions are equivalent 
to conditions: if it is right, let me do it 
too; if it is not right, let me deter you. 

28. usus, way, habit, ut opus facto 
*st, as you have need of doing, face, 

30. labori, equivalent to an ad- 
jective, painftd (cf. voluptati, 1. 19). 
noUem, lit., / would not wish it 
— i.e., / am sorry. Despite this 
apologetic phrase Chremes, being a 
busybody, nevertheless goes right on 
to ask the most painful question of all: 
WhaVs the trouble? 

31. de te commeniisti, lit., of- 
fended against yourself. 

35. quidem, yes. dixi, in 1. 34. 

36. rastros (plural), mattock. 

37. adpone, lay down. 

38. Sine, verb, leave me alone, let 
me do what Fm doing, vocivum, 
older form of vacuum. 

38-39. The word order is as follows : 
ne quod tempus dem mihi {allow my- 
self) vacuum laboris. 

40. Hui, whistling exclamation, 
hos, supply rastros habes. 

43. habeam necne, whether or not I 

44. hie, at Athens, advena, n£w- 

46. haec, supply erant. 

47. hiunanitus, humanely. 

48. The entire line is an adverbial 
phrase enlarging upon the idea of 
humanitus. animum aegrotimi, love- 
sick state. 

49. tractare [eum], to treat him. 

50. hem, exclamation. 

50-51. The word order is as follows: 
speras, licere tibi haec facere. 

51. v'lYO, vivente (ablative absolute) . 
54. The word order is as follows: 

volo did (it to be said), te esse meum 
{mine — i.e., my son). 

54-55. tantisper . . . dum, only so 
long as. 

56. The word order is as follows: 
quod {what) me dignum sit, facere in te. 


Notes: Terence (Andria) 

57. adeo, moreover. 

58. istuc aetatis, ista aetatej at 
your age. 

60. lem f fortune. 

61. adeo res rediit, it came down to 
this, matters came to a head. 

62. eadem [verba], the object of 

63. aetata et sapientia [m^a], abla- 
tives of cause. 

65. regem, the Great King (of 
Persia), militatum, supine of pur- 

67. Ambo, father and son. illud 
inceptum, i.e., the son's decision to 
join the army. 

68. animi pudentis, conscientious 

69. ei (dative) conscii, his confi- 

72. soccos, s^oes. 

73. alios, supply servos, lectos, 
dinner couches. 

74. quisque, each and all. Each 
with a plural verb is colloquial. 

75. quo, ut (piu-pose). 

76. tot, supply servi. 

IG-ll, mea solius causa, for my 
sake alone. 

78. Sumptus, with tantos, expendi- 

80. pariter, equally (with me), just 
as much as /. uti his, enjoy these 

81. quod, because, ilia aetas, i.e., 

83. Malo, punishment. 

84. usque dum, as long as. colet, 

86. interea usque, just so long, illl 
. . . , lit., / unll offer self-punishment 
to him (as atonement) — i.e., / vrill do 
penance for his sake. 

88. Ita facio prorsus, / suit the 
action to the word, no sooner said than 

90. opere rustico, farm work. 

91. sumptum . . . , earned their keep. 
93. aedis, accusative plural, my 

house, mercede, for rent, quasi ad, 
close to, about. 

96. fiam, make myself. 

98. ubi, when, meus particeps, 
as participant — i.e., to share it toith mc. 

99. Ingenio leni, ablative of de- 

101. tractaret, supply him as the 

103. ilium quanti penderes, how 
much you valued (or cared for) him. 

104. ille est ausus credere tibi [ea], 
quae aequum est [credere] patri. 

106. a me, on my side. 

107. Menedeme, at, ah well. Men- 
edemus. porro recte spero, colloquial 
and epigrammatic, / hope for the best. 

108. propediem, with adfuturum; 
quickly, soon. 

110. Dionysia, the festival of Di- 
onysus — a. village kermis, or carnival. 
This is an excellent opportunity for 
Menedemus to cheer up and recover 
his spirits, apud me sis, be my guest. 

112. idem filius, he too — your son. 

113. Non convenit, qui, it is not 
right that I, who. 

114. Sic-i-ne, sic-ne. 


Act I, scene 1 

2. ad-es, imperative, dum, just. 
paucis [verbis], i.e., / want to speak to 
you briefly. Dictum puta, reckon it 
said — i.e., no need to say it. 

3. haec, the provisions. 

4. hoc, tJian this. 

6. eis, supply artibus. 

8-10. Ego . . . scis, in outline this 
sentence reads as follows: scis, ut 
(how), semper postquam (ever since) te 
emi, a parvulo (from boyhood), tibi 
iusta fverit servitus. 

9. apud me servitus, your service 
to me — i.e., my treatment of you. 

11. servibas, scme6as. liberaliter. 

Notes: Terence (Andria) 


English cannot possibly reproduce all 
the connotations of this word; it may 
be rendered in a general way by nobly, 
or be paraphrased — i.e., with the spirit 
of a freeman. 

12. pretium, reward — i.e., freedom. 

13. Haud mute factum, i.e., / 
would not wish it otherwise. 

15. fuisse, indirect discourse, de- 
pends on habeo graiiam {feel grateful) . 
adversum te, in your sight. 

16. hoc, what follows, commemo- 
ratio, i.e., what Simo said (11. 8-12). 

17. immemori benefici, to one un- 
mindful of kindness. 

22. pacto, modo. 

24. is, his son (Pamphilus). ex 
ephebis, after his twentieth year. In 
Athens young men were called ephebi 
from their eighteenth to twentieth 

27. aetas, i.e., immaturity, ma- 
gister, generic, a master. At one time 
the master might be his father; at 
another, his teacher; etc. 

28. quod, that which. 

29. ut . . . adiungant, namely to 
take up some hobby^ explains quod 
(1. 28). 

30. canes ad venandum, canes ve- 
naticos. ad philosophos, supply 
adiungere animum. 

31. horum, neuter, harum rerum. 

33. Gaudebam, Simo is a typically 
timid father. Non iniuria, iure, ad- 

34. ne quid nimis, the famous 
Greek proverb: meden agan, nothing 
in excess — the principle of the golden 

35. Sic, as follows. omnis, all 
people — i.e., to be affable (or easy- 

36. quibus . . . cumque, tmesis, 
und cum quibuscumque erat, with 
whatsoever companions he was. 

39. invenias, indefinite second per- 
son, one wins, pares (from paro, 
-are), one makes. 

40. hoc tempore, pessimistic, in 
these degenerate times. 

41. parit, begets. Sosia reveals his 
own character by this remark. 

43. hue viciniam, in hanc viciniam. 
46. quid mali, some disaster, 

49. amans, noun. 

50. ita ut, as. 

51. hominum, human beings. 

52. accepit condicionem, she ac- 
cepted their terms, quaestum, ike 
profession (of harlot). 

53. filium, with meum (1. 54). 

55. mecum, supply loquebar. 

56. habet (slang), K.O., he's got it 
in the neck. This was said when a 
gladiator received a bad blow, il- 
lorum, of the lovers (1. 53). 

58. sodes, please (see note on 1. 333 
of the Adelphoe, p. 285). 

61. eho . . , , Simo's second question 
to the slaves, quid, what about? 

61-62. Quid? symbolam dedit, oh 
he gave his contribution (or paid his 
share). His interest did not go be- 
yond the dinner. 

64-65. spectattmi satis putabam, / 
thought him thoroughly tested. 

66. qui, he who. 

67. neque commovetur animus, 
and his character is not influenced. 

68. ipsum, he, the subject of posse. 
modum, control. 

69. Cum, not only. 

70. dicere, laudare, narrative in- 
finitives; dicebant, laudabant. 

72. Hac fama, i.e., Pamphilus'. 

73. gnatam, Philumena. 

74. filio, supply meo. 

75. Placuit [mihi], I agreed, de- 
spondi, supply filium meum. 

77. Fere in diebus paucis, within a 
few days more or less, quibus, an 
idiomatic substitute for postquam. 

79. Beasti, you have made me happy y 
I am glad. 

80. frequens, constantly. 

83. consuetudinis, acquxiintance. 

84. huius, her. 


Notes: Rhetorica Ad Herennium 

85. amasset, supply earn (Chrysis). 
patri, i.e., when I die — a good example 
of egotistic sentimentality. 

86. humanly sympathetic. 

87. officia, kind deeds. Quid mul- 
tis [verbis] moror, cf. 1. 72. 

88. eius, Pamphilus'. 

90. Ecfertur, she (the corpse) is 
brought out. imus, we start (in the 
funeral procession). 

98. Percussit animum, it struck me. 

106. mediam, hy the waist. 

107. te is perditum, go (i.e., try) to 
destroy yourself. Simo assumes that 
she is trying to commit suicide. 

108. consuetum, well-established. 
facile, with cerneres. 

111. nee satis causae [mihi erat] ad 
obiurgandum filium. Diceret, he could 

113. prohibui [eam], quae. 

114. oratio, plea. 

118. comperisse, (saying that) he 
had learned. 

120. negare, negam. 

121. ita . . . ut qui, on the under- 
stanjding . . . that. Qui is here an 
untranslatable particle. 

122. gnatum, Simo knows what 
Sosia is going to say — namely, 

123. cedo, out with it, tell me. 
124-126. Simo gives a sample of 

what Pamphilus might say — viz.: 
You have set an end to my days of 
freedom {by betrothing me). Until 
my wedding day — when I must live in 
accordance vnth someone else's habits — , 
let me live after my own fashion. 

128. amorem, his amour (or 
liaison) . 

129. for the first time this is a 
punishable (animadvertenda) offense on 
his part (ab illo). 

130. operam do, I plan. 

131. deneget, refuse to marry. 

132. Davus, slave of Simo and al- 
lied with Pamphilus. consili, scheme. 

133. consumat, use it up, waste it. 
cum, when. 

134-135. quem . . . facturum, he 
will strive with might and main. 

135. id, for this reason. 

137. Quem . . . sensero, an uncom- 
pleted threat. 

140. con-fore, corirfuturum esse^ 
this is used as the passive of conficio; 
that it will be brought about, that I will 

143. illo, Davus. 



1. studio, study, scholarship. 

2. suppeditare, give, possumus, 
Latin uses we for / much more freely 
than English. 

4. ratione, art. 

6-7. 60 . . . quod, correlative, the 
more . . . because. 

8. Non panmi, not a little, much. 
8-9. copia dicendi, eloquentia. 

11. Graeci scriptores, these are the 
pedants and academic theorists 
against whom his treatise is directed. 

12. reliquimus, omisimus. panun 
multa, too little, not enough. 

13. conquisiverunt, have sought out. 
quae nihil attinebant, unimportant (or 
superfluous) matters. 

17-18. morem geramus, humor, 
comply with. 

20. assiduitate, constant practice. 

Selections From Book IV 

The Three Styles 

2. consumitur, is comprised. 

3. extenuatam, thin, meager — i.e., 
unadorned; equivalent to colloquial. 

7. dignitate, form, style. 

Notes: Rhetorica Ad Herennimn 


[a] Formal style: The Traitor 

3. Quod, what? 

4. In, in the case of. 

5. violassent, assaulted, familias, 
old genitive form. 

6-7. huic facinori, treason. 

7. singularem, special, specified. 

8. in, in the case of. 

9. adfines, implicated in, guilty of. 

10. consilio, sfrofce. imiversis civi- 
bus, universae civitati. 

13. quo pacto, qu^ modo, how, 
18-19. ad exitum pferduxisse, 

brought to a conclusion, consummated. 
20-21. Nequeo . . . rei, i.e., words 

fail me. 

21. neglegentius, with less concern. 
mei, genitive of ego, me — i.e., my help. 

22. animus . . . publicae, patriotism. 

23. edocet, prompts. 

25. spurcissimonun, most foul. 

[h] Medium style: The Revolt of the 

3. cum, not only. 

4. nonmt, noverunt. 

6. propinquitatem, Fregellae was in 

6. quid posset, how powerful was. 

7. deliberassent, decided. 
9. officio, allegiance. 

12. praesto esse, adesse. ullam 
rem, supply praesto esse. 

13-14. Si . . . gererent, i.e., a local 
and comparatively insignificant con- 

15. tamen, even so. instructiores, 
i.e., than they now are. 

16-20. nedum illi conarentur, much 
less would they attempt. 

19. tantulis, such slight. 

21. conati sunt, made the attempt. 
Eo, with minus, isti, the Fregellani, 
also the subject of videbant (1. 22). 

22. illi, the other nations of the 
earth (cf. 1. 17). discessissent, /arec?. 

23. rerum imperiti, the inexper- 
ienced. This is a general observation 
on human nature. 

26. eventis, noun, experience, ra- 
tionibus, advantage. 

28. quemquam, the object of tenu- 

29. temptare, assail. 

30. aliquid, i.e., back of it. 

31. quod dico, i.e., that the Fregel- 
lani were instigated and supported by 
traitors at Rome — men like Catiline 
(who Uved a generation later). 

[c] Colloquial style: The Bathhouse 

1. ut, when, balneas, hath, bath- 
house, perfusus est, took a cold 

2. defricari, to rub down, alveus, 

3. iste, the brawler, de trans- 
verso, unexpectedly — i.e., unjustifi- 

4. pueri, slaves, pulsanmt, pvl- 
saverunt, jostled. 

5-6. qui . . . , relative clause of 

6. id aetatis, at his tender age. 
ignoto, a stranger. 

7. sine, verb. 

8. clamare, narrative infinitive, 
clamavit. vel, even, rabulae, dative, 
noisy pettifogger. Except for the sex, 
fishwife might be an equivalent. 

9. rubores elicere, elicit a blush, 
bring shame. 

10. etiam nunc, still. He was only 
a lad, who had never heard anything 
worse than the scoldings {lites, from 
lis) of his caretaker (paedagogus, a 
servant in charge of the children). 

11. imperito, agrees with cui (1. 10), 
inexperienced of (with genitive) — ^i.e., 
unaccustomed to. 

12. Ubi, where? scurram, a blcu^h- 
guard (cf. scurrilous), exhausto ru- 
bore, descriptive of scurram, who has 
lost the power of blushing — i.e., impu- 
dent, qui, refers to scurram. 

13. existimatione, the same as 
famae (1. 14), reputation. 


Notes: Rhetorica Ad Herennium 


What to Avoid in the Three Styles 

[a] Bombast 

5. ita ut, just as. tinner, e.g., an 
internal tumor may cause an enlarge- 
ment of the abdomen resembling 
normal obesity. 

6. gravis oratio, predicate nomina- 
tive, that seems a lofty style which, 

8. duriter aliunde translatis, for- 
cibly (or aifihwardly) transferred— i.e., 
awkward metaphors. 

10. perduellionibus, treasons — ^used 
bombastically for traitors. 

11-12. Neptunias lacunas, an ab- 
surd circumlocution for the sea. 

12-13. montes . . . pacis, two ridic- 
ulous metaphors. 

14. specie, false appearance, semb- 
lance (cf. specious). 

[b] Incoherence 
1-2. profecti sunt, aimed at. 
5. sese expedire, unfold (or ar- 
range) itself in orderly fashion. 

6-10. The order of words and 
clauses in this passage rambles; there 
is a complete lack of periodic order — 
i.e., that artistic, if not artificial, 
word order affected by classical Latin. 
According to modem standards, the 
thought development here is perfectly 
normal; but in order to hold the 
hearer's attention, as our author says 
(1. 11) — or in other words, to force 
his attention by making the thought 
more difficult to follow — , the passage 
should be recast as follows: Sodi 
profecto nostri, cum nobiscum belligera- 
re vellent, si quidem sun facerent sponte 
neque adiutores, homines males et 
audaceSy hinc haberent multos, quid 
possent faxxre etiam atque etiam essent 
ratiocinati: qui enim magna volunt 
agere negotia, diu cogitare solent omnes. 

7. ratiocinati, would have reflected. 

8. liinc, from here (Rome). 

[c] Dullness 
1. ilia . . . , the third style — ^i.e., 
artistic colloquialism. 

3. exile, thin, meager — ^i.e., monot- 

5. istic, iste, the brawler, hunc, 
the shy young man. 

7. praesente, this is used as a 
preposition, in the presence of. 

9. FTbrohis, insignificant, illibera- 
lis, uncultured, illiterate. 

10. est adeptus, the subject is he 
(the orator.) 


Definitions and Examples of Familiar 

[a] Notatio 

1. alicuius natura, a person's char- 
acter (or traits). 

2. notae, noun, physical marks (or 
signs) , earmarks, hall marks, naturae, 
to the particular character, ut, for 

4. Iste . . . , the sham millionaire is 
supposedly sitting in court — ^prob- 
ably in the prisoner's box — and hears 
the orator's sarcastic description of 
his personality. 

5. praeclanim, neuter, intueatur, 
i.e., he assumes a condescending and 
supercilious air. 

6. darem, / would be generous to (or 
humor) you. 

7. mentum, chin, sublevavit, has 

8. gemmae, i.e., in the gaudy finger 
ring that graces his left hand, per- 
stringere, attract. 

10. puerum unum, his one and only 

11. arbitror, supply novisse. 

12. barbari, Sannio is supposed to 
be a native Italian slave, superior to 
his barbarian fellow slaves, who are 
Asiatics or Africans, ut, so that. 

14. lectuli, dinner couches. 

15. rogetur, be borrowed. 

Notes: Rhetorica Ad Herennium 


16. asturco, saddle horse, falso, 

17. gloriae, for ostentation. 

18. numerentur, the items be reck- 
oned. He intentionally omits the 
subject in order to mystify and im- 
press his hearers. 

20. transnumerari, the items to be 

21. Sane, all rights very well. 

22. casu veniunt, i.e., accidentally 
run across him on the street, hos- 
pites, out-of-town guests, homini, in- 
direct object of casu veniunt; him^ the 
felloWy our man. 

23. peregrinatur, was traveling, in- 
vitarat, i.e., to visit him. 

26. recta, adverb, straight — i.e., in- 
stead of wandering around town and 
meeting him accidentally. 

27. undelibet, from anyone. 

29. ostentatione, deceitful shoWj 

30. villae, his farm buildings. 

31. accedere, i.e., to the country. 
audere, desire, vrish (the old meaning) . 

32. Tusculano, Tusculan estate (in 
Tusculum). insanire, to be foolish. 
Jestingly he alludes to the supposedly 
extensive building operations as sheer 

34. sodalitium, guild banquet — a 
large and semipublic affair. 

35. pro notitia, by virtue of his 
acquaintance with, ingreditur . . . , he 
pretends that the house is his and that 
he is to be host at the banquet. 

37. triclinium, stratimi, lit., the 
dining table set (or laid). We would 
say the table decorations, servulus, a 
servant of the real owner of the house. 

38. exire, i.e., go out — and wait 
until the host arrives (a polite hint to 

39. frater, supply meus. ex Fa- 
lemo, where the best wine came from. 

40. decima, supply hord. 

46-46. angiporto deerrasse, turned 
down the wrong side street. 

46. ad, till, exspectasse, the sub- 
ject is he; the object, them. 

47. negotitmi dederat, i.e., not the 
night before, but this very day — for 
he is now planning to bluff a dinner at 
his own house. 

48. rogaret, borrow. Servulus, 

49. concinne, courteously. 

60. aedes maximas, his palace — 
i.e., the large house (not really his, of 
course) where the guild banquet had 
been held the night before. In this 
manner he passes off his own small 
house as a mere temporary makeshift. 

61. commodassef had loaned. Nun- 
tiat, quietly whispering in his master's 
ear. repeti, i.e., the owner wants his 
silver back at once, pertimuerat, had 
been uneasy about it. 

52. Apage, tut tut. In the words 
that follow he poses as the lender in- 
stead of the borrower, aedes, his 
supposed palace. 

63. familiam, servants. 

64. Samiis, earthenware. 

63. quadruplatoris, crook, studi- 
um, character. 

64. in medium, into public view. 

[h] Sermocinatio 

2. is, it (sermo). 

2-3. cum ratione, urith regard for. 
dignitatis, personality, character, indi- 
viduality, dramatic valu£. 

4. Cimi, when. 

6. sago (from sagum), military 
cloak. This is symbolical of war, as 
the toga is of peace. 

8. beatus, prosperous, rich. 

9. Quin, why not? praesto, ad- 
verb, at hand. He is assumed to be 
hiding, tacetis, this is said to the 
assembled household. 

13. noli . . . exstinctos, don't kick a 
man when he's down, mansuete, 
quietly, humbly, fortunam, i.e., your 
good fortune (or victory). 


Notes: Caesar (Letters) 

14. hominem, a mere mortal — 
neither superhuman nor divine. 

15. datis, surrender. 

16. nil, to him (master of the house) . 

18. Gorgias, the Greek tutor. 
pueros, the master's young sons. 

19. praesto, adverb, supply est. 
The soldier had now walked into the 
inner part of the house and found the 
master calmly sitting in his room. 

20. Sedes, verb. 

22-23. plane victus essem, had 
been beaten at every point. 

23. mecum contendere, i.e., on a 
fair field. 

25. victus, concessive, non peribo, 
i.e., he has justice and righteousness 
on his side and is the moral victor. 

26. sententias eloqueris, nuyralize. 
ei, mihi. 

28. iste, her husband, quidem, 
really, sed tu, this is addressed to the 

29. et tu, this is addressed to her 
husband, amplexare, i.e., embrace 
his knees as a suppliant and beg for 
your life. 

30. animum, pride. 

32. Tu, the soldier, cessas, gov- 
erns eripere. mihi, from me. 

33. mea morte, by my death — ^i.e., 
your murdering me. Iste, the soldier. 

34. illi, dative, the master of the 

36. iini cuique, i.e., speaker. 

37. dignitatem, character. 




2. waldCy very much. 
5. Pompeium, the object of recon- 
ciliarem. darem operam, try. 

8. reliqui, all the others. These 

were previous leaders of the popular 
party, especially Marius and Cinna. 

16. missum feci, let go. fabrum, 
genitive plural of faber, 


1. lmp[erator] . . . Impferoton], the 
flatteiy is obvious. Cum, although; 
governs vidissem, potuissem, propera- 
rem, and essem. Fumitun nostrum, 
our mutual friend, Fumius. 

2. tantum, barely, loqui, supply 
cum eo. audire, i.e., what he had to 

5. ilium, Furnius. 

9. propositum, my first statement. 

5. opes, resources^ full support. 
opem, help. 

11. triumpho, verb. 

13. ut, only to. 

14. mei similem, i.e., true to my 

15. praesto sis, ad-sis. 

17. nihil iucundius, neminem 

17-18. Hanc gratiam . . . , huius rei 
gratiam, I shall be indebted to him for 
this (i.e., your coming to Rome and 
supporting me). 

18. poterit, the subject is he 
(Dolabella). Tanta, supply es<. 

19. is sensus, is [est in me (accusa- 
tive)] sensus, ita de me sentit. ea in 
me, talis erga me. 


3. hominum fama, rumors that 
Cicero would definitely cast in his lot 
with the Pompeians — ^which he did 
in spite of this letter. 

4. ne quo progredereris, that you 
should not take any step. 

4-5. proclinata iam re, now that the 
balance has inclined {in my favor). 

5. Integra [re], when the balance was 
eveUy when the issue was undecided. 

Notes: Caesar (De Bello Gallico) 


6. amicitiae, supply nostrae, 

7-11. si . . . condemnavisse, lit., 
if (in joining Pompey) you shall ap- 
pear not to have had an eye to the 
main chance (Jortunae obsecutus), and 
not to have approved of his cause 
(causam secutus), but to have disap- 
proved of my conduct. 

10. cum . . . iudicasti, when you 
chose to hold aloof from their counsels — 
i.e., to be a lukewarm supporter of 

15. cimi, although. 

16-17. amicitiae, collective noun, 
amicorum [meorum]. 



2. utriusque, Caesar and Ariovis- 

3. dictum, agreed. 

4. equis devexerat, he had brought 
with him on horseback. Fearing the 
Roman infantry, Ariovistus had in- 
sisted that only cavalry should ac- 
company the commanders to the par- 
ley. Caesar agreed; but, distrustful 
of the Gallic cavalry at such a time, 
he mounted his Tenth Legion on the 
Gallic horses. 

8. senatus, genitive. 

9. eum, Ariovistus. quod, that. 
10-11. quam rem, this distinction 

(or honor). 

12. hominum officiis, personal ser- 
vices, docebat, he (Caesar) pointed 
out. ilium, Ariovistus. cimi, al- 

13. aditum, right of audience. 

14. In direct discourse this would 
read: liberalitate med . . . pra^mia con- 
secutu^ es. 

15. quamque, and how. 

16. necessitudinis, friendship^ al- 
liance, ipsis, dative, Romanis. 

16-17. quae consulta, indirect ques- 
tion, what decrees. 

18. ut, hoWy depends on docebat 
(1. 15) and states a fact. 

20-23. Populi . . . posset, these are 
Caesar's words in indirect discourse. 

20-22. ut . . . esse, a substantive 
clause in apposition with and defining 
consuetudinem . 

21. sui (neuter) nihil, none of their 
property (or possessions). 

22. velit, the subject is populus 

22-23. quod . . . posset, in direct 
discourse this would read: quis pati 
possit id iis (from them) eripi qv^d . . . 
attulerunt. id quod attulissent, what 
they had brought io— i.e., their wealth 
and influence. 

24. legatis, to his envoys — ^whom he 
had sent to Ariovistus about a month 
before, in mandatis, in their {written) 

25-27. inferret . . . pateretur, the 
subject of all four verbs is Ariovistus. 

27. sdy at least. 

32. ipsis, Gallis. 

33. stv^endmm, tribute, capere, in 
direct discourse this would read: ego 

39. velint, the subject is Galli. 
iniquimi esse, in direct discourse this 
would read: iniquum est, it is unjust. 
de stipendio recusare, {Jor the Gauls) 
to refuse payment of tribute. 

41. sibi, in direct discourse this 
would read mihi. 

42. petisse, the object is it (friend- 

42-43. per . . . Romanum, through 
the agency (or at the instance of) the 

43. stipendium remittatur, the 
(Aeduan) tribute should be abated (or 
cease to be paid), dediticii, the {Aed- 
uun) hostages. 

45-46. Quod traducat, as for his 

46. sui muniendi [causa], for self- 

47. testimonio esse, in direct dis- 


Notes: Caesar (De Bello Gallico) 

course this would read: testimonio est, 
the proof is. To us the nominative 
testimonium would seem more natural 
than the dative, quod, that. 

51. Galliae provinciae, the Roman 
province of Gallia Narbonensis (now 
Southern France, or Provence). 

51-52. Quid . . . venerit, in direct 
discourse this would read: Quid tibi 
visf Cur in meas possessiones venistif 

52-53. Provinciam . . . , in direct 
discourse this would read: haec 
Gallia (Central Gaul) est mea provinda. 

53-56. Ut . . . interpellaremus, in 
direct discourse this would read: ut 
(Just as) mihi concedi non oporteat (no 
concession ought to he made to me), si 
in vestros fines impetum faciam; sic 
item vos estis iniqui, quod in meo iure 
me interpellatis (interfere with). 

56. Quod diceret, as for his (Caes- 
ar's) statement that, 

56-57. non se . . . esse, in direct dis- 
course this would read: non ego tarn 
barbarus sum. 

58. bello . . . proximo, in the last 
war between the Allobroges and the 

59. ipsos, the Aeduans. 

61-63. Debere . . . habere, this is 
double indirect discourse. If both 
the statement and the thought within 
the statement were put into direct 
discourse, the passage would read: 
Debeo suspicari, " quod Caesar exerci- 
tum in Gallia habet (as for Caesar's 
having an army in Gaul) , simulatd ami- 
cUid, mei opprimendi causa [exercitum] 

63. Qui, Caesar. 

65. si eum, si Ariovistus Caesarem. 

66. gratum, something pleasing, a 

66-67. id . . . habere, in direct dis- 
course this would read: id ego com- 
pertum habeo (know for certain). 

67-68. per eonmi nuntios, quorum, per nuntios eorum omnium, 
quorum .... 

68-69. redimere posset, he (Ario- 
vistus) could win. 

69. discessisset, the subject is 

70. se . . . remuneraturum, in di- 
rect discourse this would read: ego te 
praemio remun^rabor. 

71. vellet, the subject is Caesar. 

72. confecturum [esse], the subject 
is Ariovistus. 

73. in earn sententiam, quare, to 
the effect that. 

74. negotio, his present intention. 

75. consuetudinem, the subject of 
pati. uti, ut. 

76. esse, was the property of, be- 
longed to. 

11. superatos esse, this took place 
in 121 B.C., when Fabius conquered 
Gallia Narbonensis. 

79. neque, neque, neque [eos], ne- 
que [eis]. 

80. antiquissimum quodque tem- 
pus (idiom), priority of time. 

83-84. suis . . . voluisset, (the 
senate) had decreed that it should use 
its ovm laws. 

89-90. sine . . . delectae, without 
any danger to his picked troops (the 
Tenth Legion). 

90. equitatu, supply Germano. 

91-93. committendum . . . circum- 
ventos, ht., he thought he ought not to 
risk having it said, after he had routed 
the enemy, that they had been deceived 
by him during a parley under oath. 

93. elatum est, the report spread. 
93-94. qua arrogantia, the object of 

usus. This participle could just as 
well be omitted however, and the 
phrase qua arrogantia would then be 
construed as an ablative of manner. 

94. omni Gallia, omnem Galliam 
(accusative) would be equally correct: 
had forbidden all Gaul to the Romans. 

96. eaque res ut, and how that 

100. uti, ut. 

101. minus, non. 

Notes: Cicero (Letters) 


102. causa, any good reason. 

104. ex suis, one of his officers. 

107. Procillmn, a Gaul whose 
father had received Roman citizen- 
ship — probably an oflBcial interpreter 
on Caesar's staff. 

110-111. qua . . . , qua [lingiLa] mul- 
id . . . utebatur (idiom), which Ariovis- 
tus spoke fluently. Incidentally, how 
were Caesar and Ariovistus able to 
understand each other? longinqua 
consuetidine, propter longinquam con- 

111. in eo, in his case. 

111-112. peccandi causa, any ex- 
cuse for violence. 

112. Metium, a Roman. 
112-113. qui utebatur, i.e., he was 

a " guest-friend " of Ariovistus. 

115. apud se . . . , i.e., when they 
were brought before him. 

117. catenas, chains. 



Letters Written From 65-50 B.C. 


1. Sal., Sal[utem didt]. 

1-2. L. lulio . . . consulibus, nor- 
mally this is the method of dating the 
year (the consulship of Caesar and 
Figulus was in 64 B.C.), but the 
political events mentioned in this 
letter took place in 65; furthermore 
Cicero would give the day — not the 
year — of his son's birth. This phrase 
therefore means: on the day of the 
election of Caesar and Figulus to the 
consulship. Consuls regularly took 
office on the first of January; they 
were elected in the preceding summer | 

or autumn. Cicero and Antonius 
were elected consuls about a year after 
this letter was written, and took office 
the following January 1, 63 B.C. 

2. filiolo . . . (idiom), that a son was 
born to me. scito, imperative. 

3. Ego . . . f de meis rationibus {af- 
fairs) scripsi ad te. 

4. competitorem, rival candidate 
for the consulship of 63. 

5. defendere, Catiline had misap- 
propriated public funds; P. Clodius 
(in collusion with Catiline) was to 
prosecute him with a packed jury. 
Thus Catiline would be acquitted, and 
could then not be retried on the same 
charge. Cicero's r61e in this shady 
political game was to be that of 
counsel for the defense — whether or 
not he actually played it, is unknown. 

6. accusatoris, P. Clodius. 

7-8. in ratione petitionis, in the 
matter of candidacy. Catiline and 
Cicero would support each other's 
candidacy and be elected colleagues in 
the consulship. 

8. humaniter, philosophically. 

10-11. The aristocrats were natur- 
ally prejudiced against Cicero because 
of his humble birth, and remained 
hostile in the early stages of his 


1. S.D., S[aluiem] D[icit]. 

2. Suis, his own (or dear)j used 
when the addressees are relatives. 

3-4. cum . . . tiun vero, not only . . . 
but also. 

5. Quod, andy but. utinam . . . , 
i.e., / vnsh I had killed myself. 

6. nihil mali, no misfortune. 

7. commodi, a neuter adjective 
used as a noun, happiness. 

8. minus . . . , / h^ve erred lesSj I 
have not been so wrong. 

9. fixa, i.e., to last forever, vero, 

10. mea vita, his wife (Terentia). 


Notes: Cicero (Letters) 

15. capitis, citizenship, legis, de- 
cree (of exile). This was Clodius* 
second bill, which specifically men- 
tioned Cicero by name. 

17. praestaret, praeberet [mihi]. 

18. Habebimus, supply gratiam. 

19. a.d. II, a[nte] d[iem] secundum^ 
the day before — usually called pridie. 

20. petebamus, this is the epistol- 
ary imperfect, equivalent to the pres- 
ent. The tense of a letter was correct 
for the recipient, rather than for the 
writer — a usage more natural and 
logical for the Romans than for us, 
because of the long time that nor- 
mally elapsed between the sending 
and receipt of a letter in those days. 

23. confirmes, the subjunctive of 
command, promote. 

24. transactum est, all is over, I am 
done for. 

27. fiet, with the ablative, tdll be- 
come of. Cicero's daughter, Tullia, 
was now about twenty years of age 
and had been married to Piso for five 
years. The use of the diminutive 
Tulliola is a sentimental endearment. 

28. illius misellae, Tullia. 

29. serviendimi est, we must have 
regard for. Because of financial em- 
barrassment, Cicero had been post- 
poning the payment of his daughter's 
dowry from year to year; should he 
now die or go bankrupt, she might be 
divorced. But as a matter of fact 
Tullia's husband was devoted both 
to her and to her family. Cicero 
meus, the six-year-old son. 

32. utmm . . . , whether you still 
retain some property or have lost every- 
thing. At his banishment, Cicero's 
house was burned and his country 
estates were plundered. He does not 
know whether his wife's private 
property has been seized or not. 

34. de familia liberata, concerning 
the freeing of all our slaves. Evidently 
Terentia heard a rumor that Cicero 
had taken this step (in order, of 

course, to decrease the value of his 
estate, which might fall into the hands 
of his enemies), moveat, disturb. 

35. tuis [servis], Terentia's own 
personal property. 

38. res . . . , lit., if my property shall 
have left my hands (i.e., been con- 
fiscated), they are to be my freedmen 
(i.e., be manumitted) — provided they 
can maintain their claim (i.e., legally 
maintain their status as freedmen). 
It was illegal to manumit slaves for 
the purpose of defrauding one's 

39. pertineret . . . , should the prop- 
erty remain mine, they shall continue 
as slaves (i.e., not be manumitted). 
oppido, very. 

44. Quas exspectassem, / would 
have waited for some. 

45. esset licitum, licuisset. tem- 
pestatem, good weather. 

49. nisi quod . . . , i.e., except that I 
ought to have died, omamentis, 
public honors. 

50. liberis, children. 

53-55. The three men mentioned 
here were freedmen. 

56. Sica, a friend of Cicero's. 
58. Cura, take care, see to it, 


1. Ego vero, yes indeed I. This 
confirms what Atticus had written to 

2. animum, feeling, emotion. 

2-3. videndum . . . , i.e., use your 
political influence to prevent the passage 
of any new measure— which would 
keep Cicero in his province longer 
than one year. Of course Cicero's 
enemies might pass such a measure. 

3. desiderium, separation. 

4. ne plus sit annuum, be not longer 
than for one year. 

5. transversum . . . versiculum, lit., 
crosswise line of (or at) the end of your 
letter — i.e., a postscript written in the 

Notes: Cicero (Letters) 


6-42. The rest of this letter is taken 
up with Cicero's observations on the 
domestic bickerings between his 
brother Quintus and the latter's wife, 
Pomponia — sister of Atticus. That 
the domestic discord in this closely re- 
lated branch of the family failed to 
cause any rift between Cicero and 
Atticus, attests to the sincerity of their 
friendship. Recently Atticus had 
requested that Cicero admonish Quin- 
tus to treat his wife more kindly and 
tactfully. This Cicero did and be- 
lieved that his brother had taken the 
admonitions to heart. He now pro- 
fesses to find Pomponia at fault. 

7. Arpinas, third declension adjec- 
tive, neuter accusative singular; my 
Arpinate (estate), my estate at Ar- 

10. Tusculano, neuter adjective, my 
Tusculan (estate). 

11. in, towards, ut, result. 

12. ex ratione siunptus offensio, 
any ill feeling (arising) from the matter 
of expenditure. Sumptus is genitive. 

12-13. Ille dies sic [erat]. 

13. ut . . . , depends on fecit 
(effecit) (1. 14). Arcane, his estate at 

14. dies, i.e., it was a local hoUday, 
and Quintus had to preside over the 
festivities. Aquini, locative, / (re- 
mained) at Aquinum. prandimus, 

17. accivero, future perfect, equiv- 
alent to the simple futm^e, / will sum- 
mon. It is impossible to see exactly 
why Pomponia took offense at this 
apparently innocent remark — no 
doubt some fancied slight caused her 
to sulk, potuit, supply facere. 

18. cum, not only. 

19. hospita, a stranger. 

20. ex eo quod, for the reason that, 

21. videret, see to, take care of. 
Statins was Quintus' freedman and 
was probably responsible for the 

difficulty between Pomponia and 
Quintus. Pomponia may have been 
jealous of Statins, who had a great 
hold over Quintus. 

22. quid . . . , what did that amount 
to? — i.e., it was an insignificant tiff. 

23. me ipsum commoverat, she up- 
set even me. 

25. Discubuimus, we took our 
places at the dinner table — i.e., all but 
Pomponia, who refused to come. 
The empty chair threw rather a gloom 
over the family party. 

26. misit, supply food. 

28. mAiori stomacho, of more an- 
noyance, more annoying. 

31. nee voluisse, she refused. 

32. eiusmodi qualem, i.e., just as 
touchy as when. 

32-33. Quid quaeris (colloquial), 
so there you are! 

33. Vel . . . licet, you may even tell 

33-34. ei defuisse, fit., was lacking 
to her. 

36. tuas . . . partes, that you too have 
a part to play. 

37-38. mandata exhaurias, finish 
my commissions. 

41-42. cui . . . velim, i.e., tell him 
(when you see him) that I mentioned 
him to you. 


1. Imp[eraior], Cicero had won this 
title by his insignificant mihtary vic- 
tory over the hill tribes in his province. 
Aed. Cur., curule aedile. 

3. levia nostratia, humble native 
(words) — i.e., the colloquial diction 
which Cicero uses in his more intimate 

4. soUicitus . . . , Cicero is worried 
that his term as governor may be ex- 

8. accessio, increase, fortuna, re- 
versal of fortune, change of luck. 

13. Caehus had requested Cicero to 
send him a shipment of wild panthers 


Notes: Cicero (Letters) 

for the arena, as an unusual show 
during his tenure of the aedileship 
would advance him poUtically. agitur, 
the business is being attended to. 

15. queri . . . , Cicero jestingly says 
that the panthers are the only perse- 
cuted residents of his province. 

17. sedulo fit, impersonal, energetic 
efforts are being made. 

19. nesciebamus, the epistolary 
imperfect. EngUsh would use the 

21. Megalensibus, a festival cele- 
brated annually at Rome from April 
4-10, in honor of the goddess Cybele. 
It was under the supervision of the 
curule aediles. 

Letters Written Early in 49 B.C. 


1. Tullius, Cicero himself . Cicero, 
his son. Q'Q'i Quinti-quey and the 
tvx) Quintuses — i.e., Quintus Senior 
and Junior, Cicero's brother and 
nephew. S. Plur, Die, salutem 
plurimam dicunt. 

2. opportimitatem operae tuae, the 
advantage (or convenience) of your help. 

4. quartanam, quartan (fever) — i.e., 
intermittent malaria, recurring every 
three or four days. 

4-5. vis morbi, hardly different 
from just morbus. 

6. id . . . tuae, that which is part of 
your human frailty — i.e., as befits your 
frail health. 

8. ex desiderio, from homesickness. 

10. suscipias, be subjected to. 

12. ad Urbem accessi, approached 
Rome (without entering it), pr. Non. 
Ian., pridie Nonas lanuarias. 

13. est proditum, impersonal pas- 
sive, everyone (all his friends) came 
out. Prominent people were met as 
far as five miles out from the city 
by a committee of welcome. 

14. Cm[discordiae], dative, depends 
on mederi (cf. medidna). 

15. cum, though, possem, i.e., be- 
cause he had the friendship and re- 
spect of both Caesar and Pompey. 
cupiditates, passions. 

17. Omnino, for instance. 

17-20. et Caesar . . . et Curio, 
both . . . and, but both is generally awk- 
ward in English and is to be omitted. 

18-19. minacis et acerbas litteras, 
his ultimatum — read to the senate on 
January 1. 

19. adhuc impudens, still self- 
willed. qui . . . , relative clause of 

20. meus, my intimate friend. 
21-22. Antonius . . . expulsi, two of 

the tribunes. They had tried to 
veto senatorial action and were ex- 
pelled (without personal violence) 
from Rome. 

23. consulibus . . . nobis, all dative; 
pr[aetorihus], tr{ibunis] pl[ebis\. 

23-24. et nobis . . . sumus, and to us 

24-25. ut . . . caperet, the so-called 
senatusconsultum ultimum — indicating 
a state of war or imminent danger 

26. improbi cives, the popular 

27. Omnino, to be sure, ex hac 
parte, on our side (i.e., the Pompeians) . 
comparatur, impersonal, preparations 
are being made. 

30. Nobis, for me. senatus fre- 
quens, to be taken with a grain of salt. 

31-32. quo . . . faceret, i.e., for sel- 
fish reasons (according to Cicero), in 
order to make his own services more 
prominent. In other words it was 
Lentulus' inning, and he was not plan- 
ning to let Cicero stage a side show. 

32-33. simul . . . relaturum, all in- 
direct discourse, said that he would 
bring the matter up for discussion as 
soon as he had settled important prob- 
lems of present policy. 

Notes: Cicero (Letters) 


33. Nos, ego. 

34. pltuis, worth more, regiones, 
special districts for military adminis- 

39. D. . . , Datum pridie Idus lanu- 


2. exirem, i.e., from Rome. 

2-3. lictoribus laureatis, his guard 
of honor, or proconsular lictors, wore 
laurel wreaths because of Cicero's 
"victory in his province. Having 
thus marched "up" to Rome, Cicero 
did not want to make a laughing stock 
of himself by marchLug "down again" 
(like the grand old Duke of York). 

5. nostri, of the Pompeians. 
amentissimi consilii, senseless policy. 
quid, why? 

6. Gnaeus, Pompey. 

7. coartatus, confined. 

8. stupens, dazed, consistet, the 
subject is he. 

9. consilii res, a matter for delihera- 
tiorif an open question. 

10. incaute, supply fecit. 

10. vel quod, whatever. 

11. buccam, mouth. 


1-2. All the family greetings are 
given in full — Cicero's to his wife and 
daughter, and Cicero Junior's to his 
mother and sister. 

4. Romae-ne, utrum Romae. 

6. Dolabella, Cicero's son-in-law 
and a Caesarian. 

11. nostronmi . . . praediorum, 
consists of my towns as well as estates, 
Cicero owned the estates and con- 
trolled the towns. 

12. multum, temporal adverb, ciun 
abieritis, when you leave me — e.g., 
whenever Cicero has to go on a tour 
of inspection, or is especially busy. 

12-13. commode esse, be comfort- 
ably situated (cf. bene esse), nostris, 
supply praediis. 

13. utrum, i.e., to stay in Rome or 
come to Campania. 

14. isto loco, of your station. 

17. Philotimus, Cicero's steward in 

18. tabellarios, (private) letter car- 

20-21. Vnn. K. Formiis, at 
FormiaCy on the ninth day before the 
Kalends {of February). 


1. amico nostro, Pompey. 

2. omne, utt-er. 

2-4. At nemo . . . , Deseret ...» 

these two sentences represent Atti- 
cus' incredulous rephes. 

4. talem civem, Domitius. unA, 
vrith him. 

8. quern fugiam, Caesar. 

9. Quod enim tu meum laudas, as 
for that (remark) of mine which you 
praise. The remark (malle . . . w'n- 
cere) follows, governed by quod 
dixerim (for I said), memorandum, 

11. istis, the Caesarians. ego 
vero, yes I do. 

12-13. cum hoc vero, with the pres- 
ent (Pompey) however. 

14. nostra, neuter plural, our cause. 
14-15. si malui, contigit, lit., if I 

had my preference (or choice) ^ it has 
come true. 

15. ista, neuter plural, his cause 

17. istimi, Caesar. 

17-18. mihi . . . carendtmi, I must 
be untrue not only to my (friends) but 
also to myself. 


1. Lippitudo, inflammation of the 
eyes. Therefore Cicero cannot write 
his own letters, but must dictate them. 

2. manus, handwriting. 

3. quod . . . erat, epistolary im- 
perfect, / have nothing to urite. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

4. nuntiis Bnmdisinis, news from 
Brundisium (where Caesar had now 
closed in on Pompey). hie, Caesar. 

5. ille Pompey. tramisisset, cros- 
sed to Greece. 

6. quern, equivalent to qualem. 
English might say: into what hands. 
hominem, Caesar. 

12. nummulos, shekels. 

14. nostris, of us Pompeians. 


Letter Written After Caesar's Assas- 

1. Decimus Brutus (Imperator, 
Consul Designatus), one of the 
assassins of Julius Caesar — though he 
is not to be confused with Marcus 
Brutus. He was now a champion of 
the constitutional party, led by Cicero 
at Rome. Brutus' army had defeated 
Antony at Mutina a month before, 
causing the latter to flee headlong 
over the Alps. But Brutus made the 
mistake of not following up his vic- 
tory, and Antony was now assembling 
stronger forces than ever north of the 
Alps. Before the year was out first 
Brutus, then Cicero, was destined to 
fall a victim to the nefarious deal be- 
tween Antony and Octavian (the fu- 
ture Emperor Augustus). 

10. inermis, from the form tnermws- 

15. alii facti sunt, lit., have been 
made other (than they were) — i.e., have 
changed their opinion, have reversed 
their decision. 

16. persecuii non sitis [Antonium], 
[Antonium] opprimi potuisse. 

17. populi, characteristic of the 

18. in eo . . . , lit., abuse their free- 
dom in the case of him through whom 
— i.e., a statesman who frees his 
people will be the first on whom they 
will turn in hostile criticism. 

22. male, verb. 



Essays on Oratory 

[al De Inventione 

The faculty of eloquence— a blessing 
or a curse to mankind? 

1. boni-ne . . . , utrum plus boni 
(genitive singular neuter) an mali. 

2. copia dicendi, eloqaentia, the 
subject of attulerit. 

3. studium, also the subject of 

3-4. nostrae . . . detrimenta, the 
youthful Cicero first notices what is 
nearest and closest to him — ^namely, 
the calamities brought upon his own 
country in his own lifetime by dema- 
gogues. With these he associates 
similar calamities in the past. 

5. disertissimos, most eloquent. 

6. invectam . . . , non minimam 
partem incommodorum invectam [esse]. 

6-11. cum autem . . . , his pessi- 
mistic reflections on conditions in 
contemporary Rome and elsewhere 
have been offset by his study of Greek 
history and philosophy, replete with 
democratic ideals and theories. 

8. litterarum monumentis, alludes 
primarily to Greek literatiue. repete- 
re, recall, multas, the main clause 
begins here: multas urbes constitutas 
[esse] . . . intellego. 

10. cum . . . tum, not only . . . but 
also, animi ratione, by reason — i.e. 
the power of mind over body. The 
word ratio is overworked in this para- 
graph, appearing in many different 
meanings — an evidence of youthful 
awkwardness of style. 

12. ratio ipsa, logic, potissimum, 

12-13. ut existimem, repeats the 
phrase hanc sententiam in a form^that 

Notes: Cicero (Essays) 


can more readily be linked with what 

13. parum, adverb; little^ slightly, 

14. nimium, much (not too much). 

16. rationis et officii, logic and 
ethics — the two chief branches of 
philosophy (at least for Cicero's 

17. exercitatione, the mechanics, 
the 'practical side. 

18. alitor, is reared as, is brought up 
to be — ^i.e., makes himself. 

20. rationibus, exigencies, needs. 

21. amicissimus, patriotic. 

Oratory — the chief civiHzer of the 
human race 

2. artis . . . , the four genitives are 
in apposition with rei. 

4. rationibus, principles. 

6-7. victu f ero, on wild food, on the 
bounty of nature. 

7. ratione animi, reason. 

9. ratio, idea, principle. 

10. certos . . . , i.e., no one knew 
whose children were whose; there was 
no family life, which is the basis of 

11. non acceperat, tior had anyone 
learned, ius . . . haberet, this is an 
indirect question, of which ius is the 
subject: quid {quantum) utilitatis iu^ 
aeqaabile haberet. 

11-14. Ita . . . satellitibus, an 
awkwardly constructed sentence, not 
up to the standard of Cicero's later 
and maturer style. Cupiditas, the 
main subject, is in apposition with 
dominatrix (or vice versa, if one pre- 
fers), and satellitibus with viribus 
{powers OT forces). 

15. cognovit, realized, discovered. 

16. animis, intelligence (singular in 

18. homines, accusative, inagros, 
depends on disperses. 

19. ratione quadam, whether this 
phrase means by a kind of reasoning 

or in a certain way, somehow, this is 
the weakest point in Cicero's theory. 

22. reclamantes, agrees with eos 
(1. 20). rationem atque orationem, 
this is a very effective play on words, 
but of course oratio is not derived from 

23. ex, in place of. reddidit, 
rendered them. 

24-25. nee tacita . . . sapientia, 
neither a silent nor a dumb wisdom — 
i.e., wisdom could not have accom- 
plished this were she either silent or 
incapable of speech. 

26. rationes, system, plan, scheme 
(singular in English). 

27. ut, depends on fieri (L. 31) — i.e., 
how could it be brought about that? 

28. aliis [hominiburs], dative. 

30. commodi, noun, amittendam, 
should be sacrificed. 

31. qui, how? 

33. cum, when. 

34. plurimmn posset, was supreme. 
ad ius sine vi descendere, descend to 
mere right without might. This is 
spoken ironically, from the point of 
view of the savage, ut, so that. 

35. excellere, by physical prowess. 
36-37. quae . . . , a relative clause of 


37. naturae, natural law. vim ob- 
tineret, had the meaning {force or 
validity), vetustatem, long continu- 

40. versata, has been concerned 

41. sine ratione, without regard for. 

42. ingenio, native ability, cleverness 
(without higher ideals). 

43. malitia, an abstract, used as a 
collective noun — i.e., the wicked, the 
powers of evil. 

The decline of oratory — causes 

2. infantes, dumb. This is a rela- 
tive term, of course. 

3. versari, to be engaged in. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

3-4. ad . . . accedere, enter upouj 
take up. 

7. a, on the side of. 

8. SiSsidmt&Sy frequency. 

9. superiores illi, the magni ac 
diserti homines mentioned in U. 3-4. 

9-10. iniurias civium, an objective 
genitive, wrongs done to their fellow 

10. resistere, depends on cogeren- 
iur (to be supplied, with change of 
number, from the following clause), 
audacibus, wpstaits — i.e., the petti- 
foggers, opitulari, help, necessariis, 
dientSy dependents. 

13. comparasset, had acquired. 

14. fiebat, it came to pass, multi- 
tudinis, parallel with suo — i.e., et 
multitvMnis [iudido] et suo iudicio. 

15. videretur, the subject is he 
(the upstart). 

16. gubemacula, helm, temerarii 
. . . , demagogues. 

18. Quibus rebus, an ablative of 

20. ex . . . vita, i.e., politics, states- 

22. postea, the most emphatic 
word in the sentence, modifies eni- 
tuisse; later^ subsequently — i.e., after 
the decline of oratory, cetera studia 
. . . , poetry and philosophy. 

23. optimis, gentlemen, enituisse, 
blossomed forth, hoc [studium], elo- 

24. quo, when. 

Nobler ideals of oratory — the need 
for fostering them 

1-3. quo . . . eo, the more . . . the 

3. illis [hominihus], dative. 

4. consulendum, here, as often, 
consulere means protect (or defend). 
Quod, which fact. 

4-5. nostnmi illtmi, our famous 

5. fugit, escaped the notice of. 

6. Africanum, Scipio. 

12. eo vehementius, supply elo- 
qu£ntiae studendum est. mail, supply 

15-16. hoc, hoc eodem, these are 
ablatives of means. 

16. fiat, this is parallel to sit (1. 14), 
and is therefore governed by the same 
cwm-causal. hinc, from eloquence. 

19. amicis eonim, for the friends of 
the orators. 

21. homines, mankind — a general 
statement, cimi, although. 

[b] De Oratore 
Selections from book II 

1. Postero die, on the second day 
of the discussion. Each book of the 
dialogue represents one day. sectmdS, 
the second hour of the day (i.e., after 

2. Crassus, the host, and Antonius 
are the chief speakers. 

2-3. SulpiciusandCotta were young 
men, students of oratory. 

4. Catulus, Q. Lutatius Cdtulus 
(consul in 102 B.C.) and C. lulius 
Caesar Strabo were half brothers ; both 
were prominent aristocrats and dis- 
tinguished orators. 

5. omnes, the assembled company. 

6. causam eorum adventus (genitive) 
esse maiorem aliquam {something of 
major importance) . The pohtical sit- 
uation at Rome was tense. 

8. Qui, Crassus, the host, greeted 
Catulus and Caesar, the newcomers, 
ut . . . ferebat, as their intimacy led 

9. vos, supply agitis. 

10. novi, genitive singular, news. 

11. Nihil, i.e., of interest, ludos, 
carnival time (from September 4-12). 
During popular holidays of this sort, 
the aristocracy retired to their estates. 

12. licet putes, though you thinks at 
the risk of your thinking. 

13. ad me in Tusculaniun, to my 

Notes: Cicero (Essays) 


TtLscidan estate. Tusculum was a 
famous suburb of Rome. 

14. Scaevolam, Q. Mucius Scae- 
vola, the Augur — now an old man of 
seventy — , had taken part in the first 
day's discussion, but had gone home 
in the evening. 

14-15. a se esse conventum, had 
been met by him (Caesar) . hinc, from 
the villa of Crassus. 

15. ex quo, /rom whom (Scaevola). 

16. dicebat, the subject is Caesar. 
16-19. te . . . disputasse, indirect 

discourse, depends on audisse (1. 15). 
These are the marvels (mira), which 
Caesar said he had heard about from 
Scaevola. te, Crassus. ego, Cat- 

17. permulta, neuter plural, the 
object of disseruisse. 

18. schola, philosophic company. 
This is a technical Greek term denot- 
ing the groups that gathered about 
famous philosophers to receive their 
oral instruction, in more or less 
Socratic fashion. 

19. frater, his half brother, Caesar. 

20. ne ipsum quidem nimis abhor- 
rentem, lit., though not even myself 
quite averse (or disinclined) . Ipsum is 
in apposition with me. 

22. ut, depends on exoravit (1. 20). 

23. aiebat, the subject is Caesar. 
bonam . . . , indirect discourse, de- 
pends on dicere. 

29-30. quaevis quam, any other in 
the voorld than. 

30. mallem fuisset, / would prefer 
that it had been. 

32. adeo, however, yet. facilitate, 
because of my good nature. 

33. adulescentibus, Sulpicius and 
Cotta — at whose urgent request Cras- 
sus had held forth. 

35. doctrina, a definite, cut-and- 
dried department of learning — not fit 
for philosophical discussion. 

37. partibus, rdle. 

39. et, also — i.e., / too (as well as 

40. perpetua, uninterrupted. 

41. minus, non. vel, even. 

42. experiar, / unll make trial, I wiU 
see what I can do. ut ne, introduces a 
negative clause of purpose. 

45. impertias, impart^ bestow. 

45-46. tibi minus {rum) licebit, this 
is more poUte and deferential than non 

46-47. neque committam ut indi- 
ces, lit., nor shall I act in such a way 
that you will think. Committam ut is 
superfluous in EngUsh; the whole 
sentence may be translated as fol- 
lows: Nor u%ll you, in trying to avoid 
being discourteous, have occa,sion to 
think me discourteous — i.e., / shall not 
overurge you. dum vereare, while ymi 
dread, in dreading, in trying to avoid. 

47. esse, supply ineptum. 

48. Caesar, vocative. 

48-49. ex . . . verbis, equivalent to 
a partitive genitive. 

49. huius verbi, i.e., ineptus. vim, 
force, meaning, vel maximam, quam 
maximam, quite the most significant. 

50-51. ab hoc ductimi, derived from 
the following fact. 

53. tempus . . . videt, non videt quid 
(accusative) tempus (nominative) pos- 
tulet. What Crassus is driving at in 
these definitions is of course tact, 
urbanity, plura, too much. 

55. rationem, consideration (or re- 
gard) for, with genitive, genere, 

56-57. Hoc . . . natio, this is an un- 
fair criticism of the Greeks in general 
— as the next speaker immediately 
points out — but a fair criticism of the 
host of Greek pedants who had flocked 
to Rome. 

58. vim, the English equivalent is 

59. Ut, though, omnia, Enghsh 
would say everywhere. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

60. quomodo, i.e., what the Greek 
word for ineptus is. Crassus claims 
there is none — but ethical arguments 
based on vocabulary and idiom are 
not worth much. 

62. nulla, from the EngHsh idiom 
we should expect ulla. illi, the 

63. visum est [iZKs], they take the 

65. adulescentibus, Sulpicius and 
Cotta. Crassus says this playfully, 
not seriously. 

67. Graeci qui . . . , the classic 
Greeks of old. 

69. horum Graecorum, depends on 
similes; the present-day (or contempo- 
rary) Greeks. 

72. temporis, depends on rationem. 

72-73. si [ei] tibi 'inepti' videntur, 
qui .... 

75. haec ipsa, agrees with portions. 
palaestra (Greek) , athletic field . Cras- 
sus had his own private athletic field 
on his estate, just as a wealthy Ameri- 
can might have private golf links; the 
public athletic fields of Greece had 
become as much the haunt of loimgers 
and "philosophers" as of athletes (see 
11. 85-88 below). Porticus, palaestra^ 
and sessiones are all subjects of com- 
movent (1. 77). 

76. gymnasionmi (with memori- 
am), used as a general synonjon of 
palaestra. Graecorum, masculine, 
does not agree with disputationum. 
All the aristocratic Romans of Cicero's 
time traveled and studied in Greece to 
acquire old-world culture-^ — just as we 
Americans do in Europe — , and they 
looked back with a thrill of pleasure 
on the romantic days spent in Athens. 
On returning to Italy, their efforts to 
ape Greek ways were sometimes 
rather banal. 

77. importimum, supply est. 

78. quod, supply otium. per-opta- 
to, adverb; desirably^ much to our 
liking^ in answer to prayer. 

79. aut [sunt] homines, the present 

80. ii, such. 

81. ducamus, credamus. 

82. Omnia ista, the three factors 
which Catulus alleged were favorable 
for a philosophical discussion — name- 
ly, the place, the time, and the com- 

83. qui, for I. primum, firstly. 
Here begins his elaborate rebuttal of 
the first point (to 1. 92). sedis, ac- 
cusative plural, sessiones. porticus, 
accusative plural, ipsos, with Grae- 

84. exercitationis, physical exer- 

85. ante . . . quam, before (conjunc- 
tion) — ^not to be construed as a prepo- 
sition governing gymnasia. 

86. garrire, prate. 

87. discum, the thud of the discus 
striking the ground. 

88. qui, the discus. 

90. unctionis causa, i.e., to take 
part in the sports. Anointing with 
oil was a necessary preliminary. 

91. ipsi, supply Graeci. 

92. Otium, here Crassus begins his 
rebuttal of the second point. 

93. Verum, but. contentlo, exer- 
tion (not contentment). 

94. socero, Scaevola. 

95-100. This anecdote is far more 
unusual in Roman life than it would be 
in modern; a Roman aristocrat's dig- 
nity was very precious to him, and 
boyish gambols were eschewed. 

99. mnbilicos, the meaning is un- 
certain, probably pebbles of some 
special sort — e.g., lucky stones. Cai- 
etam, Laurenttun, seashore resorts 
near Rome, consuesse, consuevisse. 

100. ludum, perhaps leapfrog and 

101. sese habet, est. ut, namely 
that. The statement thus introduced 
is a lengthy simile, of which the first 
half occupies 11. 101-104 iquemad- 

Notes: Cicero (Essays) 


modum , . . volitarey just as we see the 
birds . . . ) and the second half, 11. 
104-106 (sic . . . laborej so our minds 
. . . ). volucris, aviSf accusative plu- 
ral, the subject of effingere. 

103. nidos, nests, easdem, supply 

106. gestlant, exult. 

107. illud quod dixi, English uses 
the plural, those famous remarks I 
made, causa Curiana, i.e., the noted 
case of Coponius vs. Curius. Defend- 
ing Curius, Crassus won the case. 
Scaevolae, dative. Scaevola was 
counsel for the plaintiff. 

107-108. non secus ac, not other- 
wise than, exactly as. The exigencies 
of a case often force lawyers to plead 
contrary to their true convictions, but 
not so Crassus in this instance. 

109-116. Scaevola upheld the letter 
of the law, while Crassus based his 
argument on equity; Crassus is here 
ridiculing Scaevola's legal erudition. 
The case concerned the interpretation 
of a will. 

115-116. For Crassus' present ar- 
gument, the point of the quotation 
lies wholly in this last remark. 

115. liber ...» i.e., he cannot call 
his soul his own. 

116. nihil agit, i.e., takes a vacation. 

117. cum, whenever. 

118. agere, cessare, infinitives used 
as neuter noims, the subjects of 
delectat. cessare, stop work, knock 
off. Nam, here Crassus begins his 
rebuttal of Catulus' third reason for 
holding a discussion (see notes on 11. 
83 and 92). quod, what, correlative 
with id (1.119). 

121. ut, as, correlative with sic 
(1. 127). C. Lucilius, the first Roman 
satirist. Together with Terence and 
others, he was the prot^g4 of Scipio 
Africanus and Laelius (the Scipionic 

122-124. neque . . . ipse, indirect 
discourse, depends on dicere. 

123. alteri, the indoctissimi. 

124. de quo, about which, etiam 
scripsit, i.e., his actual words were. 

125-127. The two halves of the 
quoted line, united, make an eight- 
foot trochaic, legere, supply me as 
object, volo, supply legere me. 

128. ad, compared to. 

129. nolim, supply disputare. 

130. vos, who are doctissimi. 

133. navasse operam, accomplished 
my purpose. 

135. Antonius was slated to lead 
the discussion on the second day, as 
successor to Crassus. 

136. partis, singular in EngUsh; 
part, rdle. quem-que, and whom. 

138-140. A playful threat, not 
meant to be taken seriously. Getting 
the spirit of it, Catulus interrupts with 
feigned alarm. 

139-140. impetraro, impetravero. 

142. I.e., stay here as my guests. 
Note that sitis is plural, addressed to 
both Catulus and Caesar. 

143. ille, Catulus. promiserat, 
was engaged to, had an engagement 
with — probably for dinner. Dinner 
was included by Crassus in the in- 

144. lulius, Caesar Strabo (half 
brother of Catulus). 

145. ista . . • vei ut, even on condi- 
tion that. English omits ista. 

145-146. I.e., the charm of your 
companionship alone (without any 
speechifying) is enough to hold me. 

148. neque, correlative with et. 
Such correlation is stilted in English, 
neque domi imperaram [ut veniret], 
lit., /, when we were at home, had not 
hade him come — i.e., to call on Crassus. 
The suggestion had been made by 
Caesar, and Catulus (as his guest) 
would not be so discourteous as to 
propose a change. All this suave ur- 
banity on the part of these cultured 
Roman gentlemen is quite in the 
modern French manner. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

149. hlc, Caesar, eram futurus, as 

150. promisit, accepted the inviton 
tion (of Crassus). 

151. omnes, supply homines. 
152-160. With engaging humor, 

Antonius assumes the manner and 
style of an itinerant declaimer in the 
market place — a soap-box orator. 

152-153. hominem de schola, a 

153. eo, the more. 

155. nos [solemus] Latini seimionis 
[suhtilitatem elegantiamque concedere]. 

158. accessit os, cheek {boldness or 
effrontery) has been added. 

159. id . . . didici, an example of 
cheek, omni genere, the entire topic 
(or subject). 

160. res . . . , [eloquentia] mihi 
videtur esse res. 

161. facultate . . . mediocris, lit., 
{made) outstanding by natural ability , 
{but) mediocre by technique. Ars, 
technical skill. 

162. earumrerum est, is a merger o/, 
is concerned with those things — a gen- 
eral statement. 

162-163. oratoris . . . , nowadays we 
would say: oratory is not an exact 

163-164. apud eos, before those 
(juries and assemblies). 

165. illi, the juries and assemblies. 
alias aliud) Ut., one thing at one time, 
another thing at aiiother time. Alias 
is an adverb of time. 

166. contrarias causas, the opposite 
sides of a case, ut, result. 

168. cum, though, whereas. 
168-169. uterque . . . defendat, 

the same individual may take first one 
and then the other side of the same 
general question. He may not 
change sides in the middle of a case, 
of course — that would be illegal. 

169. uno, than one side. 
170-172. Ut igitur . . . ita dicam, 

lit , / shall so speak as in a subject 

which . . . — i.e., I shall speak on the 
assumption that it is a subject which . . . 

172. aucupetur, aims at. 

173. causam esse, there is any 

176. Exorsus es a veritate, you be- 
gan with the truth (or plain facts). 

177. nescioqua dignitate, vnth any 
pretensions to authority. 

178. Ut de ipso genere, although 
concerning the whole matter, although 
on the general question. 

180. pertractandos, swaying. 

181. excipiendas . . . , winning their 
good will. 

182. magnam quandam, a really 
great — but not supreme (maximam). 
The latter is denied both generally 
and specifically. 

Philosophical Essays 

The Tusculan Disputations — Book V 

[a] Dialogue between the magister 
and the auditor 

3. One of the disciples states this 
negative proposition merely to have it 
refuted by the master, mihi videtur, 
credo, satis posse, swj^ces. The sub- 
ject is virtutem. 

3. ad beate vivendum, the whole 
discussion, or sermon — for it soon 
becomes that — , turns on the distinc- 
tion between the baser and nobler 
meanings of ''happiness" and the 
"happy life." The baser meaning is 
"pleasure," the nobler is "beatitude," 
"bliss," or "blessedness" — which may 
exist along with suffering and pain. 
The nobler or philosophic connota- 
tion of beatus passed over into 
Christianity, becoming a synonym 
for sanctus (e.g., Beatus Paulus — St. 
Paul); to "beatify" is to "sanctify"; 
and the Sermon on the Mount con- 
sists of the "beatitudes," beginning 
with beatus ille, or blessed is he. 

Notes: Cicero (Essays) 


5. The magister is Cicero himself, 
thinly disguised ; he plays the part of a 
professional "philosopher," holding a 
schola, at which he offers to discuss 
any topic which his disciples may 
care to bring up. Brute, the famous 
assassin of Julius Caesar; a professed 
philosopher and intimate friend of 

5-6. A playful argumentum ad 
hominem — which the disciple neatly 
parries in his next speech. 

6. pace . . . , a conventional phrase 
of courtesy; hy your leave, if you'll 
pardon my saying it. 

7. nee, hut . . . not. tu . . . , 
quantum tu ilium ames. 

8. quod . . . sit, qaod dixi videri mihi 
quale sit, as to which I have stated my 
opinion (or how it seems to me) . Mihi 
goes with videri (not with dixi) ; there 
is no ambiguity in Latin, for mecum 
dixi (not mihi dixi) would be the 
Latin idiom for / said to myself. The 
phra^se mihi videri quaU sit is like the 
old English : / know thee wlio thou art; 
the Latin could just as well follow the 
English idiom: quod dixi quale mihi 
videatur esse. 

13. recte, honeste, laudabiliter, 
define the nobler concept of heate. 
The disciple admits that these consti- 
tute "goodness," but denies that they 
have anything to do with "happiness." 

16-17. Potes igitur aut dicer e eum, 
qui male vivat, non [esse] miserum, aut 
negare cum, qu^m bene [vivere] fatearis, 
heate vivere f 

18. Quidni possim, repeats potes 
from the beginning of the previous 

19. vivi potest, impersonal passive, 
one can live. 

20. dicam, mean hy. Dice, mean. 

21. Haec, these qualities — i.e., corir- 
stantia, gravitas, etc., represented by 
the adverbs constanter, graviter, etc. 
The quaUties are rather vaguely per- 

22. eculeum, diminutive of equus; 
the rack, con-iciimtur, are placed 
with (or accompany) one. qud, whith- 
er, to which. 

23-26. The personification of the 
virtues, begun by the disciple, is am- 
plified by the master into an allegory. 

23. Sola-ne. 

27. facturus, accomplish, nova, 
new argmnents. 

28. ista, what you have already 
said, minima, non. 

30. gustata, sipped — i.e., they are 
good enough to dabble with, but are 
only superficial. 

31-32. pictura imaginibusque, al- 
legory and personifications. 

32. rem, plain fact. 

33. hoc, this question. 

35. agere, discuss, treat the problem. 

36. te, the subject of praescrihere. 

37. actum, accomplished, superio- 
ribus diebus, the four previous days 
of discussion — during which it had 
been established that death, pain, 
grief, and all "mental disturbances" 
were to be despised by the true man. 

40. profligata, cKnc/ied. haec, with 

43-45. motus . . . repellentes, a 
philosophic definition of human pas- 
sions and emotions. 

44. rationem, reason. 

45. vitae, dative, partem, func- 

47. non, otherwise than. 

48. idem, masculine, quod, as. 

52. Quid qui, how about one who? 

53. eddem, thereto. 

54. orbitates, bereavements. qui,/ie 

55. non, otherwise than. 

55-59. ilium . . . , the debauchee. 

57-58. quo-que affluentius, and the 
more abundantly. 

59. sitientem, i.e., for pleasures, 
dixeris, call him. 

60-61. The reveler. 

61. miserior, supply est. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

62. hi, illi, supply sunt, metus, 
nominative plural. 

64-65. exultantes languidis volup- 
tatibus, modifies quos (1. 11), the 
personal object of liquefaciunt (weak- 

66. nulla . . . commovente, ablative 
absolute expressing time — i.e., the sea 
is understood to be tranquil, when . . . 

67. status, noun, the subject of 

68. queat, the subject is it (animus) . 
est, qui, there is anyone who. 

70. ducat, putet. ex quo, so that. 
idemque si, and if he. 

71. inani, ablative. 

72. quid est, what reason is there? 
haec, these results. 

[h] Excerpts from the master's sermon 

[i] Which was the happier — the despot 
Dionysius or the mathematician 

2. cum, inasmuch as. quinque . . . 

annos, at twenty-five. 

4. servitute oppressam tenuit, 
verbal phrase, held in bondage. The 
phrase has two objects: (1) urbem, 
modified by quu pulchritudine praedi- 
tam; and (2) civitatemy modified by 
quibus opibus praeditam. 

5. bonis, i.e., reliable, accepimus, 
we have heard, we know. 

7. virum, [eumfuisse] virum. eun- 
dem tamen [fuisse], and yet that he 

8. Ex quo, wherefore. 

8-9. omnibus videri miserrimum, 
lit., that to all he seem wretched — i.e., 
that all men regard him as wretched. 

9. Ea, neuter plural accusative, the 
object of consequebatur. 

10. omnia posse, had unlimited 

11. Qui cum, although he. 

12-13. alius . . . tradidit, i.e., ac- 
counts differ. 

13. aequalium, lit., those of his mvn 
a^e. consuetudine, companionship. 

15. iis, quos servos, iis servis qvas. 
familiis, households. 

15-16. quibus . . . detraxerat, i.e., 
qaos manumiserat — illegal and des- 
potic action, as the ipse suggests. 

16. convenis, refugees. Political 
exiles and fugitives from justice were 
always numerous in the Greek states. 

18. dominatus, genitive singular. 

19. By hedging about, he hedged 
himself in. 

21. sordido . . . artificio, lit., by a 
sordid and menial craft — i.e., exercis- 
ing a sordid and menial craft. 

22. tonstriculae, barbereftes. 

23. ab his, from them (his daugh- 
ters), ferrum, the steel (razor). 

24. candentibus . . . putaminibus, 
gloxoing walnut shells (or husks). 

25. adurerent, singe off. 

26. Ctun, expresses neither time 
nor cause, but mere attendant circum- 
stance. English therefore uses the 
present participle. 

27-28. sic . . . ut ante, only when. 

28. fossam, moat. 

29. cubiculari lecto, nuptial bed. 
29-30. transitum coniunxisset, 

English says construct a way across or 
join the two sides, but not join a way 

30. ligneo, wooden, eum, the 

31. Idem, he. 

32. suggestis (from suggestum), 

33. cum, whenever, pila, ball. 

34. poneret, took off. 

36. dixisset, i.e., to Dionysius. 
huic, the adulescentulus (or adulescens, 
as he is called at the end of this line). 

37. utnunque, ambos. 

38. interimendi sui, ad se [Diony- 
sium] interimendum. Sui is genitive 
of the pronoun se. 

39. dictum id, that remark. 

Notes: Cicero (Essays) 


40. doluit, suffered from remorse. 
nihil ut, ut nihil, quern, the one whom. 

42. impotentium [hominum], the 

43. ipse iudicavit, i.e., he tacitly 
passed judgment on himself. 

43-44. quam beatus, as to how 

46. dominatus, genitive singular. 

47. aedium regiarum, his palace 
(singular in English). 

48. inquit, the subject is Dionysius. 
50-51. ille dixisset se cupere^ [Dio- 
nysius] iussit. 

51. abacos, sideboards, 

52. argento auroque, dishes, cae- 
lato, engraved, chased. 

53. eximia forma, modifies pueros. 

54. intuentis, agrees with eos. 

67. lacunari, ceiiiTigr. saeta, a Aair. 

58. aptum, a participle, agrees with 
gladium; tied to, held hy. 

59. cervicibus, neck (singular in 
English). Damocles is reclining; 
consequently the sword is like the 
knife of a guillotine. 

61. defluebant, were slipping off — 
probably because Damocles was 
shaking with fright. 

63. Satisne, nonne, a mere inter- 
rogative particle, ei, for one. 

64. ei, Dionysius. integrum, open, 
free — i.e., possible. 

66. redderet, restore. 

66-67. iis, ea, such. lis belongs 
with the noun erratis. improvida 
aetate, at that short-sighted time of life, 
in loose apposition with advlesceris. 
\ 67. inretierat, entangled, salvus 
. . . , identical in substance and phrase- 
ology with Christian belief in "salva- 

69. Quantopere, how greaUy. 

70. in . . . illis, in the case of the two 
famous Pythagoreans (Damon and 
Pythias) . The more correct, but less 
familiar, form of the latter is Phintias. 

71-72. [Dionysius] alteram (Da- 
monem) vadem mortis (as a death 

proxy) accepisset, alter (Pythias), ut 
vadem suum (Damonem) liber aret .... 
Pythias, who had been condemned to 
death for his share in a conspiracy, 
was released from the death cell when 
Damon voluntarily took his place. 

72. praesto fuisset, adfuisset, de- 
pends on cum (1. 71). 

73. inquit [Dionysius]. 

74. Quam, how. 

75. victus, noun, genitive singular. 
75-76. homini docto erudito, in ap- 
position with huic (1. 74). 

77. perstudiosum, poetam, supply 
Dionysium. These accusatives are 
left suspended with no verb to govern 
them after the long parenthesis that 

77-78. quam . . . rem, how good a 
poet {Dionysius was), has nothing to do 
with the case. 

78. generef field, nescioquo pacto, 

79. sutun, his own work. 

80. Aquinio, a poetaster. 

86. qu&f than which, taetrius, Twore 

89. a . . . radio, from his dust (or 
sand) and rod. Thus the great 
mathematician made his diagrams; 
we would say '.from his blackboard and 

90. excitabo, summon (as a witness 
or example), qui . . . , Archimedes 
lived a century and a half after 

91-92. ignoratum, saeptimi, vesti- 
tiun, agree with sepulchrum (1. 93). 
esse, that it existed, that there was any. 

92. vepribus et dimietis, brambles 
and thickets. 

93. Tenebam, had possession (or a 
copy) of. senariolos, brief verses 
(iambic or trochaic senarii, or six-foot 

94. acceperam, {camec^, ^eard. qui, 
the verses. 


Notes: Cicero (Essays) 

97. portas, singular in English, one 
of the gates of Syracuse. 

100. principes, leading citizens. 

101. falcibus, sickles. 

102. multi, a gang of workmen. 

103. adversam basim, the face of 
the pedestal. 

105. dimidiatis, modifies partihus, 

107. Arpinate, adjective; the nom- 
inative form is Arpinas, from Arpi- 
num — i.e., Cicero, whose birthplace 
was Arpinum. 

110. humanitate, culture. 

112. modum, measure — ^i.e., stand- 

113. quaerimus, look into, alter- 
ius, of Archimedes, rationibus, prob- 
lems, theories. 

114. cum . . . , along with the satis- 
faction of skill (proficiency or intel- 
lectual achievement). qui, which, 
agrees with pastus, but equivalent to 
id quod. 

115. animonmi, English uses the 
generic singular, the mind. 

116. confer, Irring (or put) together. 
118-119. pars optima, mens. 
119-120. illud optimum, that "high- 
est good." 

120. sagaci, with mente. 

121-122. bono, bonum, these are 

122. hac, virtute. 

127. existere, arises from, sequi- 
tur, it follows (logically) . honestate, 
a synonym of virtute. 

[ii] Socrates, Xenocrates, and Diog- 
enes — despisers of wealth and power 

1. pompa, probably a religious pro- 
cession, in which precious images were 

3. talenta . . . , of course not a 
bribe, but a benefaction. 

6. tanttun quod, only as much as. 

7. cui numerari iuberet, to whom 
he hade it be paid — i.e., his treasurer, 
or purser. 

9. triginta minas, i.e., a mere hand- 
ful of silver coins, whereas fifty talents 
is a princely fortune. The talent was 
not a coin, but a weight of precious 

11. liberius (ut Cynicus), more 
frankly, being a Cynic. Frankness 
was the Cynics' ideal and they carried 
it to absurd lengths, regarding all 
conventions as sham. 

11-12. roganti ut diceret si, re- 
qu£sting him to say whether. Alex- 
ander's words to Diogenes in his tub, 
were: "Die mihi, si quid iibi opus sit "; 
and Diogenes' reply to the conqueror 
of the world was: " Yes, move a little 
to one side; you're cutting off my sun- 

13. offecerat, [Alexander] offecerat 
[Diogeni] apricanti {sunning himself). 
hie, Diogenes, disputare, i.e., when 
he held his regular lectures. 

14-16. sibi, se, . . . , the various 
reflexive forms refer to Diogenes, the 
lecturer; the various forms of ille and 
is, to the Persian king. 

16. suas [voluptates], the object of 

17. eum, the subject of consequi, 

[Hi] Simplicity — the soiu"ce of true 

1-2. inqtiinatam, polluted. 

3. sitiens, esuriens, thirsty, hungry. 

4. peragranti Aegyptum, while es- 
caping incognito from his enemies — 
like King Alfred, when he let the cakes 
burn. It is not known which Ptol- 
emy this was. 

5. cibarius, common, casa, hut (of 
a peasant). 

7. ferunt, they say, contentius, 
rather briskly. 

9. obsonare, was spicing. 

11. Victum, noun, the fare, phili- 

Notes: Lucretius (De Rerum Natura) 315 

tiis (Greek), their messes (in the mili- 
tary sense). 

13. iure, broth, caput, mainstay. 

16. cursus ad Eurotam, footraces 
to the river Eurotas. 

19. ut quicquid, whenever anything. 
obiectum est, i.e., to eat. 

19-20. quod modo, dummodo id. 

25. vestrae (not tuae) cenae, the 
banquets of you philosophers. 

27. Quid quod, what of the fact that? 
Or it may be rendered simply by 
moreover, which changes the rhetorical 
question to a statement. 

28. completi, when filled. 

29. Dionis propinquos, Dionis' 
kinsmen were in Syracuse. Plato 
wrote to them from Athens on his 
return from Syracuse, where his ex- 
periences had been very disappoint- 

30. qud, thither (to Syracuse). 
quae ferebatur, lit., which was re- 
ported — i.e., the so-called. Beaia is 
here used in the vulgar sense of which 
Plato does not approve. 

31. Italicarum, South-Italic — pro- 
verbial for luxurious. 

35. Quae natura, what character (or 
soul), tain mirabiliter, in such a re- 
markable (or extraordinary) way. 
This is ironical, temperari, be prop- 
erly regulated. 

40-41. These are hexameters. The 
epitaph of the voluptuary who brags 
that no one can deprive him of the 
pleasures he has had — they are his 
only certainty, incontestably and 
forever his. 

41. ilia relicta, those things I have 
left. This is in contrast to haec (1. 40) . 
multa et praeclara, though many and 
fair, iacent, are done for, are of no 

43. habere se mortutim, that in 
death fie still has. 

47. Aperta, obvious. 

48. egeat, the subject is she 




1. Aeneadum, Romanorum. Venus, 
mother of Aeneas, was the divine an- 
cestress of all the Romans, divom, 

2. signa, constellations. 

3. quae, tJiou who, translate before 

4. concelebras, dost haunt (or fill) 
with thy presence. 

5. exortum, when bom, agrees with 

7. pangere, compose. 

8. Memmiadae, patronymic, Mem- 
mio, for Memmius. He was Lucre- 
tius' patron, nostro, my friend. 

10. Quo magis, wherefore, dictis, 
my words, leporem, charm. 

11. moenera, munera, works. 

14. Mavors, Mars (lover of Venus) . 

17. nos, ego. agere hoc, set to my 
task, iniquo, troubled. 

18. Memmi propago, Memmiadcs, 
supply potest. 

19. in such circumstances (i.e., war 
time) to desert the commonwealth. 
Consequently he will have no time for 
philosophy, desse, deesse. 


The Mission of Epicurus 

1. cum, when, ante oculos, sup- 
ply omnium. 

2. in terris, in the mire. Life was 

3. quae, refers to Religion (per- 

4. super, with 7norfa/i6ws. instans, 

5-6. oculos tollere ausus est. 

7. deum, deorum. 

8. compressit, this has three sub- 

316 Notes: Lucretius (De Rerum Natura) 

jects: Jama, fulminaj and caelum. 
murmure, thunder. 

9. inritat, the subject is it (referring 
vaguely to caelum ^ etc.). animi vir- 
tutem, mind J spirit (of Epicurus). 

9-10. arta, adjective, agrees with 
claustra (bars). 

12. moenia . . . , "the fiery orb of 
ether that forms the outer circuit of the 
world." So astronomers are often 
poetically eulogized for penetrating 
(in spirit) the realm of the stars. 

12-13. processit, peragravit, the 
subject of these verbs is he. 

13. immensum, boundless space. 

14. refert, brings tidings. 

14-16. quid . . . , these were 
questions solved by the "discoveries" 
of Epicurus — viz.: (1) quid possit oriri 
— i.e., what phenomena can arise 
(according to the atomic theory of the 
universe); (2) what phenomena can- 
notarise; and (3) what are the phys- 
ical laws of the universe. 

15-16. finita . . . , denique qua ra- 
tione cuique [rei] potestas finita sit 
atque [quis sit cuique rei] terminus. 

16. alte haerens, deeply fixed. 


Religion, What Crimes are Commit- 
ted in Thy Name! 

1. rearis, from reor. 

2. te, the reader, rationis ele- 
menta, grounds of reasoning. 

3. indu-gredi, ingredi. Quod con- 
tra, Ht., contrary to which, ilia, with 

5. Aulide, locative, quo pacto, 
gito modo, even as. Trivial, Dianae. 

6. Iphianassai, genitive, with san- 

7. prima virorum, a Greek idiom, 
primi viri (nominative plural). Prima 
is neuter plural nominative. 
Danaum, Danaorumy Graecorum. 

8-9. as soon as (simul) the head- 
hand, placed around her (cui) maiden 

locks, hung down {profusa 'st) cqualbj 
{pari) on each side of her chccL.s 

11. himc propter, beside him. mi- 
nistros, the subject of cclare. 

12. aspectu suo, at the sight of her. 
civis, the subject of effundere, 

13. petebat . . . , sank down faints 

14. miserae, refers to Iphianassa, 
dative with prodcsse. quibat (from 
quco), the subject is it. 

15. quod, that, princeps, prima. 
She was his oldest child, patrio 
donarat nomine, she had presented the 
king with the name "father." 

16-17. The pathos of the picture is 
heightened by the fact that sublata 
and deducta, in addition to their 
literal meanings, connote wedding 
ceremonies — viz., lifting the bride 
over the threshold and escorting her 
to her new home. Iphianassa found 
herself the bride not of Achilles, but 
of Death! 

16. virum, virorum. 

17. sacrortun, wedding ceremonial. 

18. comitari hymenaeo, he ac- 
companied by the wedding song. 

19-20. casta inceste hostia, as a 
chaste victim foully (i.e., unrighteously). 

20. mactatu maesta, blasted by the 

21. This is a purpose clause. 

The Difficulty of Lucretius* Task 
1. animi, locative, need not ho, 
translated, reperta, used as a noun. 

3. multa, neuter plural, the diicct 
object of agendum sit (gerund) . Cicc^ro 
would use the gerundive: multa siitit 
agenda, must be treated (or expressed). 

4. rerum, themes, subject matter. 

5. tua, this is addressed to Mcm- 

7. inducit, supply me (with which 
quaerentem agrees). 

Notes: Lucretius (De Rerum Natura) 317 

8. dictis quibas, hy what words. 

9. praepandere, spread before. 
lumina, disregard the plural number. 

10. quibus, refers to luminal hy 
which, res, accusative plural. 

The Two Basic Laws of Nattire 

1. Hunc, the present. 
1-3. Necesse est ut non radii sed 
species . . . discutiant terrorem. 

3. naturae species ratioque, the 
form and system of nature — i.e., the 
knowledge of nature's laws. 

4. the foundation thereof, in our 
opinion (nobis), shall thus (hinc) begin. 

5. nilo, nihilo. This first principle 
flatly refutes the opening words of 
the Bible: In principio creavit Deus 
caelum et terras. 

6. ita continet, so constrains. 

7. quod, because. 

7-8. multa . . . quorum operum, 
multa opera {operations) . . . gv^rrum. 

11. sequimiu*, seek. 

13. quaeque, each and all. opera 
sine, without the aid of. 

[14]. See note on 1. 1 of Plautus' 
Miles, p. 253. 

15. discidio, by dissolution, cor- 
pora material, first bodies of matter — 
i.e., atoms. 

16-27. Lucretius* proof of the inde- 
structibility of matter is developed 
with true poetic feeling: the fructify- 
ing rains sink into the lap of Mother 
Earth and disappear, but from them 
spring all living things in unbroken 
sequence. Cf. Omar Khayyam: 

I sometimes think that never blows so 

The Rose as where some buried 

Caesar bled; 
That every Hyacinth the Garden 

Dropt in her Lap from some once 

lovely Head. 

And this reviving Herb whose tender 

Fledges the River-Lip on which we 

lean — 
Ah, lean upon it lightly! for who 

From what once lovely Lip it springs 

unseen ! 

16. pereunt, pass away — i.e., seem- 
ingly. They disappear but do not die, 
for they fructify the earth. 

19. ipsae, the trees themselves. 

20. hinc, from vegetation. 

22. canere, resound. 

23. fessae pingui (noun), wearied 
with fatness. 

27. mentes perculsa novellas, 
thrilled in their young hearts. 

29. alid, aliud. 

30. adiuta, requited, agrees with 

The Composition of Matter 

1-2. Nee corporea stipata tenentur 
nattira, are not held rigid by matter — 
i.e., there is void everywhere, both 
within and between things. 

2. inane, noun. 

3. Quod, which fact, cognosse, 

4. According to Lucretius, food 
permeates the body; he has no idea of 
the chemistry of digestion, either in 
animals or in plants. 

5. arbusta, arbores. tempore, sea- 

6. totas, supply arbores. 

8. Inter saepta, through barriers. 

10. Quod, which thing, the subject 
of fieri (1. 11). inania, empty spaces. 
sint, Cicero would use essent. qui, 
where — i.e., via the empty spaces. 

12-13. alias res praestare aliis 
rebus, some things excel others. 

13. nilo, nowise, equivalent to a 
simple negative, figura, size. 

318 Notes: Catullus (Preliminary Selections) 

14-15. tantundem corporis, just as 
much matter. 

14. lanae glomere, a hall of wool. 

15. plumbo, i.e., of the same size. 
par est, it is natural, it must. 

16. quoniam est corporis officium 
(function) premere omnia deorsum — 
i.e., to gravitate. 

17. inanis, genitive, depends on 
natura. The circumlocution natura 
inanis simply means void. 

18. quod, tfiat which. 

19. plus esse sibi, se habere plus. 
inanis, genitive, depends on plu^. 

20. contra, adverb, gravius, nomi- 
native, the heavier thing. 

21. dedicat, avows. 

22. Est, there is. 

23. admixtum, something mixed 



The Non-L3rric Meters 

[a] Hexameter 

[{\ The wedding song 
1. Vesper, the Evening Star. 
1-2. Oljrmpo lumina tollit, lit., lifts 

its light from — i.e., hangs over — Mi. 

Olympus. The evening star does not 


3. pinguis mensas, the wedding 

4. virgo, the bride. dicetur, be 

5. The refrain of the wedding song 
is heard. 

6. Ut, as, correlative with sic (1. 12). 

7. aratro, plow. 

10. cum, when, defloruit (from 
defloresco), droop. 

12. Over a hundred years later, 
Quintilian commented on this line in 
his Institutes of Oratory as follows: 
Prius "dum" significat "qvaad," se- 
quens "usque eo." 

16. vidua vitis, unwed — i.e., un- 
supported (or unpropped) — grapevine. 
The "marriage" of the clinging grape- 
vine to the supporting elm was a 

17. uvam, grapes. 

19. Root and top shoot (flagellum) 
practically touch when the vine lies 
flat on the ground. 

20. accoluere, cultivate, tend. 

24. par, right, proper. This is a 
variation of the regular legal phrase 
iustae nuptiae. 

[ii] The epyUion 
1. Peliaco prognatae vertice, modi- 
fies pinus (nominative plural), sprung 
from Mt. Pelion. This miracle of the 
first ship — how leafy trees were con- 
verted into vessels — was one of which 
the Roman poets never tired. 

3. Phasis, a river in the Land of 
the Golden Fleece. The ruler of this 
land was Medea's father, Ae-e-tes (a 
mellifluous name) — w^hence the ad- 
jective Aeetaeos. Spondaic lines were 
much more frequently used by the 
Hellenistic word painters than by 

4. cum, when, robora, this is in 
apposition with iuvenes. 

5. avertere, carry off as loot. Col- 
chis, from the Colchians. 

7. verrentes, sweeping, abiegnis, 
of fir wood, palmis, paddles, oars. 
Since this also means hand, it suggests 
personification of the noble ship. 

[b] Elegiac 
[i] Misplaced h's 
2. Arrius, supply dicebat. 
4. quantum poterat, as strongly as 

Notes: Catullus (Preliminary Selections) 319 

5. liber, a dig at the low and servile 
origin of Arrius — ^he had one uncle who 
was free. 

7. Hoc, ablative, he (Arrius). 

8. audibant, this is the old form of 
the fourth conjugation, leniter . . . , 
supply pronounced. 

11. isset, ivisset. 

[ii] A curt rebuff to Julius Caesar 

1. nil nimium, not overmuch, tibi, 
with placere. 

2. albus an ater, a proverbial ex- 
pression of indifference. 

[c] Limping Iambic 
On the one failing of Suffenus 

2. venustus, dicax, pleasant, witty. 

3. idemque, and yet he. longe 
plurimos, i.e., he holds the long- 
distance record. 

4. milia aut decern, milia aut decern 
[milia versuum]. esse illi, ilium 
habere, i.e., in his bookcase. 

5. tu, indefinite you. bellus, this 
is not used in any disparaging sense, 
but as a synonym of adjectives in 1. 2. 

6. unus (colloquial), the indefinite 
article — as in the Romance languages, 
caprimulgus, fossor, goat milker, 
ditcher. These are general equival- 
ents of clodhopper, boor, etc. 

7. abhorret, varies, is inconsistent. 

9. ac cum, as when. 

11. Niminim, of course, idem, 
neuter singular, cognate accusative 
with fallimur — i.e., have the same 

12. Suffenum, generic, a Suffenus. 

13. attributus, i.e., by fate or the 

14. manticae . . . est, that part of the 
load which is behind our backs. An 
ancient grammarian said: Aesopv^ 
tradit homines duos manticae habere 
{all men carry two packs), unam ante 
se, alteram retro; in priorem aliena 
vitia mittimus {put), ideo et videmus 

facile; in posteriorem nostra, quae 
abscondimus et videre nolumus. 

[d] Regular Iambic 

[i] Six-foot iambic with substitutions 

The world is going to the dogs! 

1. I.e., there is nothing left for an 
honest man to do but die. 

2. stnmia, in apposition with 
Nonius, a term of abuse that may be 
rendered by wart. 

3. Per, by. perjerat, this is the 
same as per jurat, swears falsely — im- 
plying that he never keeps his oath. 
A consul might very naturally swear 
by his sacred office. 

[ii\ "Seven-foot" iambic with substi- 

To a Hght-fingered and effeminate 

1. involasti, stole. 

2. sudarium, handkerchief, cata- 
graphos, writing tablets — perhaps 
made of some rare carved wood. 

3. quae, which things (the stolen 
goods), palam habere, to use openly, 
to display brazenly, avita, an adjec- 
tive used as a noun; ancestral posses- 
sions, heirlooms. 

5. laneum, i.e., soft as wool. 

6. inusta, lit., burned — i.e., flayed. 
Latin metaphorically called any pain- 
ful abrasion of the skin — e.g., frost- 
bite, chilblains, blisters — a "bum." 
flagella, the subject of conscribillent. 

7. insolenter, in an unaccustomed 

7-8. aestues . . . , writhe — like a 
skiff tossing in an angry sea. 

[Hi] "Pure" iambic 

The yacht's epitaph 

1. Phasellus, lit., kidney bean — i.e., 
a light and graceful vessel. The epi- 
taph was inscribed on a model of the 

320 Notes: Catullus (Preliminary Selections) 

yacht, or perhaps on the old hull of 
the yacht itself — provided it could be 
brought up the Po to Catullus' estate. 
hospites, friends, passers-by — ^i.e., you 
who stop to read my epitaph. 

2. ait fuisse celerrimus, a Greek 
construction, ait se fuisse celerrimum 
(cf. 1. 6). 

3. Amastri, a Greek vocative, 
Amastris on the Black Sea. 

5. xiltima, earliest. 

6. Again the miracle (as in the case 
of the Argo) — the metamorphosis of 
trees to ships, dicit stetisse, a Greek 
construction, se stetisse. 

7. impotentia freta, wild waters. 

8. erum, the object of tulisse. The 
subject is the ship. 

9-10. luppiter secundus, a favor- 
able wind, utrumque simul incidisset 
in pedem, Ht., struck each sheet (or 
sail rope) simultaneously (or evenly) — 
i.e., blew dead astern. 

12. sibi, dative of agent, by the 
yacht. Vows to the shore gods were 
made only in fear of shipwreck. 

13. novissime, finally. 

16. Castor, vocative. gemelle 
Castoris, Pollux. The twin gods, 
Castor and Pollux, were the patron 
saints of sailors. 

The Lyric Meters 

[a] Hendecasyllabic 
[i] Humble thanks to Cicero 

1. Romuli nepotum, descendants of 
Romulus (all the Romans). 

3. -posty hereafter. 

6. tanto, by as much. 

7. pSLtTonus J advocate. 

[ii] To Julius Caesar 

2. immerentibus, mock humility. 
unice, ironical. Caesar called himself 
imperator, but he acted as if he were 

[Hi] Overheard in the crowd 

1. modd, just now. corona, audi- 

2-3. Vatiniana crimina, the charges 
against Vatinius. 

4. manus tollens, a gesture of 

[iv] 111 winds 

1. As if in answer to a query from 
Furius, Catullus laughlingly con- 
fesses to the true "situation" of his 
villa. The whole point of the epi- 
gram lies in the double meaning of 
opposita — either placed toward or (as 
a technical term of finance) mortgaged 
for. Austri, local names for winds 
predominate in Latin. The winds 
here mentioned are approximately 
south, west, north, and east. 

2. flatus, accusative plural. 

4. 15,200 sesterces. 

5. ventimi, punsters may translate 
this by draft. 

[v] An invitation to a Barmecide feast 

2. si tibi di favent, this slyly sug- 
gests the humor of the situation: 
God willingy you'll get a good dinner. 

4. Candida puella, a handsome 
dancing girl. 

6. sale, wit. To the Greeks and 
Romans salt proverbially meant wit 
(cf. the English spice of life), omni- 
bus, all kinds of. cachinnis (from 
cachinnus), laughs, laughter. The 
Enghsh derivative of this is cachinna- 

6. noster, vocative, equivalent to 
mi (1. 1). 

8. sacculus, little sack, purse, ara- 
nearum, cobwebs. 

9. contra, in exchange — i.e., for 
what he brings. Meros Amores, a 
perfume. Essence of Love, Djerkiss. 
In ancient Greece and Rome, just as 
among many peoples today, men used 
perfume quite as much as women did. 

Notes: Catullus (Preliminary Selections) 321 

10. quid, whatever. 

11. unguentum, perfume. The 
modern method of preserving per- 
fumes in distilled alcohol was imknown 
to the ancients, because they had no 
alcohol; they used only oils and salves 
— like our hair oil and cold cream. 
puellae, sweetheart. 

12. donarunt, donaverunt. Veneres 
Cupidinesque, the Laves and Cupids. 
The plural is a feature neither of 
Greek mythology nor of Roman re- 
ligion, but of Alexandrian sentimen- 
tality — ^whence come our valentine 

[vi] Cherchez la femme 

4. libellis, bookshops. 

6. Magni Ambulatione, the Portico 
of Pompey (Cn. Pompeius Magnus). 

7. femellas, diminutive, lasses. 
prendi, prehendi. 

8. None of them acted guilty. 

9. AvenSy cupiens. 

10. Supply reddite or demonstrate. 

11. te, the object oi ferre {endure). 
The infinitive clause is the subject of 
est; Hercuti is genitive; lahos is an- 
other form of labor. 

12. te-n[e] negas {nobis]^ te oc- 

13-14. This is a witty repetition. 
The object of ede, committe, and crede 
is it (the secret). 

14. committe, supply nobis. 

17. fructus, advantages, proicies, 
perdes, a witty jibe — i.e., what's the 
use of having a secret love affair^ if you 
don't tell everyone all about it? Sim- 
ilarly Catullus twits a certain Flavins 
on a secret amour in these words: 

Flavi delicias ^ tuas CatuUo 
(ni sint^ illepidae atqueinelegantes) 
velles' dicere — nee tacere posses!* 
Immo quicquid habes boni malique, 
die nobes. Volo te ac tuos amores 
ad caelum lepido vocare^ versu. 

[b] Lyric Strophes 

A festal hymn to Diana 

This hymn is to be sung by a choir 
of boys and girls. 

I. fide, protection. 

5. Latonia, daughter of Latona (or 
Leto), Diana. 

7. quam, whom (Diana), mater, 

8. deposivit, at birth. To the 
pagan Greeks, Latona was the wand- 
ering and homeless madonna who had 
no place to put her babe. 

9. ut, purpose. 

II. This line is hypermetric; con- 
trary to usual practise the last syl- 
lable is elided before the vowel at the 
beginning of the next line. 

13-14. thou art called Juno Jjocina 
by wmnen in childbirth. Diana had 
many and diverse functions, because, 
in the evolution of pagan religion, she 
was a composite of many minor local 

15. Trivia, Hecate — goddess of 
magic and the black art. notho, 
false^ borrowed. 

16. According to Catullus, luna. is 
derived from lumen — although her 
light is not her own. 

17. ctirsu . . . , i.e., waxing and 

18. iter annuum, circuit of the 
years — i.e., simply the year. 

^ delicias, sweetheart. 

2 ni sint, unless she is. 

^velles, you should want (or long) to. 

* posses, you ov^ht not to be able to. This is the climax. 

* ad caeltmi vocare, make you famous. 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

19-20. The moon — as superstitious 
farmers still say — brings good crops. 

21-22. Sis sancta, be thou hallowed. 

22. This line is hypermetric. 

22-24. Romuli gentem, Romanos. 

24. sospites, verb. This has the 
same construction as sis in (1. 21^. 
ope, helpj aid. 

[c] Lyric Long-Lines 

(In honor of Priapus) 

2. qui, where. 

3. ora, the whole shore region and 
all its cities — not Lampsacus alone. 

4. ostriosior, more oystery. 



Vers de Soci^t^ 

[a] On Presenting a De Luxe Edition 
of His Verses to Cornelius Nepos 

1. done, donabo. 

2. mod6, just noWy with expolitum 
translate it freshly. One of the marks 
of an expensive book was its pohshed 

3-4. solebas putare meas nugas 
(trifles) esse aliquid. 

5. iam tum cum, eo tempore quo. 
ausus es, ventured. Nepos had pub- 
lished a brief universal history — one 
of the most difficult tasks an historian 
can undertake. 

6. omne aevum, the whole of tim£ — 
i.e., a history of the world, chartis, 
sheets of paper. Three sheets is a 
pardonable exaggeration, due to 
friendly enthusiasm. The work was 
in three "books"; when imrolled, a 
papyrus "book" makes one long sheet 
of paper. 

7. luppiter, a mild oath. 

8. habe, cape. 

8-9. quicquid . . . , hoc libelli (this 

bit of a book), quicquid [et] qualecum- 
que [est]. This is a modest reference 
to his own work. 

9. quod, id. 

10. maneat, a prayer. 

[b] After a Merry Evening 

The friendship between Catullus 
and Calvus (the salaputium diser- 
tum) was a famous one; Calvus how- 
ever devoted only his leisure time to 

1. otiosi, supply nos. 

2. lusimus, equivalent to scrip- 
simus — when applied to the Hghter 
kinds of verse. 

3. ut convenerat, when it had been 
agreed, delicatos (colloquial), merry, 

5. ludebat, componebat. numero, 
m£ter. modd . . . mod6, temporal. 

6. reddens mutua, returning like 
for like, giving tit for tat — i.e., they 
were matching, or capping, verses 

8. iacensus, enamored. 

9. ut, result. 

11. toto, with lecto. indomitus 
furore, of course he exaggerates his 

12. lucem, daylight. 

17. dolorem, plight — i.e., infatua- 
tion for you. 

18. audax, haughty, toplofty, nos- 
tras, meas, my desires and requests (for 
further meetings of the same sort). 

19. ©ramus, oro. 
20-21. Mock solemnity. 
21. vemens, vehemens. 

[c] I'll Get Even With You Yet! 

1. Ni, nisi, plus oculis, the tradi- 
tional and conventional Latin phrase. 

2. munere, an ablative of cause. 
English uses for. 

3. Vatiniano, Vatinian, of a Vatir- 
nius — who had no love for his politi- 
cal enemy and prosecutor, Calvus. 

Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 


5. male (colloquial), damnably. 

6. Isti, with clienti, a dig at Calvus 
— for lawyers were forbidden to re- 
ceive fees, but could accept "gifts." 
di mala multa dent, a real oath. 

7. tantum impionim, tot impios 
[poetasl a humorous exaggeration. 
To Catullus there was no greater 
crime than writing bad verse. 

8. repertimi (colloquial), rechercM. 
Nauum ac repertum may be rendered 
by newfangled. 

9. Sulla, not the famous Sulla, but 
a poverty-stricken schoolmaster — 
another dig at Calvus and his clientele. 

10. male est mi[Ml, a favorite col- 
loquialism, here I am downcast. The 
meaning depends somewhat on the 
context; it often is / am sick. 

11. dispereimt, go for nought (or 
unrewarded) . 

12. Di, an oath, libellum, an ex- 
clamation in the accusative. 

14. misti, misisH. continuo, ad- 
jective, eodem. periret, the subject is 

15. Saturaalibus, in apposition 

with die. 

16. salse, vocative, you wag! non 
hoc tibi abibit, the corresponding 
American colloquialism uses a per- 
sonal verb: you will not get away with 


17. luxerit (from luceo), day shall 
dawn. This is mock-serious. 

18. scrinia, the ancient equivalent 
of bookcases. Actually they were 
round bandboxes that held the papy- 
rus rolls. Caesios, generic plural. 

18-20. Catullus will repay Calvus 
in kind— i.e., with a Latin anthology 
to match his Greek one. 

19. SufEenum, the sudden shift to 
the singular suggests that Suffenus is 
in a class by himself. 

22. illftc, although he does not 
specify exactly where, we may con- 
jecture that it is to Limbo, pedem, 
a pun. 

[dl An Epistle 

1-3. Velim, pa^yre (vocative), [ut] 
dicas Caecilio, poetae tenero .... [ut] 
Veronam vewiat. Catullus addresses 
his letter paper as though it were a 
messenger carrying a verbal message. 
tenero, gentle, sodali, comrade. 

3-4. Novum Comum, the present 
town of Como. 

4. Larium, the present Lake Como. 

5. cogitationes, problems. 

6. accipiat, hear, consider. The 
subject is Caecilius. sui meique, 
mutual— provided the phrase is to be 
taken literally. Perhaps Catullus is 
cryptically referring to himself! 

8. From here on Catullus twits his 
fellow poet on a little love affair. 

8-9. miliens revocet [Caecilium] eun- 

11. quae, the antecedent is puella. 

12. deperit, slang, amat — as in 
Plautus. impotente, passionate. 

13-14. quo tempore ... ex eo, ever 
since. She seems to have fallen in 
love with him for his poetry— as Les- 
bia did with Catullus (see p. 238 ff). 
incohatam, lit., begun. We would 
say the beginning of. 

14. "Dindymi dominam," these are 
probably the opening words of Cae- 
cilius' poem— just as the Aeneid is 
called "Arma virumque." misellae 
dative, supply puellae. 

15. ignes, amor, medullam, Tmir- 
j.Qy) — popularly believed to be the seat 
of passion. 

16-17. Sapphica Musa, Sappho 
herself— the tenth Muse. 

18. Caecilio, dative of agent. 
"Magna Mater," this is probably the 
title of Caecilius' poem. 

[e] Absent-Minded! 

1. amores, this is singular in 
meaning, sweetheart. 

2. visum, supine, to yisi^. otiosum, 
with me. 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

3. scortillum, diminutive of scoriwm, 
in apposition with amores; wenchf 
baggage, jade. In reality this is a 
coarse word, but it is used jocosely 

4. illepidum, with scortillum. 

5. ut, when. 

5-6. incidere . . . varii lit., various 
topics of conversation came to us — i.e., 
we conversed about various matters. 

6. in, among. 

6-8. quid . . . quo . . . quonam . . . , 
these are the questions discussed. 
quid, i.e., what sort of place. 

7-8. haberet . . . profuisset, the 
subject is Bithynia. 

8. aere, from aes — i.e., how much 
money I had made there. 

9. erat, i.e., the truth. 

9-10. nihil neque ipsis [Bithyniis] 
nee cohorti fuisse, nee ipsos Bithynios 
nee cohortem quicquid habuisse. The 
two negatives, nihil nequCf do not 
make a positive. 

10. hoc praetore, an ablative abso- 
lute, under the present governor. 

11. imctius, sleeker. referret, 
bring back home. 

12. irrumator, another coarse word, 
lightly used — e.g., son-of-a-gun. 

13. faceret pill, care a straw for. 
The subject is praetor. 

14-15. quod . . . esse, i.e., the 
product of the country, in apposition 
with homines (1. 16). Slaves ex- 
ported from Bithynia were reputed to 
be the best chairmen {ad lecticam 

15. comparasti, bought. 

17. me facerem, make myself out. 
beatiorem, rich. 

18. maligne, badly off. 

19. quod, just because, mala (col- 
loquial), rotten. 

20. octo, eight slaves to one chair 
would be some turn-out! rectos 
(colloquial), proper, strong. 

21. nuUus, nemo. 

22. pedem grabati, leg of a sofa. 

24. Hie, hereupon, einaediorem, 
another coarse word, shameless hussy. 

26. eommoda, lend. 

27. mane, the final e is not elided, 
but loses half its quantity. 

28. istud, that remark (1. 20). The 
gist of the remark is now repeated, 
with me habere standing for parare. 

29-30. In his embarrassment, Ca- 
tullus flounders, fiigit me ratio, / got 
mixed up. The metaphor is taken 
from arithmetic — i.e., the sum escaped 

31. utrum, supply homines sint. 

32. Utor [Cinnae servis] tarn bene 
quam [si] mihi paraverim. 

33. male (colloquial), mi^^iy. vivis, 

34. per quam, lit., through — i.e., 
thanks to — whom. The antecedent is 
tu (1. 33). non licet, one may not. 

[f] Farewell to My Villa 
Meter: Umping iambic. 

1. noster, vocative, agrees with 
funde, my estate. It was on the 
outskirts of fashionable Tibur (Ti- 
voli), and so far from the town that 
Catullus' enemies sneeringly referred 
to it as his "Sabine shack" — for, like 
Bar Harbor, Tibur was on the edge of 
the backwoods. 

1-2. Tiburs, Tiburtem, these are 
adjectives, Tiburtine. 

2. te, the estate, autumant, qui- 
bus, [w] dicunt, quibus. 

2-3. quibus . . . laedere, Catullus* 
friends, non est cordi, non placet. 

3. quibus . . . est, Catullus' 

4. quovis pignore contendunt, wager 
anything — viz. [fundum] esse Sabinum. 

6. suburbana, only Tibur could be 
called suburban. 

7. malam, accursed. 

7-9. tussim, qvxim meus venter mihi 
{non immerenti) dedit, dum appeto 
sumptuosas cenas, this does not mean 
that he actually had intestinal grippe» 

Notes: Catullus (Cannina) 


but that his ilhiess was a punishment 
for his gluttony — he had lusted after 
the fleshpots of Sestius' banquet. 

10. Sestianus, a possessive adjec- 
tive, used for the genitive, Sestian 
(for of Sestius). 

11. petitorem, a candidate for of- 

13. gravedo frigida, a stuffy cold. 

14. in tuum sinum, in <e, Villa, 

15. urtica, nettle. How this was 
administered as a remedy, we do not 

16. tibi, the villa, grates, gratias. 

17. quod, because. 

18-19. Nee deprecor . . . quin, this 
is virtually a double negative, equiva- 
lent to precor . . . ut. 

19. recepso, recepero. 

20. An unexpected and witty turn. 
From 11. 16-19 one would expect 
merely mihi detfrigus — i.e., / don't care 
now if I do get a cold from the frigid 
speeches of Sestius, for I'm sure to he 
cured at my villa; but instead Catullus 
says: / don't care now if Sestius gets a 
cold from his own speeches! 

21. vocat me, invites me to dinner. 
time . . . cum, only when. 

\g] "Come, Landlord, Fill the Flowing 
Note the suggestion of alternating 
rhjone in the jingle -er -i -er -i (1. 1) 
and in the^nal syllables -es -ae -is -ae 
Gl. 2-5) — a tendency in the direction 
of the modem drinking song, or 
tavern ditty. 

1. Minister puer, vocative, puer, 
servant, slave, gargon. 

2. inger, ingere, imperative; pour 
in, fill up. calices, cups, amariores, 
bitterer, sourer — because stronger. 
The revels began with diluted wine 
and worked up gradually to neat, 

3-7. Posttmiia, mistress of the 
revels. She has just commanded that 
the wine be drurJc unmixed, so Catul- 
lus shouts: Away with water! 

3-4. Postumiae, ebriosioris (tipsier) 
ebrioso acino {than the tipsy grape). 

5. vos lymphae, vocative, ye waters. 

6. pernicies, in apposition with 
lymphae. severos, Puritans, teeto- 

7. Thyonianus, Bacchus (son of 
Thyone) — i.e., wine. 

[h] To Marrucinus Asinius 

1. sinistra, a sneak thief proverbi- 
ally used his left or "sinister" hand. 

3. tollis, lift, steal, lintea, hand- 

4. salsum, witty, fugit te (collo- 
quial), you're wrong. 

5. quamvis, very. 

7. fratri, supply tuo. vel, even. 
The talent is a fabulous sum — ^more 
than anyone would actually pay. 

8. mutari, to be redeemed — i.e., his 
brother is willing to pay hush money, 
est, the subject is he. 

8-9. disertus puer leporum ac face- 
tiarum, this is general eulogy in rather 
colloquial language, a clever and de- 
lightful chap. 

12. aestimatione, money value, 

13. mnemosynum (Greek), scm- 
venir, keepsake. 

14. sudaria, lintea. Hiberis, Iber- 
ia, Spain. 

16-17. necesse est [ut] haec [sudaria] 
amem, sicut ami) Veraniolum .... 

[i] Advice to Egnatius 

Meter: limping iambic. 

2. ad, with suhsellium. rei, from 
reu^ (not res), ventum est, an im- 
personal passive, when people have 
come (not when he has come), 

3. excitat fletum, i.e., in the jury. 
It was then the duty of friends to ap- 
pear in moimiing and display their 
anxiety and grief. 

5. lugetur, an impersonal passive; 
there is mourning, people mourn, 
unictun, supply filium. 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

10. Urbanus, Roman. This is quite 
different from urhanunif meaning 
simply urbane (1. 8). 

10-14* The long catalogue of na- 
tionalities to which Egnatius does not 
belong wittily prolongs the suspense. 

15. tamen, still. 

17. nunc, as it is. Celtiber, a 

18. quod quisque minxit, urina. 
manei next morning. 

19. dentem, gingivan, these are 
collective; teeth, gums. 

20. ut, so thatj therefore, expresses 
result, iste vaster dens est, are the 
teeth of you Spaniards. Vester is 
plural, and" as such can never be sub- 
stituted for tuus in classical Latin — 
although noster is regularly substi- 
tuted for meus. 

20-21. quo expolitior . . . hoc am- 
plius, the more gleaming . . . the more 
(or larger amount of) tooth wash. 

21. praedicet, the subject is dens. 
Since the latter is collective, the verb 
must be translated by they show (or 
indicate), bibisse, this is sarcastic 
exaggeration, lotiiun, urine. 

[j] Scurvy PoUticians 

1. Porci, vocative. 

4. verpus Priapus, Piso. Verpu^ 
means circumcised. 

5. lauta, elegant. 

6. de die, hy day — & sign of extrav- 

7. in trivio, lit., at the crossroads. 
vocationes, invitations. 

[k] Welcome to the Wanderer 

1. omnibus . . . amicis, alone of all 
my friends. 

2. antistans mihi, worth more to me 
than, milibus trecentis, this is a 
humorous exaggeration. 

4. anum, adjective, aged. 
6. Hibenim, the genitive plural; 
with loca, etc.; Iberians, Spaniards. 

8. applicans [tuum] colltim, pulling 
toward me. English would say: 
throwing my arms around. 

10. quanttun est hominum, quot 
sunt (i.e., omnes) homines. 

11. Catullus means quis me laetior 
est, but the neuter is colloquial and 

[1] Homeward Bound 

1. e-gelidos, lit., thawing. 

3. silescit, this is equivalent to the 
passive, is silenced by. auris, from 

4. Linquantiw campi, this is equiva- 
lent to linque campos. 

5. uher, fertile. 

6. urbes, e.g., Ephesus, Miletus, 
etc. (in Asia Minor). Catullus plans 
to go sightseeing, volemus, from 

7. avet, cupit. 

8. vigescunt, quicken. 

9. coetus, the vocative plural, 

10. quos, longe a domo simul 
profectos. simul, together — all came 
from Rome at one time. This is in 
contrast with diversae {separate) and 
variae {of different kinds). 

[m] Home Again 

Meter: limping iambic. 

1. It was hard to tell whether 
Sirmio (on Lake Garda) was an 
island or a near-island (peninsula). 

2. ocelle, gem. stagnis, lakes. 

3. fert, as though the water bore 
islands on its surface, uterque, 
mythology has only one Neptune, but 
in this way Catullus wittily distin- 
guishes between fresh and salt water. 

4. quam, how. 

7. solutis curis, than release from 

11. pTO, worth. 

12. ero, for your muster. 

13. Lydiae, Etruscan. 

Notes: Catullus (Cannina) 


14, ridete omnes domesticos caching 
nos (cognate accusative). 

[n] When Cupid Sneezes 

I. Acmen, accusative, amoresi 

3-7. This is a lover's vow; the main 
clause begins in 1. 6. 

3. ni, nisij with amo and sum para- 
tus. perdite, adverb. 

5. pote, supply est; perire, amare. 
The whole clause is therefore equiva- 
lent to: tantum quantum is qui potest 
plurimum amare. 

7. caesio, a traditional epithet for 
lions, perhaps gray-eyed, veniam, a 

II. ebrios, love-sick. 

12. purpureo, crimson (never what 
we call purple), saviata, kissing. 

13. sic, so surely. 

14. domino, Love, serviamus, a 

15. ut, as. 

20. amant [et] amantur. 

21. misellus, pining. 

24. facit, finds, libidines, pleas- 
ure. English uses the singular. 

25. homines, human beings. 

26. Venerem, a love. 


Epithalamia, or Wedding Songs 

For ManUus Torquatus and His 

1. Collis, genitive. 

2. cultor, ht., inhabitant, genus, 

3. virum, bridegroom. 

6-10. Although a male god, Hymen 
is dressed in the symbolic bridal 

7. amaraci, marjoram. 

8. flammeum, bridal veil. 

9. gerens, wearing. 

10. luteum, yellow. 

16-18. Vinia [talis], qualis Venus, 
like unto Venus when she came .... 

17. Idalium colens, dwelling in 
Idalium (Idalian Venus). 

18-19. Phrygiimi iudicem, the 
judgment of Paris. 

20. alite, omen. 

21-25. Vinia is like a yoimg myrtle 

22. Asia, adjective. 

24. hi6iQT\xm.t as a plaything, rosi- 
do, dewy. 

26. aditum ferens, adveniens. 

30. Aganippe, a spring — here per- 

33. revinciens, binding. 

34. hedera, ivy. 

37. virgines, bridal chorus of girls. 

38. par dies, their wedding day. 
agite, come! in modum, to the meas- 
ure (musical). 

42. se, himself, citarier, citari. 

43. munus, duty^ office. 

44. dux. Hymen. 

46. pandite, spoken to the attend- 

47. ut, hcyw. 

48. comas, i.e., of sparks. 

52-53. I.e., be in the land of the 

69. En ... , this is spoken to the 
bride — ^who has now reached her new 
home, ut, h(yw. 

71. sine . . . , Ze< it (the household) 
serve you. The wife will be mater- 
familias and domina. 

74-75. movens tempus, shaking the 
temples (i.e., head). 

75. anilitas, old age. 

76. I.e., with the palsy. 

79-80. transfer pedes, lift your feet 

81. rasilem, polished. 

84. bracchiolum teres, smooth arm. 

85. praetextate, boy escort. He is 
wearing the praetextaj garb of boy- 

86. cubile, bed. 

89-90. I.e., never divorced, true 
wives. These are the pronubae^ 
matrons of honor who bed the bride. 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

97. parthenlce, call it lily. 

98. papaver, poppy. 

112. nomen, house (the Torquati). 
indidem, /rom the same (stock). 

124-126. I.e., may the glory of hav- 
ing a good mother bring credit to his 
stock, just as ... . 

132. munere, performance of duty. 


[a] On the Death of His Brother 

[i] From an epistle to Manlius 

1-2. Quod mihi mittis hoc episto- 
lium, the fact that you send .... 

3. ut, begging me to. naufragum, 

5. quern, Manlius. 

6. caelibe, widowed. 

7. I.e., he can get no consolation 
from the classic poets, such as Sappho. 

9. id, refers to guod ... (1. 1). 

10. hinc, from me. munera . . . , 
a poem dealing with conjugal af- 

12. hospitis, amid. 

13. accipe, audi, quis, quibus. 

15. I.e., ever since he put on the 
toga of manhood. 

16. aetas, supply mea. ver, its 

17. multa satis (colloquial), quite a 
lot! lusi, scripsi — when referring to 
love poetry, dea, Venus. 

19. studium, inclination. 
21. fregisti commoda, i.e., de- 
stroyed my happiness. 
26. studia, as in 1. 19. 

[ii] From an epistle to AUius 

2. vinim, virorum. 

3. -ne, exclamatory. 

4. mihi, from me. 

4-8. Cf. the epistle to Manlius (11. 
20-24). The repetition of these lines 
is probably due to the lack of revision 

of certain poems by Catullus before 
his death. 

5. Itmien, life. 

9-12. Qu£m (the brother) nunc 
aliena terra detinet. 

9. inter nota sepulchra, i.e., in the 
family burial plot. 

10. cognatos cineres, cognatorum 
cineres. compositum, laid to rest. 
The Romans practised cremation, but 
buried the ashes in a tomb. 

11. Troia, a locative ablative. 

12. solo, noun, soil. 

[Hi] At his brother's tomb in the Troad 

1. vectus, traveling. 

2. inferias, rituul (for the dead). 

3. munere mortis, boon of death — 
i.e., the gift due to the dead. 

4. The Roman burial service ended 
with the conclamntio, or last call to the 
dead — like our custom of playing 
taps over a soldier's grave. The 
words generally used were: salvcy ave, 
vale, or some variation thereof — 
Catullus works them into his poem in 
I. 10. 

7. haec, i.e., offerings (flowers, wine, 
salt, etc.). parentum, ancestors. 

8. tristi munere, as a sad duty. 

[h] To Calvus— On the Death of His 
Wife, Quintilia 

1. mutis sepulchris, dative, the 

2. nostro, of the living. 

3. quo desiderio, an ablative of 
means, defines dolore. 

4. missas, lost. 

5. dolori, dative of the noun, used 
as an indeclinable adjective (cf . cordi)y 

6. QuintiUae, dative; Quintilia non 
tantum dolet, quantum gaudet. The 
philosophy of this poem is worth re- 
flecting on: (1) Do the dead live? 

(2) Do they miss the joys of earth? 

(3) Are the dead conscious of us? 

Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 


(4) What do we gain by mourning? (5) 
How does our grief affect the dead? 


Poems to Lesbia 

[a] Innamoramento 

1. nie, some rival who is having a 
t^te-llrt^te with his beloved, par, 

2. fas, not sacrilegious, 

3. adversus, opposite. 

5. quod, which thing. 

6. sensus, noim, accusative plural, 
simul, CLS soon as. 

7. Lesbia, naturally this word does 
not appear in Sappho's poem from 
which Catullus translated, est super, 
superest, remains. 

8. vocis in ore, these words are 
conjectural. There is a gap in the 
manuscript at this point, but knowing 
the thought from the Greek original, 
we may assume that Catullus wrote 
either: vocis in ore, gutture vocis, quod 
loquar amens — all modern conjectures 
— , or something similar. 

10. suo-pte, their own. 

11-12. gemina lumina, oculi ambo. 

[b] Symptoms 
[i] Telltale irritability 

1. viro, her husband, mimaladicit, 
speaks ill of me. 

3. Mule, vocative, her husband. 
nostri, of me (genitive of nos). 

4. Sana, heart-free, gannit, growls. 
6. meminit, thinks (of me), acrior, 

more pointed (or significant). 
6. uritur, ioves. 

[ii] Telltale garrulity 

2. dispeream (hang me!) nisi Les- 
bia (if Lesbia doesn't) me amat. 

3. simt . . . mea, mea (my feelings) 
sunt totidem. 

[c] The Heyday of Love 

[i] Life is short 

2. rumores, gossip, disapproval. 
severionmi, puritanical. 

3. assis (from as), farthing. 

4. Soles, suns, days, light of day. 

5. nobis, for us mortals, lux, i.e., 
of life. 

6. nox, i.e., in death. 

7. basium, kiss. 

11. sciamus, supply how many 
there are. 

12. invidere, cast an envious spelL 

13. tantum basiorum, tot basia. 

[ii] How many kisses? 

3. The answer to the question 
asked in 1. 1 is not a single statement, 
but a series of comparisons: lit., how 
many grains of sand lie in the desert, 
how many stars look down on earth, so 
many kisses .... Libyssae, Libyan 
(in the desert of Sahara). 

4. Cyrenis, locative, at Cyr^nae. 
laserpici-feris, laserpicium-bearing. 
This is a humorous mock-heroic 
epithet — laserpidum being the chief 
agricultural product of the country. 

6-6. inter oraclum lovis et sepul- 
crum Batti, these are two well-known 
landmarks of the region. lovis, Jup- 
piter Ammon. 

10. ve-sano, ve- is a negative prefix. 

12. lingua, supply possit. fasci- 
nare, bewitch (cf. 1. 12 of Life is Sliort, 
p. 240). 

[Hi] Enviable sparrow! 

1. Passer, vocative, deliciae, vo- 
cative plural, pet. puellae, genitive. 

2. quicum, quo-cum. 

3. primum digitum, finger tip. 
appetenti, pecking. 

4. solet, the subject is Lesbia. 
morsus, noun. 

5. cum, when, desiderio, sweet- 
heart, nitenti (from niteo), beautiful. 

6. carum nescioquid iocari, a cog- 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

nate accusative. Anything that Les- 
bia does is "dear" to Catullus. 

7. solaciolum, vocative, sweet sol- 
ace. Catullus flatters himself that 
Lesbia needs solace when he is not 
there, doloris, longing. 

9. The main clause expresses a 

[iv] The sparrow is dead! 

1. Veneres Cupidinesque, Loves 
and Cupids (as in 1. 12 of the Invita- 
tion to Fabullus, p. 218). 

2. quantum est hominum, lit., as 
much as there is of men — i.e., qu^t 
sunt homines, as many men as there 
are, all ye men. venustionun, tender- 

6. norat, noverat. 

7. ipsam (colloquial), mistress, own- 
er. This is a sjnQomyn of dominam 
(1. 10). 

11. Qui, he. 

12. illiic, to Hades or Orcus (1. 14). 

13. malae, vocative, accursed. 

14. bella, adjective. 

[v] Quintia is fair, but Lesbia is 

1. multis, to many, in the opinion of 
many. She was probably a reigning 
belle, longa, tall. 

2. sic, i.e., so far and no farther. 
singula, the separate features (or de- 

3. Totum illud, the totality, the 

4. mica salis, grain of spice. 
Quintia was evidently of a statuesque 
type of beauty; Lesbia, petite and 

6. omnibus, from all. Veneres, 

[vi\ To Amedna — ^who claimed to be 
as fair as Lesbia 

1. puella, vocative. 

1-4. minimo naso . . . , the charms 

Ameana does not possess are of 
course the very ones Lesbia does 

4. elegante lingua, refined speech. 

5. mistress of the bankrupt of 
Formiae (Mamurra — a notorious 
grafter and henchman of Julius 

6. Ten, te-ne. Provincia, Cisal- 
pine Gaul (Catullus* birthplace). 

{vii\ Warning to a would-be rival 

1. mala mens, infatuation. Ra- 
vide, pronounce it Rdvid' or Raiide. 
Some metrical license is permitted 
with proper names. 

2. in, against. 

3. advocatus, invoked. 

4. ve-cordem, ve-sanam, in-sanam. 
The cor is the seat of intelUgence. 

5. An, perhaps, in era, i.e., as a 
laughing stock or byword. 

6. notus, notorious. 

7. Eris, supply notus. amores, 

8. cum longa poena, to your ever- 
lasting regret. 

[c] A FaUing-Out 
Regrets are vain 

Meter: limping iambic. 

1. desinas, this is the subjunctive 
of command. 

2. quod, what, perisse (from pe- 
reo), periisse. ducas, consider, re- 
gard as. 

3. candidi soles, happy days. 

4. ventitabas, ventitare is the itera- 
tive verb derived from venire. 

6. iocosa, e.g., caresses. 

9. iam non, no longer, impotens, 

10. sectare, imperative; nee seciare 
[earn] quaefu^it. 

13. rogabit, woo. 

14. rogaberis nulla (colloquial), non 

Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 


15. This is mock-serious. 

17. Cuius, whose sweetheart? dice- 
ris, will you be said (i.e., famed) . The 
renown of being Catullus' beloved 
must have been a strong inducement 
for Clodia. 

[d] Reconciliation 
Unhoped-for joy 

1. cupido, adjective. Note the 
hiatus, optanti, adjective. 

2. insperanti, this is used with full 
participial force, equivalent to cum 
non sperat. 

3. carior, vocative, Lesbia. 

6. lucem, diem, candidiore nota, 
an ablative of quality. Happy days 
were recorded with white marks, un- 
happy days with black ones. 

[e] Doubts 

[i] All things are fleeting 

1. vita, vocative, sweetheart. 

3. facite ut, grant that she. 
6. amicitiae, affection. 

[ii] Writ in water 

2. se petat, woo her. 

[f] Steadfast Devotion 
[i] To a scandalmonger 

1. vitae, sweetheart. 

4. tu cum Tappone, tu et Tappo. 
Neither of the two talebearers is 
otherwise known, monstra, prodi- 
gies, marvels — i.e., you make everything 
out to he ominous J you make mountains 
out of molehills. 

[ii\ To AUius — in memory of happier 

1. deae, Muses, re, respect. 

2. officiis, /ayors, kindnesses. 

3-6. I.e., when I was a passionate 
lovery "sighing like a furnace." Catul- 

lus wittily describes his own first 
pangs of love in the conventional ro- 
mantic manner. 

3. Trinacria rupes, Sicilian crag 
(Mt. Etna — the volcano). 

4. lympha, water (the Hot Springs 
of Therm6pylae — between Mt. Oeta 
and the Malian Gulf). 

5. neque maesta. Itunina, my eyes. 

6. imbre, i.e., tears, madere, an 
infinitive, depends on cessarent. 

7. Is (Allius) patefedt (made ac- 
cessible) latum limitem (way) ad 
clausum (forbidden) campum. 

8. nobis, mihi. dominae, Lesbia. 
Unfortunately the word mistress has 
two meanings in English and it is im- 
possible to distinguish between amica, 
the ordinary Latin word for mistress 
(in the sense of paramour) and do- 
mina, which is a stronger term 
(analogous to the English) — not to 
mention era (1. 20), the strongest term 
of all — implying the slavery of the 

9. ad quam, at which. The ante- 
cedent is domum. 

11-12. plantam innixa, resting her 

12. arguta, this undoubtedly meant 
something very definite to Catullus, 
but our lexicons give it more meanings 
than almost any other adjective in the 
Latin language. One may choose 
from: sprightly, slender, bright, creak- 
ing, and sly. constituit, stepped. 

13. ut (just as) quondam coniugis 

13-14. advenit domum, ducta est 
domum, came to be married (to 

15. cui (to Laodamfa) turn digna 
aut nihil aut paulo concedere (yield or 
take second place). Laodamia was 
an ancient heroine like Helen of 
Troy, with whose beauty modems 
can hardly compete. 

17-18. No doubt the winged god 
also sneezed occasionally — as in the 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

idyllic poem on the loves of Septimius 
and Acme. 

19. Quae tamenetsi, although she 
(Lesbia). tmo, alone — i.e., she now 
has other lovers. 

20. feremus, feram, I shall pa- 
tiently endure, verecundae, so Catul- 
lus professes to believe! furta, pec- 

21. molesti, disagreeable — i.e., a 

22. caelicolum, caelicolarum. 

23. coniugis, Juppiter. concoquit, 
digests. The common EngUsh meta- 
phor is swallows. 

24. omnivoli (from omni-volus), 
omnes puellas volens. 

26. venit, in lawful wedlock, odore, 
incense (associated with wedding 

29. nobis tmis, me alone. 
29-30. is dies datura quern. 

30. ilia, she. 

33. vita, sweetheart. 

34. nos, ego. 

34-36. domina, lux, Lesbia. 

[g] Bitterness and Pain 

[i] Successful rivals 

[a] 1. si vis Catullum debere tibi 
oculos {his life). 
3. ei, from him. 
3-4. [id] quod mvlto carius est. 

[6] 1. mihi credite, vocative, Ht., 
thou believed by me. 

2. magno cum pretio, to my great 

3. sicine, sic-ne. subrepsti, sub- 
repsisti (from subrepo)^ stolen into (or 
taken) me unawares, intestina peru- 
rens, burning into (i.e., gnawing at) 
my vitals. 

4. misero, from poor me. bona, 
blessings (Lesbia's love). 

5. venenum, vocative, thou bane 

6. pestis, vocative. 

[ii] Unsympathetic friends 

[a] 1. Male est CatiUlo, Catullus 

2. ei, Catullo. laboriose [est ei], 
laborat morbo. 

4. quern, relative, Catullus. 

6. meos amores, my affection^ sup- 
ply some such verb as habes {regard). 

7. Paulum adlocutionis, parvam 
adlocutionem, supply mitte or da. 
Even English omits the verb in such 
appeals — e.g., just a word! 

8. lacrimis Simonideis, than the 
tears of Simonides (a Greek poet, 
famous for his dirges). 

[b] Meter: greater Asclepiad^an 
(see p. 221). 

2. amiculi, Catullus. 

5. quae, which principles (those 
implied in the negative answer to 1. 4, 
beginning with num). 

7. tu-te, tu. iubebas . . . , bade me 
give you my heart. 

9-10. omnia . . . sinis, sinis ventos 
ac nebulas ferre omnia irrita. 

10. irrita ferre, bring to naughty 
blow away. 

11. at, nevertheless. 

12. quae {Fides) postmodo f octet 
{efficiet) ut te paeniieat facii tui. 

[c] Meter: limping iambic. 

1-3. Did a lioness or Scylla give you 
birth? — i.e., are you a monster? 

1. Libystmis, Libyan, African. 

2. As snakes grew out of Medusa's 
head, so mad dogs grew out of Scylla's 

3. mente dura, an ablative of 
quality, modifies te (1. 1). 

4. supplicis, Catullus, novissimo, 
last, supreme. 

5. corde, an ablative of quality, 
thou of cruel heart. 

[d] 1. Desine velle benemereri {to 
deserve well) quicquam {in anything) 

Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 


de quoquam {of anyone) — i.e., by being 
kind to anyone. 

2. [desine] putare aliquem posse 
fieri pium (loyal). 

3. niliil [est] fecisse, it is no tise to 
have acted. 

5. mihi, supply obcs<. wrgetf pains. 

6. quam.qvdirL0d6,thanhew}u}. 

[Hi] Despair 
1-2. turpe [tibi est]^ Veronae esse. 
Catullus should return to Rome and 
defend his honor. 

2. hie, at Rome, de mellore nota, 
of higher social standing (the aristo- 

3. deserto cubii, supply tuo. 

[iv] Disillusionment 

1. te (subject) nosse (novisse) CatuU 
lum solum — ^i.e., Catullus was the 
only man for you. 

2. prae, in preference to, velle, 
supply te as the subject, tenere 
lovem, i.e., as your husband (see the 
poem entitled Writ in Watery p. 244). 

3. Dilezi, the use of diligere rather 
than amare here, is very significant, 
tantum, only, vulgus, the common 
herdy hoi polloi. 

7. Qui, how? Quod, because. 

8. bene velle, respect. 

[h] Struggle and Self-Mastery 

III Hate and love 
2. fieri, that it is so. 

[ii] Reproach 

2. Lesbia mea, vocative. 

3. ullo foedere, in any bond. 

4. amore tuo, my love for you. 

[Hi] Impasse 

1. mens, my heart. 

2. officio suo, by its devotion. 

4. omnia, i.e., even the worst 

[iv] Apologia pro amore suo 

2. pium, true. 

4. divum (divorum) numine abusum 
[esse] adfallendos homines. 

9. quae omhiaj credita m^nti in- 
gratacy perierunt. 

11-12. que . . . et, lit., both . . . and, 
English may omit both. 

12. dis invitis, ablative absolute. 

16. pote, possible, supply est. 

17, vestrtmi, your habit. 
21. ut, how. 

23. ilia, Lesbia. 
26. reddite, grant. 

[i] Loathing 
[i\ To M. Caelius Rufus 

4. angiportis, alleys. 

6. glubit, a short and ugly word. 
Lesbia has become a whore — a com- 
mon streetwalker I magnanimi, 
lordly-minded, nepotes, descendarUs. 
These are degenerate by contrast with 
the Romans of early times. 

[ii] Clodia and Clodius 

1. Lesbius, Clodius. quern malit, 
cum eum malit. 

3. vendat, may sell (into slavery), 
cum gente Catullum, Catullus and aU 
his tribe. 

4. I.e., if he can find three friends 
willing to kiss him (the usual saluta- 
tion). He is universally loathed and 

[j] Scorn 

The final word 

1. Lesbia had made tentative ad- 
vances for a reconciliation through 
two acquaintances whom Catullus 
cordially hated. Catullus addresses 
his reply to these two go-betweens, 
dallying ironically (11. 1-10) with the 
idea of their supposed devotion to him 
and concealing that was really in his 


Notes: Catullus (Carmina) 

mind, until with withering suddenness 
he delivers his curt message to Lesbia 
(1. 17). 

2. penetrabit, the subject is Catul- 

3. ut, where. 

5. moUes, this is a stock epithet for 
most Orientals. 

7-8. sive [ad] aeqiwra, quae Nilus 
colorat (i.e., with mud). 

9. omnia haec, i.e., perils. 
9-10. voluntas caelitum, fate. 

10. parati (Furius and Aurelius) 
tempMre {to risk) simul [cum Catullo]. 
Parati is vocative. 

13. valeat, this is colloquial — as in 
comedy: to hell with her. 

15. nullum, neminem. identidem, 
this echoes 1. 3 of his first poem to 
Lesbia, InnamoramentOj p. 239. 

16. ilia rumpens, a horrid phrase, 
suggesting that Clodia is a sort of 
vampire who drains the life blood of 
her victims. 

17, respectet, exspectet. 

18-19. ultimi prati, of the furthest 
part (i.e., the edge) of the meadow. 
Ehde the final i of prati. 


1-2. Si qui eritis, vos guicumque 

2-3. manusque . • . nobis, i.e., 
Puritans might shun him and his 

4-5. me [esse] parum-pudicum {im^ 

5. hi, versiculi. 

7. versiculos, supply castas esse. 
nihil, nan. 


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